Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2020, Vol. 28 Issue (7) : 1141-1155     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.01141
Regular Articles |
Use gesture instead of speech: Hand action and language evolution
Rong YIN()
School of Teacher Education, Weifang University, Weifang 261061, China
Download: PDF(742 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    

Language evolution is an important issue of evolutionary psychology. Mirror System Hypothesis, Tool-making Hypothesis and Teaching Hypothesis explain the relationship between hand action and language evolution from different perspectives. All three hypotheses agree that human language originates from the experience of hand movements. Relevant empirical researches found that sign language and spoken language have some common features, language and hand movements share common neural circuits, gesture development can predict the level of language ability, and gesture can enhance the transmission efficiency of knowledge about tool making. These studies provide empirical support for specific inferences of above three hypotheses. Future research in this field needs to focus on the evolutionary relationship between sign language and spoken language, as well as the relationship between human language and other cognitive characteristics.

Keywords hand action      gesture      sign language      language      evolution     
PACS:  B842  
Corresponding Authors: Rong YIN     E-mail:
Issue Date: 21 May 2020
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Rong YIN
Cite this article:   
Rong YIN. Use gesture instead of speech: Hand action and language evolution[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(7): 1141-1155.
URL:     OR
[1] 陈巍. (2019). 同感等于镜像化吗?——镜像神经元与现象学的理论兼容性及其争议. 哲学研究, (6), 96-107.
[2] 李俊宏, 丁国盛. (2013). 手语和口语理解及产生的脑机制对比. 心理科学进展, 21(9), 1560-1569.
[3] 叶浩生. (2019). 身体的教育价值:现象学的视角. 教育研究, (10), 41-51.
[4] 张恒超. (2019). 交流手势的认知特征. 心理科学进展, 26(5), 796-809.
[5] Alamia, A., Solopchuk, O., D'Ausilio, A., van Bever, V., Fadiga, L., Olivier, E., & Zénon, A. (2016). Disruption of Broca's area alters higher-order chunking processing during perceptual sequence learning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28(3), 402-417.
[6] Anderson, M. L. (2010). Neural reuse: A fundamental organizational principle of the brain. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 33(4), 245-266.
[7] Arbib, M. A. (2010). Mirror system activity for action and language is embedded in the integration of dorsal and ventral pathways. Brain and Language, 112(1), 12-24.
[8] Arbib, M. A.(2012). How the brain got language: The mirror system hypothesis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[9] Arbib, M. A. (2016). Towards a computational comparative neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain. Physics of Life Reviews, 16, 1-54.
[10] Arbib, M. A. (2017). Toward the language-ready brain: Biological evolution and primate comparisons. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 142-150.
[11] Arbib, M. A., & Rizzolatti, G. (1997). Neural expectations: A possible evolutionary path from manual skills to language. Communication and Cognition, 29, 393-424.
[12] Atkinson, Q. D. (2011). Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa. Science, 332(6027), 346-349.
[13] Bickerton, A. (2009). Adam’s tongue. New York, NY: Hill & Wang.
[14] Bonini, L. (2017). The extended mirror neuron network: Anatomy, origin, and functions. The Neuroscientist, 23(1), 56-67.
[15] Brentari, D., & Coppola, M. (2013). What sign language creation teaches us about language. Wiley's Interdisciplinary Reviews (WIREs): Cognitive Science., 4, 201-211.
[16] Brooks, N., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2016). Moving to learn: How guiding the hands can set the stage for learning. Cognitive Science, 40(7), 1831-1849.
[17] Cadime, I., Silva, C., Santos, S., Ribeiro, I., & Viana, F. L. (2017). The interrelatedness between infants’ communicative gestures and lexicon size: A longitudinal study. Infant Behavior and Development, 48, 88-97.
[18] Cataldo, D. M., Migliano, A. B., & Vinicius, L. (2018). Speech, stone tool-making and the evolution of language. Plos One, 13(1), e0191071.
[19] Chazan, M. (2015). Technological trends in the Acheulean of Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa. African Archaeological Review, 32(4), 701-728.
[20] Chomsky, N. (2002). On nature and language. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.
[21] Clerget, E., Andres, M., & Olivier, E. (2013). Deficit in complex sequence processing after a virtual lesion of left BA45. Plos One, 8(6), e63722.
[22] Clerget, E., Winderickx, A., Fadiga, L., & Olivier, E. (2009). Role of Broca's area in encoding sequential human actions: A virtual lesion study. Neuroreport, 20(16), 1496-1499.
