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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 21 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Editor-In-Chief Invited
    Online Textual Sentiment Analysis Technology and It’s Applications
    YUE Guoan;DONG Yinghong;CHEN Hao;LAI Kaisheng
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1711-1719.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01711
    Abstract   PDF (198KB) ( 4329 )
    The Internet becomes a new platform for people to exchange ideas as the birth of Web 2.0.The sample and scope of social science is expanded and the result has more practical values using sentiment analysis techniques to study the information of Internet. Online textual analysis not only expands the tool and content of social science, but also supplies theoretical explanation. The computational social science and computational social psychology are emerging as these two subjects complement. It can be predicted using the Internet to conduct social science research will be the directions and trends of the future research.
    Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Sensation Seeking and Internet Addiction
    WANG Jie;CHEN Jianzhi;YANG Lin;GAO Shuang
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1720-1730.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01720
    Abstract   PDF (362KB) ( 2272 )
    The method of meta-analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between individual sensation seeking and Internet addiction. Thirty-seven cases that met the requirements of meta-analysis were selected (N = 15,768). The meta-analysis revealed a small relationship between Internet addiction and the factors of individual thrill and adventure seeking degrees; and a moderate relationship between Internet addiction and the indicators of total score of sensation seeking, experience seeking, boring susceptibility, and disinhibition. Among the 4 indicators, the disinhibition was most strongly correlated with Internet addiction (mean weighted r = 0.35). The test of moderating effect disclosed that measure tools, test participants, and cultural background played an adjustment role between sensation seeking and Internet addiction. The findings showed that sensation seeking was an important factor of personality-influence to Internet addiction. The total score of sensation seeking as well as other factors were predictive to Internet addiction more or less.
    Regular Articles
    Gender Agreement in Agreement Hierarchy and Its Processing Mechanism
    XU Xiaodong
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1731-1740.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01731
    Abstract   PDF (224KB) ( 790 )
    There are mainly two types of gender agreement features for most of world’s languages, which are grammatical gender and semantic/biological gender. These two types of gender features show different sensitivities to syntactic as well as semantic aspects of constraints; the processes of acquiring these two agreement systems are different and the corresponding neuro-physiological mechanisms underlying these two processes are only partially overlapped. Moreover, these two gender agreement features take different positions in the agreement hierarchies: it is located in a lower position in the morphsyntactically-based agreement hierarchy (e.g., person > grammatical number > grammatical gender) whereas a higher position in the semantically-based hierarchy (e.g., person > semantic gender > notional number).
    Capacity and Resource Allocation of Visual Working Memory
    HE Xu;GUO Chunyan
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1741-1748.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01741
    Abstract   PDF (202KB) ( 1580 )
    Slot models and flexible resource models are two kinds of viewpoints that explain how visual working memory capacity is allocated. According to recent studies, these two kinds of capacity models are both partially reasonable, and the “slot-resource” models integrating both of them seem to explain the existing evidence much better. In testing these models, the technology of cognitive neuroscience has played an important role. With the help of physiological index which is sensitive to working memory load, researchers can observe the allocation pattern of visual working memory capacity more directly.
    Facial Expressions: Some Arguments
    LEI Jie;DING Yaping
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1749-1754.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01749
    Abstract   PDF (153KB) ( 1946 )
    Facial expressions are a very effective and efficient way of communicating in human social interactions, since they can convey a person’s emotional state and signals of potential danger. Since the 1970s, and especially in the past 10 years, the number of psychological studies on emotional facial expressions has been increasing quickly. The present paper reviews the development of main opinions and arguments in the field. There are ongoing debates, e.g. on theories, cultural differences, development of recognition abilities, sexual differences and reasons for confusing expressions in recognition. It is concluded, that future research should explore and discuss specific expression in order to be more persuasive and valuable.
    The Neural Mechanism of Prosopagnosia
    LIN Feifei;CHEN Xu;ZHOU Chunxia;MA Jianling;RAN Guangming
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1755-1762.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01755
    Abstract   PDF (151KB) ( 1238 )
    The face recognition is an important social function, but prosopagnosic patients faced with distress can not accurately identify the faces of others. By definition, it means that the patients can not identify the faces of the acquaintances and even their own faces. It can be divided into the acquired prosopagnosia (APA) and congenital prosopagnosia (CPA). APA patients’ damaged brain regions including the occipital temporal cortex, amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and the density of these brain cortexes in CPA patients is different from that of the ordinary people. In addition, CPA has transmissibility. Future research can focus on the damaged brain areas of precise positioning, the screening of patients, genetic basis, as well as cultural differences.
