Process tracing techniques facilitate tracing of cognitive process behind decision-making behaviors, thereby clarifying “how people make decisions.” The eye-tracking technique is a type of process tracing technique with the following advantages: 1) does not interfere with the decision-making process, 2) applicable in different experimental conditions for different samples, and 3) can provide informative process data. Eye-tracking techniques are useful in testing or comparing different decision-making models. These techniques aid researchers in the following tasks: assessing the different process hypotheses of both compensatory and non-compensatory theories in risk decision-making fields, determining different cognitive processes between multiple-play decision and single-play decision, and comparing and assessing different predictions of the “cancellation-and-focus model” and “equate-to-differentiate model” on how common features affect multiple-attribute decisions.
In recent years, business scandals occur frequently, which cause researchers concern on the issues of leader integrity in the academic area, but research on the structure, measurement, antecedents and consequences of leader integrity is still scarce. In this study, we explore the dimensions of leader integrity and develop a scale of leader integrity with a common management program of scale development in Chinese organizational context. Then, we explore the antecedents and consequences of leader integrity by collecting supervisor-subordinate paried data and using longitudinal study design. There are three sub-studies in this research:(1) research on structure and measurement of leader integrity in Chinese organizational context; (2) the antecedents of leader integrity: a cross-level longitudinal research based on individual traits and social learning perspectives; (3) consequences of leader integrity: a longitudinal study. This research is significant in: (1) clarifying the dimensions of leader integrity, recognizing and measuring the leader integrity in Chinese organizational context; (2) confirming what kind of leader will show integrity behavior, and whether the cascading effect of senior leader integrity to low-level leader integrity exists; (3) revealing the relationship among leader integrity and personal reputation, personal power and career development of leader, and the relationship among leader integrity and trust in supervisor, job performance and voice behavior of employee.
Implicit emotion regulation is an important form of emotion regulation. It is a process aimed at modifying the quality, intensity, or duration of an emotional response without the need for conscious supervision or explicit intentions. The underlying psychological mechanism of implicit emotion regulation is automatic counter-regulation, which produces balance in affective processing and thus protects the self against escalating affective and motivational states. Experimental studies of counter-regulation typically comprise of two successive steps, which are (1) inducing a particular emotion (positive vs. negative), (2) establishing an implicit counter-regulation process. Implicit emotion regulation mainly activates the anterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. The main forms of implicit emotion regulation are implicit cognitive reappraisal, affect labeling and habitual practice. The efficiency of implicit emotion regulation is also affected by individual differences (e.g., action vs. state orientation, psychopathology), and by the intensity of emotional experience (automatic counter-regulation is stronger for intense emotions).
Guilt is a kind of introspection of one’s conscience after s/he harms others or violates the moral rules, and guilt is also a negative emotional experience responsible for such behavior. It plays an important role in our moral rules and interpersonal society. Researchers mainly used paradigms such as self-report, situational simulation, mishap and economic game to investigate the occurrence, development and function of guilt. In recent years, they attempt to reveal the brain mechanism of guilt and have found that the main brain areas activated by guilt are prefrontal cortex and insula. According to these studies, prefrontal cortex may be related to the cognitive components of guilt, while insula mainly relates to its emotion components. More researches by using multiple advanced technologies and methods are necessary to further study the cognitive neural mechanism of guilt.
Studies in aging of speech production from the aspects of behavioral and neural mechanisms are reviewed. We summarize that how the variable of age affects speech production, and mainly focus on the phenomena of the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT), homophone picture naming, homophone priming effect and the interaction between the variable of age and linguistic features such as AoA, frequencies of target names or participants’ characteristics (i.e., bilinguals). The findings indicate that the older presents deficits during phonological encoding in speech production. The theories of aging in speech production are introduced in details: Insufficient Activation Hypothesis (IAH), Transmission Deficits Hypothesis (TDH), and Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis (IDH). In recent years, neurocognitive study has seen a major change by fMRI and ERP technologies, which provides the spatial and temporal neurocognitive signatures for aging of speech production. Finally, we propose the main questions from the perspectives of aging and speech production studies.
Pseudoneglect is “healthy subjects tend to exhibit a subtle bias of visual attention favouring left space”. There are many factors that affect pseudoneglect, such as stimulus, age, cognitive load and perceptual load. Among them, eye movement habit has been coded as the major factor to the explanation of pseudoneglect. However, recent neural studies exhibited that right hemisphere VAN contributed to pseudonegelct more than left hemisphere. The right hemisphere SLFⅡcorresponded to greater deviation to the left-hemi field than the other two SLF did. Moreover, pseudoneglect is occurred at time of 100~200 ms after stimulus displayed. While the duration time of visual searching is 1500 millisecond reaching to the greater left deviation. The application of current study is applied in the traffic driving to explore the relationship between drivers’ attention trait and driving visual search. The results indicated that two principles of safety transportation might be recognized. First, the safety driving setting should be consistent with the drivers attention trait. Second, it is necessary to cultivate safety driving visual search model by the mean of inhibiting visual search habit through the theoretical visual intervention.
Pain is a complex, subjective and multidimensional experience, in which attention plays a crucial role. Pain interrupts attention, and conversely, attention reshapes experiences of pain. Moreover, attention is related to the development of chronic pain and cognitive deficits in pain patients. Investigating the neural underpinnings of the two-way effects between pain and attention would further reveal the brain mechanism of pain perception and pain modulation, which in turn helps improve treatment and facilitate rehabilitation of chronic pain.