[23] Corballis, M. C. (2010). Mirror neurons and the evolution of language. Brain and Language, 112(1), 25-35.
[24] Cracco, E., Bardi, L., Desmet, C., Genschow, O., Rigoni, D., de Coster, L., ... Brass, M. (2018). Automatic imitation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 144(5), 453-500.
[25] Dean, L. G., Kendal, R. L., Schapiro, S. J., Thierry, B., & Laland, K. N. (2013). Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture. Science, 335(6072), 1114-1118.
[26] Dean, L. G., Vale, G. L., Laland, K. N., Flynn, E., & Kendal, R. L. (2014). Human cumulative culture: A comparative perspective. Biological Reviews, 89(2), 284-301.
[27] DeMatteo, A, . (1977). Visual imagery and visual analogues in American Sign-Language. In L. Friedman (Ed.), On the other hand (pp. 109-137). New York: Academic Press.
[28] di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., & Rizzolatti, G. (1992). Understanding motor events: A neurophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research, 91, 176-180.
[29] Dor, D. (2017). The role of the lie in the evolution of human language. Language Sciences, 63, 44-59.
[30] Dunbar, R. I. M. (1998). Groups, gossip, and the evolution of language. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 34(4), 398-399.
[31] Evans, P. D., Gilbert, S. L., Mekel-Bobrov, N., Vallender, E. J., Anderson, J. R., VaezAzizi, L. M., … Lahn, B. T. (2005). Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science, 309(5741), 1717-1720.
[32] Farsin, H., Michel, R., Christian, D., Volkmar, G., Cornelius, W., & Christian, B. (2003). The human action recognition system and its relationship to Broca’s area: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 19(3), 637-644.
[33] Fay, N., Lister, C. J., Ellison, T. M., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2014). Creating a communication system from scratch: Gesture beats vocalization hands down. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 354.
[34] Feinberg, M., Willer, R., & Schultz, M. (2014). Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups. Psychological Science, 25(3), 656-664.
[35] Fiddes, I. T., Lodewijk, G. A., Mooring, M., Bosworth, C. M., Ewing, A. D., Mantalas, G. L., ... Haussler, D. (2018). Human-specific NOTCH2NL genes affect notch signaling and cortical neurogenesis. Cell, 173(6), 1356-1369.
[36] Fitch, W. T.(2010). The evolution of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[37] Fitch, W. T. (2017). Empirical approaches to the study of language evolution. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 3-33.
[38] Florio, M., Albert, M., Taverna, E., Namba, T., Brandl, H., Lewitus, E., ... Huttner, W. B. (2015). Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion. Science, 347(6229), 1465-1470.
[39] Fogassi, L., & Ferrari, P. F. (2007). Mirror neurons and the evolution of embodied language. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3), 136-141.
[40] Fr?hlich, M., Sievers, C., Townsend, S. W., Gruber, T & van Schaik, C. P. (2019). Multimodal communication and language origins: Integrating gestures and vocalizations. Biological Reviews, 94(5), 1809-1829.
[41] Garcia, J. (2002). Sign with your baby: How to communicate with infants before they can speak. USA: Northlight Communications.
[42] Goldin-Meadow, S., & Brentari, D. (2017). Gesture, sign, and language: The coming of age of sign language and gesture studies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e46.
[43] Goldin-Meadow, S., Cook, S. W., & Mitchell, Z. A. (2009). Gesturing gives children new ideas about math. Psychological Science, 20(3), 267-272.
[44] Gould, S. J. (1991). Exaptation: A crucial tool for an evolutionary psychology. Journal of Social Issues, 47(3), 43-65.
[45] Harmand, S., Lewis, J. E., Feibel, C. S., Lepre, C. J., Prat, S., Lenoble, A., ... Roche, H. (2015). 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature, 521(7552), 310-315.
[46] Hecht, E. E., Gutman, D. A., Khreisheh, N., Taylor, S. V., Kilner, J., Faisal, A. A., ... Stout, D. (2015). Acquisition of paleolithic toolmaking abilities involves structural remodeling to inferior frontoparietal regions. Brain Structure & Function, 220(4), 2315-2331.
[47] Higuchi, S., Chaminade, T., Imamizu, H., & Kawato, M. (2009). Shared neural correlates for language and tool use in Broca’s area. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology, 20(15), 1376-1381.
[48] Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203, 89-97.