    Abnormal Functional Connectivity in Social Anxiety Disorder
    GENG Haiyang;LI Xuebing
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1763-1769.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01763
    Abstract   PDF (121KB) ( 1349 )
    近年来, 越来越多的研究使用静息态功能磁共振成像方法研究社交焦虑障碍人群的静息态网络及其功能连接模式的异常, 发现社交焦虑障碍表现出以前额叶和杏仁核为核心的中央执行网络、默认网络、背侧注意网络等多个静息态网络以及杏仁核与前额叶之间的功能连接异常, 这可能成为社交焦虑障碍认知调控失败、自我信息加工偏向、注意偏差的重要神经表征。总结此类研究, 将有利于在连接和网络水平了解社交焦虑障碍的神经机制, 为社交焦虑障碍的诊断和治疗提供有力依据。
    Adult’s Reaction to Infant Cry and Its Brain Mechanism
    LI Xiang;ZHENG Yong;MENG Xianxin;LI Peng;LI Hong
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1770-1779.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01770
    Abstract   PDF (201KB) ( 1548 )

    Infant cry is the most obvious signal during infancy. The interaction of infant’s cry and adults' reaction (including physiological reaction, caregiving behavior and perceptional reaction) is the communication base ground between infant and adult. Thalamocingulate circuit functions as the main neural mechanism relating to procession of infant cries by adults, meanwhile brain regions which relevant to cognitive activity (such as empathy, motivation, social bonding and attachment etc.) would also contribute in a certain extent to this procession. In addition, there are significantly individual differences in adults' reaction to infant cry. Future studies should go further in disclosing the special relationship between infant cry and adult reaction by FMRI or ERP technology, and exploring the relationship between maternal love and infant cry on the basis of the individual differences.

    Regulating Emotion through Attentional Training: Paradigms and Evidences
    XING Cai;YANG Miaomiao
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1780-1793.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01780
    Abstract   PDF (205KB) ( 1475 )
    Attentional training has raised considerable interest in the field of emotion regulation. Substantial research has suggested that attentional training can regulate emotion via changing the process of attention. There are four training paradigms: dot-probe task, visual search task, goal-directed attentional training task and attention training technique (ATT). Among the four paradigms, dot-probe task has been investigated most extensively. Researchers have developed multiple-session training which lasts few weeks. In addition, home-based attentional training based on dot-probe task can be done without experimenter’s presence at home. Therefore it is a promising substitute of traditional psychotherapy for individuals with psychopathology. Future studies may benefit from examining the long-term effects of attentional training, exploring the utility of home-based attentional training, and testifying the preventative effects of attentional training on emotional disorder.
    Sexual Objectification and Women’s Self-objectification
    Sun Qingqing;ZHENG Lijun;ZHENG Yong
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1794-1802.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01794
    Abstract   PDF (244KB) ( 4830 )
    Sexual objectification refers to women being treated as body or body parts that exist for the use or pleasure of others. The sexual objectification in daily life is everywhere, as can be shown mainly through media, interpersonal relationship and some hidden environments. Compared to men, women are much easier to become sexual objectification targets, while self-objectification affects women’s mental health, leading to eating disorder, depression, sexual dysfunction and etc. The internalization of attractiveness standards of culture and social comparison are important psychological mechanisms which lead to women’s self-objectification. Future researches should expand research groups, adopt many more research methods and explore effective intervention measures, and carry on more researches about sexual objectification and women’s self-objectification in China.
    The Application of Self-Determination Theory among Chinese Populations
    LIU Jingdong;CHUNG Pak-Kwong;SI Gangyan
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1803-1813.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01803
    Abstract   PDF (208KB) ( 2289 )
    Self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985a; 2000) is a macro-theory of human motivation and personality. As one of the most important motivational theories, SDT has drawn a lot of interests among researchers from different countries and various disciplines. However, it has not received enough attention from Chinese researchers. The current study gave a systematic review on the literatures relating to SDT which published in both Chinese journals and English journals that with Chinese as participants. It is found that the Chinese papers are mainly review studies, whereas all English papers are empirical studies. In addition, most of these studies are related to education, sport and exercise, organization/management, and psychological health. Further studies should examine the application of SDT among Chinese populations in other fields and investigate the social and individual factors that influence Chinese people’s satisfaction of basic psychological needs, formation of goal content, and internalization of motivation.
