Doctor-patient communication is the process of exchanging information between the two. Based on this, we provide a deeper understanding of doctor-patient miscommunication by establishing a doctor-patient communication model. First, we specify three major sources of these special participants, including real doctors and patients from hospital, medical and nonmedical undergraduates from college, and participants who act as doctors or patients. Next, the indicators of doctor-patient miscommunication are summarized, which are reflected in patients’ feelings, perceptions of doctors’ advice, compliance to doctors’ advice and recovery. Then we review the underpinnings of doctor-patient miscommunication, which is rooted in individual characteristics and communication demands. Finally, we encourage future research to expand research perspective, develop other priming methods and add some new cognitive indicators. On this basis, future research should also take the psychological roots further and develop educational models.