[49] Shi, L., Luo, X., Jiang, J., Chen, Y. C., Liu, C., Hu, T., ... Su, B. (2019). Transgenic rhesus monkeys carrying the human MCPH1 gene copies show human-like neoteny of brain development. National Science Review, 6(3), 480-493.
[50] Hunsicker, D., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2012). Hierarchical structure in a self-created communication system: Building nominal constituents in homesign. Language, 88(4), 732-763.
[51] Ianì, F., & Bucciarelli, M. (2017). Mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of a speaker’s gestures on the listener. Journal of Memory and Language, 96, 110-121.
[52] Kang, S., Tversky, B., & Black, J. B. (2015). Coordinating gesture, word, and diagram: Explanations for experts and novices. Spatial Cognition & Computation, 15(1), 1-26.
[53] Kendon, A. (2017). Reflections on the “gesture-first” hypothesis of language origins. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 163-170.
[54] Kochiyama, T., Ogihara, N., Tanabe, H. C., Kondo, O., Amano, H., Hasegawa, K., ... Akazawa, T. (2018). Reconstructing the Neanderthal brain using computational anatomy. Scientific reports, 8(1), 6296.
[55] Koechlin, E., & Jubault, T. (2006). Broca's area and the hierarchical organization of human behavior. Neuron, 50(6), 963-974.
[56] Kolodny, O., & Edelman, S. (2018). The evolution of the capacity for language: the ecological context and adaptive value of a process of cognitive hijacking. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373(1743), 20170052.
[57] Kolodny, O., Lotem, A., & Edelman, S. (2015). Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: A process-level model of language acquisition. Cognitive Science, 39(2), 227-267.
[58] Kontra, C., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Beilock, S. L. (2012). Embodied learning across the life span. Topics in Cognitive Science, 4(4), 731-739.
[59] Kontra, C., Lyons, D. J., Fischer, S. M., & Beilock, S. L. (2015). Physical experience enhances science learning. Psychological Science, 26(6), 737-749.
[60] Koppensteiner, M., Stephan, P., & J?schke, J. P. M . (2016). Moving speeches: Dominance, trustworthiness and competence in body motion. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 101-106.
[61] Kuhn, L. J., Willoughby, M. T., Wilbourn, M. P., Vernon-Feagans, L., Blair, C. B., & Investigators, T. F. L. P. K . (2014). Early communicative gestures prospectively predict language development and executive function in early childhood. Child Development, 85(5), 1898-1914.
[62] Laland, K. N.(2017a). Darwin's unfinished symphony: How culture made the human mind. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
[63] Laland, K. N. (2017b). The origins of language in teaching. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 24, 225-231.
[64] Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2008). Twelve-month-olds communicate helpfully and appropriately for knowledgeable and ignorant partners. Cognition, 108(3), 732-739.
[65] Lombao, D., Guardiola, M., & Mosquera, M. (2017). Teaching to make stone tools: New experimental evidence supporting a technological hypothesis for the origins of language. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 14394.
[66] Lüke, C., Ritterfeld, U., Grimminger, A., Liszkowski, U., & Rohlfing, K. J. (2017). Development of pointing gestures in children with typical and delayed language acquisition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(11), 3185-3197.
[67] Maricic, T., Gunther, V., Georgiev, O., Gehre, S., ?urlin, M., Schreiweis, C., ... P??bo, S. (2013). A recent evolutionary change affects a regulatory element in the human FOXP2 gene. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 30(4), 844-852.
[68] Marstaller, L., & Burianová, H. (2014). The multisensory perception of co-speech gestures - A review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 30, 69-77.
[69] McLean, C. Y., Reno, P. L., Pollen, A. A., Bassan, A. I., Capellini, T. D., Guenther, C., ... Kingsley, D. M. (2011). Human-specific loss of regulatory DNA and the evolution of human-specific traits. Nature, 471(7337), 216-219.
[70] McNeill, D. (2012). How language began: Gesture and speech in human evolution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
[71] Mekel-bobrov, N., Gilbert, S. L., Evans, P. D., Vallender, E. J., Anderson, J. R., Hudson, R. R., ... Lahn, B. T. (2005). Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens. Science, 309(5741), 1720-1722.
[72] Meyer, G. F., Greenlee, M., & Wuerger, S. (2011). Interactions between auditory and visual semantic stimulus classes: Evidence for common processing networks for speech and body actions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(9), 2291-2308.
