Enfacement illusion is a subjective experience evoked by synchronous, but not asynchronous, interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS) between one’s own and other persons’ face. Since 2008, when Tsakiris first reported enfacement illusion, researchers began to use various stimulus to examine people’s experience and behavioral reaction. The age, gender and internal sensitivity had significant influence on the strength of illusional experience. Moreover, activities in the right temporo-parietal junction, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior occipital gyrus had significant correlation with the self-reported strength of the illusory experience. Research findings in enfacement illusion will be valuable for not only the research in multimodal biometrics, but also the research in cognitive reconstruction. Practical implications of the research in enfacement illusion include helping those who with facial damage or experienced plastic cosmetology surgeries to establish new self-face identification. In the future, new techniques should be applied in this field to improve the process of stimulus presentation. Meanwhile, participants from various populations should be involved to improve the research validity.
Persistent separation from parents immediately after a natural disaster (such as earthquake or hurricane), along with the loss of the child’s home, pets, toys, and friends predicts post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. Orphans reported significantly more PTSD symptoms than the disaster and non-trauma control groups. Research on orphans shows convincingly that psychological trauma has an enormously damaging effect on their development, their mental and physical health, as well as cognition and behavior. Intervention, in the form of administrative systems and psychological support, would be enormously valuable, both to the orphans and to society. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of intervention can be greatly improved with a better understanding of both PTSD's development, and its cognitive neural mechanisms. To this end, our project consists of 3 major goals: (1) use methods taken from epidemiology to characterize the trajectory of PTSD in post-disaster orphans; (2) investigate changes in cognitive development and immunological function in post disaster orphans in a cross sectional study, revealing the mental and behavior mechanism of PTSD; (3) examine the cognitive neural mechanism of the PTSD by using eye tracking and event-related potentials technologies. Using the results of this project, we can provide expert insight into psychological support for orphans, suggesting effective administrative systems and models of psychological support for orphans in emergency settings.
Scholars of creativity research usually believe that intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity. However, more and more results have challenged and questioned this conclusion. According to the latest motivated information processing model, prosocial motivation can help people think about not only novel but also useful aspects of ideas to improve the whole creativity. This study used 2×2 between-subjects design. Through the manipulation of intrinsic motivation and prosocial motivation, participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions and completed a creative task. ANOVA indicated that there was a significant interaction effect of intrinsic motivation and prosocial motivation on creativity, and only when people had high levels of intrinsic motivation coupled with high levels of prosocial motivation, they would be most creative. This study proved the importance of prosocial motivation in creative process, and opened a new perspective of creativity research.
It has been over a quarter of a century since the repetition blindness (RB) effect was first reported by Kanwisher (1987) and the precise mechanism underlying RB has been extensively debated. Researchers proposed different theories to account for the effect, for example, it has been argued that RP occurs due to a failure at the visual perception level; alternatively, it has also been argued that RP involves failure to memorize the repeated stimulus. Meanwhile, RB is influenced by many factors, such as presentation durations, lags, experimental materials, spatial locations and tasks. The popularization of neuroscience technology such as ERP and fMRI in recent years allows researchers to reveal the brain activity of RB. As a kind of experimental method, researchers have applied RB effect to explore some phenomena of the visual perception. The current paper reviews these basic research topics. However, many aspects of repetition blindness are still worth of further exploration
Spatial cognitive is based on spatial reference frames. The spatial reference frame is the means of representing the spatial location of entities in space, and can be divided into egocentric reference frame and allocentric reference frame. Long-term continuous activation of a certain reference frame form the preference of this spatial reference frame, and can affect not only the individual neuron structure, but also the cognitive function, such as attention, orientation and memory. The preference for egocentric reference frame can increases the gray matter in the hippocampus and nearby regions, while the preference for allocentric reference frame can increase the gray matter of the caudate nuclei. The increase of gray matter in the hippocampus will enhance spatial memory. Constant activation of egocentric reference frame can increase the gray matter in the hippocampus, thus reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s. Future research should focus on the influences of regional and rural-urban environmental differences on the relationship between the spatial reference frame and cognitive function. Also, further collection of empirical evidences for the intervention effects of space reference frame training on Alzheimer’s patients is recommended
Familiarity and recollection are two independent cognitive processes involved in recognition memory. It is traditionally believed that both familiarity and recollection can support item recognition, whereas only recollection can support associative recognition. However, the unitization hypothesis argues that familiarity can also make a contribution to associative memory when the to-be-remembered stimuli are unitized as a single unit. Here we review results from behavioral, electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies which all convergently show that unitization indeed induces the contribution of familiarity to the associative retrieval, and perirhinal cortex is involved in the unitized encoding processes and subsequent familiarity-based associative retrieval. Future studies need to overcome the methodological problems, to explore the brain functional network associated with unitized processes, and to use the unitized encoding strategies to improve episodic memory in selective populations.