    Social Undermining in the Workplace: A Integrated Research Framework
    XIA Fubin;LU Ping
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1814-1823.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01814
    Abstract   PDF (243KB) ( 969 )
    Social undermining refers to behavior intended to hinder, over time, the ability to establish and maintain positive interpersonal relationships, work-related success, and favorable reputation. Past inquiries have focused on social undermining’s antecedents, consequences, and factors that mediate and moderate these relationships. The authors review recent progress within social undermining research and develop a new integrated research framework of social undermining. This framework highlights the multiple effects of social undermining and the roles of social contexts and organizational factors on social undermining. An agenda is provided for future studies on the multiple effects of social undermining and the social contexts and organizational factors on social undermining.
    Imagining Contact Reduce Intergroup Bias: Theoretical Basis, Practical Demand, Underlying Mechanisms
    YU Haitao;YANG Jinhua;ZHANG Yanjun;JIN Shenghua
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1824-1832.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01824
    Abstract   PDF (228KB) ( 1321 )
    Recent studies indicate that simply imagining oneself interacting with an out-group member would reduce intergroup bias and improve intergroup relations. Why does the imagined contact produce positive intergroup outcomes? Mental imagery has been found to elicit emotional and motivational responses as the real experiences (Dadds, Bovbjerg, Redd, & Cutmore, 1997). Moreover, as an important form, the imagined contact can complement more direct forms of contact, although it is not a replacement for direct contact. The effect of imagining contact on bias reduction is mediated by intergroup anxiety, self-disclosure, out-group trust, and the vividness of the imagined scenario, and moderated by group size, group identification, prior contact, and perceptual fluency. We will further discuss the implications of these ?ndings, and provide suggestions for future research (e.g., specifying the processes of imagining contact, focusing on imagining contact of minorities, refining the duration of imagining contact, and integrating it with the intergroup contact theory).
    Critical Review of Psychological Studies on Imitation
    CHEN Wuying;LIU Lianqi
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1833-1843.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01833
    Abstract   PDF (156KB) ( 2625 )
    Imitation is reproduction, which refers to match in behaviors between the observers and models. While the concept of imitation has a long history, imitation research is still focus of developmental psychology, social psychology and cognitive psychology over the last decade. There are both connections and differences among imitation, emulation and mimicry. According to different criterion, imitation can be divided into various types which can be explained by corresponding hypotheses. Most researches declaim that mirror neuron system should be the neural mechanism of imitation, but this conclusion needs further examination. Many factors, such as social context, influence the imitation. Future studies should strive to probe into the intrinsic structure of imitation, the relations among multiple imitations and the relationship between imitation and other cognitive relationship on the basis of improving and expanding research paradigm.
    Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Executive Control and Brain Function
    JIANG Changhao;CHEN Tingting
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1844-1850.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01844
    Abstract   PDF (141KB) ( 1049 )
    Aerobic exercise might not only improve physical health, but might also improve executive control and brain function. A growing body of research has detailed the beneficial relation of aerobic exercise and neurocognition. Here, we review the relevant findings on the influence of aerobic exercise on executive function. Overall, the extant literature suggests that aerobic exercise might influence the aging of brain function, serving to delay typical age-related declines in executive control. Similar to adults, aerobic exercise might facilitates children’s executive function, leading to enhanced scholastic performance and greater overall effective functioning. Aerobic fitness level even might predict executive function over time. Given the problems occurred in this field, we critically concluded with a discussion of the gap in the literature and suggestions for future research.
    Processing Efficiency Theory to Attentional Control Theory: New Perspective for Anxiety-performance Relationship in Sport Psychology
    SUN Guoxiao;ZHANG Liwei
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1851-1864.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01851
    Abstract   PDF (264KB) ( 1203 )
    Sport psychology literature extensively reveals that competitive anxiety affects athletic performance (Sarason, 1984). However, the specific mechanisms of such negative relationship occurred between anxiety and performance still need to be further examined. Recently, processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory are further studied for attempting to explain the anxiety-performance relationship specifically in the areas of working memory and executive functions. Based on the research findings (Eysenck & Calvo, 1992), there are two theoretical assumptions for the processing efficiency theory: (1) anxiety impairs processing efficiency more than performance effectiveness, and (2) anxiety impairs the central executive system of working memory. Whereas, attentional control theory is a major development of processing efficiency theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007). Accordingly, there are also two theoretical assumptions for attentional control theory: (1) anxiety impairs goal-directed attentional system, (2) anxiety impairs efficiency of inhibition and shifting functions. Evidently, processing efficiency theory and attentional control theory both provide the useful frameworks to explain the specific mechanisms of anxiety-performance relationship, which is an imperative topic in sport psychology. Thus, the main purpose of this presentation is twofold: (1) to review the empirical research studies based on these two theories and (2) to recommend the implications for future research. Hopefully, our presentation would promote to further examine other anxiety-performance theories, improve the consistency of research protocol, take the cognitive perspectives into consideration of our research endeavor, and pay more attention to the effect of state anxiety for the purpose of enriching applied research literature.