[73] Morgan, T. J. H., Uomini, N. T., Rendell, L. E., Chouinard- thuly, L., Street, S. E., Lewis, H. M., ... Laland, K. N. (2015). Experimental evidence for the co-evolution of hominin tool-making teaching and language. Nature Communications, 6(1), 6029-6029.
[74] Mumford, K. H., & Kita, S. (2014). Children use gesture to interpret novel verb meanings. Child Development, 85(3), 1181-1189.
[75] Novack, M. A., Congdon, E. L., Hemani-Lopez, N., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2014). From action to abstraction: Using the hands to learn math. Psychological Science, 25(4), 903-910.
[76] Novack, M. A., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2017). Gesture as representational action: A paper about function. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(3), 652-665.
[77] Nowicki, S., & Searcy, W. A. (2014). The evolution of vocal learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 28, 48-53.
[78] Okanoya, K. (2007). Language evolution and an emergent property. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17(2), 271-276.
[79] Ondobaka, S., Kilner, J., & Friston, K. (2017). The role of interoceptive inference in theory of mind. Brain and Cognition, 112, 64-68.
[80] ?z?al??kan, ?., Adamson, L. B., Dimitrova, N., & Baumann, S. (2017). Early gesture provides a helping hand to spoken vocabulary development for children with autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. Journal of Cognition and Development, 18(3), 325-337.
[81] Pammi, V. S. C., Miyapuram, K. P., Samejima, A. K., Bapi, R. S., & Doya, K. (2012). Changing the structure of complex visuo-motor sequences selectively activates the fronto-parietal network. NeuroImage, 59(2), 1180-1189.
[82] Pepperberg, I. M. (2016). Animal language studies: What happened? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(1), 181-185.
[83] Perniss, P., ?zyürek, A., & Morgan, G. (2015). The influence of the visual modality on language structure and conventionalization: Insights from sign language and gesture. Topics in Cognitive Science, 7(1), 2-11.
[84] Petitto, L. A. (1992). Modularity and constraints in early lexical acquisition: Evidence from children's early language and gesture. In. In M. Gunnar (Ed.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology (Vol.25, pp.25-58). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[85] Pinker, S. (2007). The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York, NY:Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
[86] Pritchett, B. L., Hoeflin, C., Koldewyn, K., Dechter, E., & Fedorenko, E. (2018). High-level language processing regions are not engaged in action observation or imitation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 120(5), 2555-2570.
[87] Putt, S. S., Woods, A. D., & Franciscus, R. G. (2014). The role of verbal interaction during experimental bifacial stone tool manufacture. Lithic Technology, 39(2), 96-112.
[88] Redcay, E., Ludlum, R. S., Velnoskey, K. R., & Kanwal, S. (2016). Communicative signals promote object recognition memory and modulate the right posterior STS. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28(1), 8-19.
[89] Rowe, M. L., Goldin-Meadow, S. (2009a). Differences in early gesture explain SES disparities in child vocabulary size at school entry. Science, 323(5916), 951-953.
[90] Rowe, M. L., Goldin-Meadow, S (2009b). Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning. Developmental Science, 12(1), 182-187.
[91] Salo, V. C., Ferrari, P. F., & Fox, N. A. (2019). The role of the motor system in action understanding and communication: Evidence from human infants and non-human primates. Developmental Psychobiology, 61(3), 390-401.
[92] Salo, V. C., Rowe, M. L., & Reeb-Sutherland, B. C. (2018). Exploring infant gesture and joint attention as related constructs and as predictors of later language. Infancy, 23(3), 432-452.
[93] Senghas, A. (2003). Intergenerational influence and ontogenetic development in the emergence of spatial grammar in Nicaraguan Sign Language. Cognitive Development, 18(4), 511-531.
[94] Senghas, A., & Coppola, M. (2001). Children creating language: How Nicaraguan sign language acquired a spatial grammar. Psychological Science, 12(4), 323-328.
[95] Silk, J. B., Brosnan, S. F., Vonk, J., Henrich, J., Povinelli, D. J., Richardson, A. S., ... Schapiro, S. J. (2005). Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members. Nature, 437(7063), 1357-1359.
[96] Smit, H. (2014). The social evolution of human nature. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[97] Stout, D., & Chaminade, T. (2012). Stone tools, language and the brain in human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1585), 75-87.
[98] Stout, D., Passingham, R., Frith, C., Apel, J., & Chaminade, T. (2011). Technology, expertise and social cognition in human evolution. European Journal of Neuroscience, 33(7), 1328-1338.