Wallas put forward an important creative process model and defined four stages of creativity as follows: preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification. The investigations of brain state before the presentation of a creative problem show that the neural activity of the preparation stage is associate with medial PFC/ACC and temporal areas. The neuroscientific researches on presentation of a hint during incubation, delayed insight and mind-wandering reflect the neural correlates of incubation, and the main active brain regions during this stage include hippocampus and ventrolateral PFC. The last two stages are associated with a neural network consisting of several brain regions including PFC, ACC, superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, precunes, cunes, lingual gyrus and cerebellum et al. The PFC and ACC are involved in different kinds of insight problem solving; the superior temporal gyrus is responsible for the formation of remote associations; the hippocampus is associated with the process of mental set breaking and formation of novel associations; the lateral prefrontal cortex is responsible for mental set shifting; the precunes, left middle/inferior frontal gyrus and lingual gyrus participate in the process of prototype activation. In addition, the verification of the details of solution is found to rely on the left lateral prefrontal cortex. Future studies can be improved in the aspects of research subjects, contents and methods, so that the process of creative thinking can be investigated systematically.
Recent brain cognition research mainly based on ERP found that second language proficiency, cross-linguistic similarity and working memory-centered individual cognitive ability are independent but influence each other, which leads to the theoretical discrepancy between Shallow Structure Hypothesis indicating there is fundamental difference in L2 syntactic processing between late L2 learners and native speakers and Unified Competition Model which is on the opposite and proposes hat that there is no fundamental Differences. L2 processing as compared to the L1 (or to native speakers of the L2) is generally associated with constructions that were crosslinguistically dissimilar or unique to the L2.The difference between the two claims lies in whether late L2 learner can achieve native-like L2 syntactic processing. Accordingly, cross-linguistic studies on the interactive role of these three factors should be conducted in the future.
The pulvinar complex plays an important role in emotion processing by involving in multiple pathways. First, pulvinar involves in superior colliculus-pulvinar-amygdala pathway, which can process the emotional stimuli rapidly without the involvement of visual cortex. Second, pulvinar involves in pulvinar- cortical pathway in two different forms—cortico-pulvino-cortico circuits and colliculo-pulvinar-cortical pathway. This neural mechanism can increase the efficacy of information exchange by controlling the degree of synchrony between cortical regions, and can amplify signals in a manner that enhances their behavioral impact by coordinating the signals between cortical and subcortical regions.
Impulsivity is one of the core symptoms in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, such asattention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse, and pathological gambling. Evidence shows that dopaminergic system in fronto-striatal circuitries is implicated in impulsivity, however, the mechanism of dopamine in regulating impulsivity is not well established. Recent studies in rodents investigating the contribution of dopaminergic system to distinct forms of impulsivity shows that the mechanisms of dopamine mediating in impulsivity may have three factors, (1) impulsivity is not a unitary structure, the multifaceted concept of impulsivity implies that the role of dopamine will be differed at different subtypes; (2) in the studying of neuropharmacology of impulsivity, dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems interact across different brain areas to modulate different aspects of impulsivity, and (3) there are other factors that involve in impulsivity, such as individual differences and environmental cues.
Overgeneralization is a key diagnosis feature of mental disorder caused from stress. Most posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients have developed overgeneralization phenomenon after traumatic events. However, the relationship between overgeneralization and development of PTSD is unclear as so far. Some evidence suggested that overgeneralization results in the development of PTSD, on the contrary, some studies supported that PTSD facilitates the transition from ‘adaptive generalization’ to ‘maladaptive overgeneralization’. It is confirmed that PTSD and overgeneralization have commonalities on the development trajectory, and share the same abnormal mechanism on learning and memory. Further studies should focus on their relationship and brain mechanisms underlying them which could benefit to the early detection and diagnosis of PTSD, and also novel avenues for treatment.
Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognition and the practice of cognition. Fine motor skills also can predict the academic performance of young students. The two abilities are inter-related because they share common areas of the brain: the prefrontal lobe and the cerebellum. As a result, some cognition disorders could be treated through fine motor skill training and exercises.
As research focus is shifting from static to dynamic approach and from between-person difference to within-person variation, short-term fluctuation of work engagement has dominated the mainstream of the extant literature. Considering that few studies have tapped work engagement fluctuation in mainland China, we introduced the concept of state work engagement and identified theoretical and compositional sources of its fluctuation. Furthermore, this paper illustrated instrument to assess state work engagement, diary study and experience sampling for data collection, as well as Hierarchical Linear Modeling with repeated measurement for data analysis in fluctuation research. Based on the literature review concerning theories, relates and boundary conditions of the relevant relations, the present paper established research framework of state work engagement and summarized the patterns of its fluctuation.
Implicit Followership Theory (IFT), which is defined as cognitive structures and schemas about the traits and behaviors that characterize followers, is a new concept in the area of organizational behavior. IFT is conceptual category that differs from X-Y Theory and Implicit Performance Theory as well as has connections with them. Previous studies, which based on theories of Cognitive Classification Model, Information Processing Model or Connectionist Network Model, have preliminary investigated the definition, measure, antecedents and outcomes of IFT. To boost the studies on IFT, it is proposed to develop more effective tools, focus on factors affecting IFT, clarify the causal links between variables due to various methods and conduct localization research of IFT in future.
Turnover is a very important topic in management research. Taking the position of organization, most literature focused on how to reduce turnover by influencing employees’ attitude and thus minimize the negative impact on organizations. However, the nature of leaving an organization is an individual decision of employees. Therefore, under the background of boundaryless career, turnover research should shift its focus back to the employees as decision makers. This paper suggests: firstly, discussing the influential factors on turnover with a focus on the decision-maker; secondly, exploring the inner process of turnover decision-making; thirdly, paying more attention to the actual quitting behavior and the subsequent behavior.
Making and sticking to a decision are two important stages in decision behavior. Intertemporal choice stems from economic research on the process of adults choosing among outcomes at different points in time, whereas delay of gratification comes from psychological research on childhood persistence, in which children had to resist the temptation of the sooner but smaller reward to obtain the later but larger reward. Both studies relate to time and focus on individual impulsiveness and self-control, although from different perspectives. Nonetheless, the two areas are rarely compared systematically. The article addresses this issue and compares their methods as well as their cognitive and neural mechanisms. The article provides scientific theoretical foundations for the collaborative development of both areas to facilitate the practice of foresight.
Fuzzy-trace theory is an important theory in the field of behavioral decision making. It suggests there are two methods named verbatim processing and gist processing when people are processing information; people tend to use gist processing in decision making; there are individual differences between these two processing methods. According to the fuzzy-trace theory, the present paper raises a processing model of decision making which is explained by taking framing effect and risk perception as the example. What’s more, the theory can also explain individual differences in decision making by analyzing individual differences between verbatim processing and gist processing. Finally, the deficiencies existing in current research and the directions for future research are discussed.
Psychoinformatics, a product of the information era, is an inter-disciplinary research area that incorporates computational techniques and information sciences to study human mind. It innovated how scholars acquire, organize, interpret and synthesize traditional psychological data. With its advantage to handle large dataset it shows great potential in exploring psychological mechanisms and behavioral patterns at both individual and group levels. Psychology researchers are able to inspect existing psychological theories and hypotheses from a novel perspective. The current review aims to provide guidance for readers to witness the development of this emerging psychological field. Future challenges will be discussed as well.
The psychology of death discussed by Western psychologist is reviewed. There are several kinds of psychological researches about death, which drive from different research traditions, focus on different subjects and use different methods. The authors attempt to reconcile diverging paths in the study of death and disclose that the core of the psychology of death involve both external defense and internal growth. The abstract death cognition tends to cause death anxiety, which creates the external defensive psychological responses including fear of death, self-protection, and external value orientation. The concrete death cognition tends to cause death reflection, which creates the internal growth psychological responses including death acceptance, prosocial motivation (or behavior), and internal value orientation. Based on the core of the psychology of death, the authors review the related research evidences published in recent 5 years. Finally, the limitations and future directions in death research are analyzed.