    Research Methods
    Implicit Association Test and Consumer Psychology
    HAO Hongda;WANG Yong
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1865-1873.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01865
    Abstract   PDF (256KB) ( 2999 )
    Implicit Association Test (IAT) in consumer research is mainly applied to acquiring consumers’ attitudes towards brands, products, advertising, and exploring consumer’s implicit cognition. Based on response time technology, IAT can effectively avoid image management impact and responses deviation due to imperfect information extraction. Moreover, IAT also shows the good predictive ability on consumer behaviors. On the term of reliability and validity, IAT can be applied to various type of setting of measurement process (i.e. the interval of presentative time of different stimulator). In addition, the process of IAT itself might have its own limitation; the explanation of its result is unilateral and relative. In the process of collecting consumer’s implicit attitude, the process of measurement may lead to the change of consumers’ attitude. Time pressure will affect its prediction on consumer behavior, i.e., explicit measurements, instead of the IAT, may have better performance without time pressure. Its’ reliability and validity will be also constrained to specific experimental condition. Finally, due to its high applicability, IAT will be broadly studied in the fields of consumer health, consumption value, and consumers’ implicit motive.
    The Comparison of Multiple Testing Corrections Methods in Genome-Wide Association Studies
    HUANG Yangyue;KONG Xiangzhen;ZHEN Zonglei;LIU Jia
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1874-1882.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01874
    Abstract   PDF (336KB) ( 2604 )
    Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) can reveal the genetic basis of the behavior. However, the association analysis embodies a massive multiple testing problem, where millions of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) are tested. It is vital to reduce the risk of false positive in multiple testing with an appropriate corrections method. Firstly, Family-Wise Error Rate (FWER) and False Discovery Rate (FDR), the two standard measures of Type I errors in multiple testing were introduced. Secondly, three FWER (i.e., Bonferroni, Holm Step–Down and Permutation) and one FDR (i.e., BH) multiple testing corrections method were discussed from the concept to implementation. Finally, a method to simulate GWAS data was proposed, and the four multiple testing corrections methods were evaluated on the simulated GWAS data. Results showed that SNPs reported without multiple testing corrections had both the highest average hit and the average false alarm. FWER methods reported fewer false alarms, but their average hits were also fewer than that from uncorrected or BH method. In contrast, BH method did well in balance between the false alarm and hit. Furthermore, a comprehensive index, called explained rate, was introduced to evaluate the different methods quantitatively. Results showed BH method had the highest explained rate. In the future GWAS study, researchers would better do multiple testing corrections with BH method.
    Application of Online Calibration Technique in Computerized Adaptive Testing
    CHEN Ping;ZHANG Jiahui;XIN Tao
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1883-1892.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01883
    Abstract   PDF (189KB) ( 770 )
    Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) has developed rapidly in recent years, and item replenishing is essential for item bank construction and maintenance in CAT. Calibration of new items is a technical challenge in item replenishing, and the precision of which directly impacts the accuracy of the estimation of examinees’ abilities. Now the online calibration technique has been commonly used to calibrate the new items. Studies on online calibration for two kinds of CATs (traditional CAT based on item response theory and cognitive diagnostic CAT (CD-CAT) based on cognitive diagnostic theory) are reviewed in the aspects of online calibration design and online calibration method. There have been relatively abundant research results for the traditional CAT, while online calibration studies of CD-CAT have just started. Future studies could further explore the comparison and combination of different online calibration designs/methods, as well as the online calibration for CD-CAT and multidimensional CAT.
    Model Development in Processing Local Item Dependency (LID) in Testlet-composed Test Analysis
    XIAO Zhuzhu;ZHANG Minqiang;WANG Xia;XIONG Siping
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2013, 21 (10): 1893-1900.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01893
    Abstract   PDF (210KB) ( 707 )
    Testlets-composed tests are commonly used in education and psychology fields, but items in the same testlet may violate the assumption of local item independence and lead to local item dependency (LID). Thus, in order to increase parameter estimation accuracy, probing into methods of handling LID is of significant importance. In this paper, the authors summarize and assess four methods in processing LID, including standard IRT model, polytomous IRT model, testlet response model and bi-factor model. Taking parameter estimation accuracy as the criterion, the authors further summarize the effects and suitable conditions of each method and provided corresponding comments. This paper will provide reference for method selection when processing LID. Future research directions are discussed as well.
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