The association between diet, nutrition and depression has become of increasing interest in recent decades. In the past, most studies have focused on the association of depression with specific nutrients or foods, within which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) and folate have received significant attention. There has been a shift in focus from the study of single nutrient or food toward total diet and dietary patterns in recent years. Mechanisms of action proposed to explain these consistent relationships include inflammatory processes, oxidative stress and brain-derived neurothrophic factor (BDNF). A limitation associated with many of the studies reviewed is that significant portions were correlational and/or epidemiological, thereby limiting conclusions about causation. Further studies with emphasis on the investigation of the underlying mechanism and applying values are necessary to confirm the findings obtained in these initial studies.
Mood-congruent cognitive bias (“cognitive bias” for short) is defined as a cognitive processing bias towards negative stimuli in depressed individuals. The cognitive bias mainly includes biased processing in perception, attention, memory and interpretation. We summarized the associated behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies in this field and proposed that the severe bias in depressed individuals is characterized by preferring negative stimuli and insufficient processing for positive stimuli. Accordingly, the brain mechanism shows that the limbic system (amygdala) is hyperactive in response to negative stimuli while the striatum is hypoactive in response to positive stimuli; the activation in frontal area is also abnormal. However, there are three problems unsolved in this area: (1) Data indicate that different cognitive biases are correlated with each other (Everaert, 2012), which is currently not clearly understood; (2) The causality between cognitive bias and depression is not clear; (3) Inconsistent results are often achieved in different studies, which is usually interpreted as demographic and methodological issues. We argue the discrepancy of effect sizes of experimental paradigm and the influence of self-relevance materials may also contribute to the inconsistence. Future cognitive bias studies in depression might help for solving these problems.
Doctor-patient communication is the process of exchanging information between the two. Based on this, we provide a deeper understanding of doctor-patient miscommunication by establishing a doctor-patient communication model. First, we specify three major sources of these special participants, including real doctors and patients from hospital, medical and nonmedical undergraduates from college, and participants who act as doctors or patients. Next, the indicators of doctor-patient miscommunication are summarized, which are reflected in patients’ feelings, perceptions of doctors’ advice, compliance to doctors’ advice and recovery. Then we review the underpinnings of doctor-patient miscommunication, which is rooted in individual characteristics and communication demands. Finally, we encourage future research to expand research perspective, develop other priming methods and add some new cognitive indicators. On this basis, future research should also take the psychological roots further and develop educational models.
Linguistic inter-group bias refers to a common phenomenon existing in different group contexts that desirable in-group and undesirable out-group behaviors tend to be described in terms that are more abstract than those used to describe undesirable in-group and desirable out-group behaviors. It could be explained by a need for social identity, the cognitive expectancy and meanwhile affected by external communication situations, internal factors from groups and individuals, and it plays an important role in stereotype perpetuation and social relationships. Future research on linguistic inter-group bias should be focused on exploring more forms of this linguistic bias, research methods and localization issues.
As the pro-environmental behavior has been well studied for 20 years, more and more researchers urge to know how emotion affects the pro-environmental behavior. There is a general conclusion that emotion significantly affects pro-environmental behavior and, compared to recognition, it plays a more important role in pro-environmental behavior. It is the first time that the outbound scholars' studies on the emotion and pro-environmental behavior are reviewed. There are four criteria in the categories and dimensions of emotions in the area of pro-environmental behavior: apparent form, consensual structure, time dimension and ascription of responsibility. Mechanisms for the influence of emotion on pro-environmental behavior can be analyzed by reviewing three types of roles that emotion plays in pro-environmental behavior models. When using extended norm activation model and extended theory of planned behavior, emotion is significantly important due to its crucial contributions in the explanatory power of these models. For the study of pro-environmental behavior, future research should be focused on emotion's measurement paradigm, research depth and dynamic mechanism.
Organizational socialization is one of the research hotspots in organizational behavior, and thus management scholars have become increasingly interested in understanding the impact of newcomers’ proactive behaviors on organizational socialization process. Based on the literature review, proactive behaviors of newcomers can be classified into three categories: role definition, relationship building and self-promotion. A set of variables consisting of personality trait, goal orientation, self-efficacy and context variables have been shown to contribute to the prediction of newcomers’ proactive behaviors. Proactive behaviors including role definition, relationship building and self-promotion have significant effects on newcomers’ organizational socialization. Future studies might consider integrating context factors and personal traits when studying the antecedents, examining the potential costs of proactive behaviors of newcomers as well as conducting indigenization researches and cross-cultural researches.
Under the background of knowledge economy with rapid changes and great uncertainty, the traditional career model dominated by organization or society in the past has suffered huge challenges, and self-concept towards individual career development is being more strengthened. Career construction theory proposes that the essence of personal career development is a dynamic constructing process for the individual to achieve adaptation between subjective self and objective world, and the detail or result of self-construction differs from one individual to another. The career construction model focus on adapting provides new topic and framework for individual’s career developmental research from postmodern perspective. Both individual differences and contextual factors are significant influences for personal construction in career. Deeper analysis on some specific career stages or occupational groups, continuous discussion about the contextual factors, as well as qualitative research and intervention study on career construction should be appreciated in the following studies.