[99] Stout, D., Toth, N., Schick, K., & Chaminade, T. (2008). Neural correlates of early stone age toolmaking: technology, language and cognition in human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363(1499), 1939-1949.
[100] Street, S. E., Navarrete, A. F., Reader, S. M., & Laland, K. N. (2017). Coevolution of cultural intelligence, extended life history, sociality, and brain size in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(30), 7908-7914.
[101] Számadó, S., & Szathmáry, E. (2006). Selective scenarios for the emergence of natural language. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21(10), 555-561.
[102] Thill, S., & Twomey, K. E. (2016). What's on the inside counts: A grounded account of concept acquisition and development. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 402-402.
[103] Tomasello, M. (2008). Origins of human communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[104] Ullman, M. T. (2006). Is Broca's area part of a basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit? Cortex, 42(4), 480-485.
[105] Uomini, N. T., & Meyer, G. F. (2013). Shared brain lateralization patterns in language and acheulean stone tool production: A functional transcranial doppler ultrasound study. Plos One, 8(8), e72693.
[106] Wakefield, E., Novack, M. A., Congdon, E. L., Franconeri, S., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2018). Gesture helps learners learn, but not merely by guiding their visual attention. Developmental Science, 21(6), e12664.
[107] Wakefield, E. M., Hall, C., James, K. H., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2018). Gesture for generalization: Gesture facilitates flexible learning of words for actions on objects. Developmental Science, 21(5), e12656.
[108] Walker, A., & Leakey, R. (1993). The Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. Netherlands:Springer.
[109] Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science, 311(5765), 1301-1303.
[110] Weiss, P. H., Ubben, S. D., Kaesberg, S., Kalbe, E., Kessler, J., Liebig, T., & Fink, G. R. (2016). Where language meets meaningful action: A combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia. Brain Structure & Function, 221(1), 563-576.
[111] Yang, J., Andric, M., & Mathew, M. M. (2015). The neural basis of hand gesture comprehension: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 57, 88-104.
[112] Zambrana, I. M., Ystrom, E., Schj?lberg, S., & Pons, F. (2013). Action imitation at 1? years is better than pointing gesture in predicting late development of language production at 3 years of age. Child Development, 84(2), 560-573.
[1] ZHAO Ying,WU Xinchun,XIE Ruibo,FENG Jie,SUN Peng,CHEN Hongjun. Effects of visual language on reading among people who are deaf and hard of hearing and the underlying mechanisms[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(6): 969-977.
[2] WANG Xiao, WU Guorong, WU Xinran, QIU Jiang, CHEN Hong. Language lateralization, handedness and functional connectivity[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(5): 778-789.
[3] Wenhua YU,Zhongyi LU. A new perspective on the cognitive function of gestures: The “spatializing” gesture hypothesis[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(3): 426-433.
[4] XIE Shushu,ZHANG Jijia. The mechanism of color category perception: Effects of language[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(8): 1384-1393.
[5] HAN Haibin,XU Pingping,QU Qingqing,CHENG Xi,LI Xingshan. Cross-modal integration of audiovisual information in language processing[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 475-489.
[6] ZHANG Hengchao. Communicative gesture cognition theory[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 499-507.
[7] CHENG Kai-Wen,DENG Yan-Hui,YAN Hong-Mei. Second language learning and brain plasticity[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(2): 209-220.
[8] ZHANG Jingjing,YANG Yufang. Processing of hierarchical structures in language and music[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(12): 2043-2051.
[9] CUI Xin, SU Mengmeng, SHU Hua. Application of sulcal morphometry analysis in cognitive neuroscience of language[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(6): 994-1003.
[10] ZHANG Hengchao. Communicative language cognition theory[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(6): 1019-1019.
[11] ZHANG Hengchao. Cognitive Characteristics of Communicative Gestures[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(5): 796-809.
[12] SU Yi (ESTHER).  Acquisition of core Chinese grammar in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(3): 391-399.
[13] YU Wenbo, LIANG Dandan. Word segmentation cues in the process of spoken language[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(10): 1765-1774.
[14] HUANG Chen, ZHAO Jing.  Visual-spatial attention processing in developmental dyslexia[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(1): 72-80.
[15] CHANG Xin, BAI He, WANG Pei.  The influenced factors of bilinguals’ language switching costs[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(9): 1469-1478.
Full text



Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech