Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (12) : 2077-2083     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.02077
Regular Articles |
Effects of secure attachment on empathy and altruistic behavior
PAN Yangu1(),XIAO Yao1,HU Yu1,LIU Guangzeng2,LI Zhiyang3
1 Research Institute of Social Development, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 611130, China
2 Research Center of Mental Health Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
3 Wuhou Senior High School of Chengdu, Chengdu 610043, China
Download: PDF(547 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Abstract  

Altruistic behavior refers to a form of prosocial behavior, of which one’s ultimate goal is to increase other’s welfare. It is not only an important research topic in the field of social psychology but also a necessary element for promoting social harmony and stability. Meanwhile, empathy is the intrinsic motivation for altruistic behavior. Empathy occurs when an observer perceives or imagines someone else’s affect, which triggers the observer to partially feel their emotions. Previous studies indicated that secure attachment style and security priming positively impact individual’s empathy skills and altruistic behavior. According to the attachment theory, emotion regulation and cognitive schema might be the underlying mechanisms to explain how secure attachment influences individual’s empathy and altruistic behavior. Future research is suggested to examine such pathways by further exploring moderators of the relationship between the proximity of givers and receivers in altruistic behavior and the similarity of their attachment styles. Future research is also suggested to investigate the effect of altruistic behavior on secure attachment. It will help to inform intervention development that targets at improving empathy skills and altruistic behavior through secure attachment.

Keywords attachment style      security priming      empathy      altruistic behavior      emotion regulation      cognitive schema     
ZTFLH:  B844  
  B849: C91  
Corresponding Authors: Yangu PAN     E-mail: panyg@swufe.edu.cn
Issue Date: 21 October 2019
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Yangu PAN
Yao XIAO
Yu HU
Guangzeng LIU
Zhiyang LI
Cite this article:   
Yangu PAN,Yao XIAO,Yu HU, et al. Effects of secure attachment on empathy and altruistic behavior[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(12): 2077-2083.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.02077     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I12/2077
[1] 郭薇, 陈旭, 杨楠 . ( 2011). 安全基地启动及其脑机制. 心理发展与教育, 27( 5), 553-560.
[2] 侯芬, 伍新春, 邹盛奇, 刘畅, 黄彬彬 . ( 2018). 父母教养投入对青少年亲社会行为的影响: 亲子依恋的中介作用. 心理发展与教育, 34( 4), 417-425.
[3] 李彩娜, 石鑫欣, 黄凤, 马婧 . ( 2013). 安全依恋的概念, 机制与功能. 北京师范大学学报(社会科学版), 1( 3), 30-37.
[4] 李彩娜, 孙颖, 拓瑞, 刘佳 . ( 2016). 安全依恋对人际信任的影响: 依恋焦虑的调节效应. 心理学报, 48( 8), 989-1001.
[5] 潘彦谷, 刘衍玲, 冉光明, 雷浩, 马建苓, 滕召军 . ( 2013). 动物和人类的利他本性: 共情的进化. 心理科学进展, 21( 7), 1229-1238.
[6] 王秀娟, 王娜, 韩尚锋, 刘燊, 张林 . ( 2018). 面孔可信度对助人行为的影响: 依恋安全的调节作用. 心理学报, 50( 11), 1292-1302.
[7] 王艳辉, 李董平, 孙文强, 赵力燕, 赖雪芬, 周月月 . ( 2017). 亲子依恋与初中生亲社会行为: 有调节的中介效应. 心理学报, 49( 5), 663-679.
[8] 肖凤秋, 郑志伟, 陈英和 . ( 2014). 共情对亲社会行为的影响及神经基础. 心理发展与教育, 30( 2), 208-215.
[9] 谢晓非, 王逸璐, 顾思义, 李蔚 . ( 2017). 利他仅仅利他吗?——进化视角的双路径模型. 心理科学进展, 25( 9), 1441-1455.
[10] 张鹏, 张斌梅子, 邹建科, 刘翔平 . ( 2018). 安全依恋启动影响社会行为: 方法、效果与机制. 心理科学, 41( 3), 615-620.
[11] Batson, C. D . ( 2010). Empathy-induced altruistic motivation. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Prosocial motives emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature, (pp. 15-34). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
[12] Beier, J. S., Gross, J. T., Brett, B. E., Stern, J. A., Martin, D. R., & Cassidy, J . ( 2019). Helping, sharing, and comforting in young children: Links to individual differences in attachment. Child Development, 90( 2), e273-e289.
[13] Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol 1.Attachment. (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.
[14] Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. ( 1998) . Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46-76). New York: Guilford Press.
[15] Calkins, S. D., & Leerkes, E. M. ( 2011) . Early attachment processes and the development of emotional self-regulation. Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 324-339). The Guilford Press.
[16] Carnelley, K. B., & Rowe, A. C . ( 2007). Repeated priming of attachment security influences later views of self and relationships. Personal Relationships, 14( 2), 307-320.
[17] Cassidy, J., Stern, J. A., Mikulincer, M., Martin, D. R., & Shaver, P. R . ( 2018). Influences on care for others: Attachment security, personal suffering, and similarity between helper and care recipient. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44( 4), 574-588.
[18] Ein-Dor, T., Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R . ( 2011). Attachment insecurities and the processing of threat-related information: Studying the schemas involved in insecure people's coping strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101( 1), 78-93.
[19] Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51( 1), 665-697.
[20] Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A . ( 1995). The relation of young children's vicarious emotional responding to social competence, regulation, and emotionality. Cognition & Emotion, 9( 2-3), 203-228.
[21] Erez, A., Mikulincer, M., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Kroonenberg, P. M . ( 2008). Attachment, personality, and volunteering: Placing volunteerism in an attachment- theoretical framework. Personality and Individual Differences, 44( 1), 64-74.
[22] Gillath, O., Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M., Nitzberg, R. E., Erez, A., & IJzendoorn, M. H . ( 2005). Attachment, caregiving, and volunteering: Placing volunteerism in an attachment-theoretical framework. Personal Relationships, 12( 4), 425-446.
[23] Gross, J. J . ( 1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2( 3), 271-299.
[24] Gross, J. T., Stern, J. A., Brett, B. E., & Cassidy, J . ( 2017). The multifaceted nature of prosocial behavior in children: Links with attachment theory and research. Social Development, 26( 4), 661-678.
[25] Kerns, K. A., Abraham, M. M., Schlegelmilch, A., & Morgan, T. A . ( 2007). Mother-child attachment in later middle childhood: Assessment approaches and associations with mood and emotion regulation. Attachment & Human Development, 9( 1), 33-53.
[26] Khodabakhsh, M. (2012). Attachment styles as predictors of empathy in nursing students. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 5( 8), 1-7.
[27] Leerkes, E. M., & Wong, M. S . ( 2012). Infant distress and regulatory behaviors vary as a function of attachment security regardless of emotion context and maternal involvement. Infancy, 17( 5), 455-478.
[28] Mikulincer, M., Gillath, O., Halevy, V., Avihou, N., Avidan, S., & Eshkoli, N . ( 2001). Attachment theory and reactions to others' needs: Evidence that activation of the sense of attachment security promotes empathic responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81( 6), 1205-1224.
[29] Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R . ( 2007). Boosting attachment security to promote mental health, prosocial values, and inter-group tolerance. Psychological Inquiry, 18( 3), 139-156.
[30] Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R . ( 2010). Does gratitude promote prosocial behavior? The moderating role of attachment security. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Prosocial motives emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature, ( pp. 267-283). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
[31] Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R . ( 2015). The psychological effects of the contextual activation of security-enhancing mental representations in adulthood. Current Opinion in Psychology, 1, 18-21.
[32] Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., Gillath, O., & Nitzberg, R. A . ( 2005). Attachment, caregiving, and altruism: Boosting attachment security increases compassion and helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89( 5), 817-839.
[33] Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Pereg, D . ( 2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment- related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27( 2), 77-102.
[34] Nie, Y. G., Li, J. B., & Vazsonyi, A. T . ( 2016). Self-control mediates the associations between parental attachment and prosocial behavior among Chinese adolescents. Personality & Individual Differences, 96, 36-39.
[35] Pan, Y., Hu, Y., Zhang, D., Ran, G., Li, B., Liu, C., .. Chen, W . ( 2017). Parental and peer attachment and adolescents' behaviors: The mediating role of psychological suzhi in a longitudinal study. Children and Youth Services Review, 83, 218-225.
[36] Panfile, T. M., & Laible, D. J . ( 2012). Attachment security and child's empathy: The mediating role of emotion regulation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58( 1), 1-21.
[37] Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M., & Cassidy, J . ( 2019). Attachment, caregiving in couple relationships, and prosocial behavior in the wider world. Current Opinion in Psychology, 25, 16-20.
[38] Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M., Gross, J., Stern, J., & Cassidy, J . ( 2016). A lifespan perspective on attachment and care for others: Empathy, altruism, and prosocial behavior. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications( Third ed., pp. 878-916). New York: Guilford Publications.
[39] Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M., & Shemesh-Iron, M . ( 2010). A behavioral-systems perspective on prosocial behavior. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature( pp. 73-91). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
[40] Sroufe, L. A . ( 2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 7( 4), 349-367.
[41] Westmaas, J. L., & Silver, R. C . ( 2001). The role of attachment in responses to victims of life crises. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80( 3), 425-438.
[1] ZHAN Jun, XU Hongfei, REN Jun, LUO Jing. Is catharsis beneficial or harmful? The psychological intervention effect and potential harm of catharsis[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(1): 22-32.
[2] SU Yanjie,XIE Dongjie,WANG Xiaonan. The role of cognitive control in third-party punishment[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(8): 1331-1343.
[3] LIU Fang,LIU Wen,YU Tengxu. Relation between emotion regulation and child problem behaviors based on the perspective of temperament[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(4): 646-656.
[4] MA Yuanxiao,CHEN Xu. Plasticity of insecure attachment and its neuromechanism[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(12): 1967-1979.
[5] Chen LIU,Xu CHEN. Differences in autobiographical memory retrieval from the perspective of attachment[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(9): 1590-1599.
[6] Yiqi KANG,Xia CHONG,Nan WU. Autism Spectrum Disorders early warning: Occurrence, development and influencing factors of joint attention and empathy[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(7): 1223-1231.
[7] Huihui ZHANG,Liang ZHANG. The effects of early life stress on emotion regulation and the underlying mechanisms[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(7): 1193-1203.
[8] YAN Bo, FAN Fumin, YU Feng.  The application of kinesthetic empathy intervention in dance/movement therapy[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(3): 496-502.
[9] BAI Xujia, CHEN Xu .  Memory biases of attachment styles: Based on the interpretation of two processing modes[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(3): 467-475.
[10] Sun Juncai, Liu Ping.  The advantage of empathy from evidence of visual processing[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(suppl.): 7-7.
[11] JIN Yuchang, DING Meiyue.  Predictive factors and the neurophysiological mechanism of postpartum depression[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(7): 1145-1161.
[12] ZHONG Yiping, ZHAN Youlong, LI Jin, FAN Wei.  Study on the mechanism and intervention of moral decision: Effects of self-relevance and risk level[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(7): 1093-1102.
[13] JING Jiaojiao; GAO Chuang; NIU Gengfeng. The effect of internet use on empathy[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(4): 652-661.
[14] JIE Jing, ZHUANG Mengdi, LUO Pinchao, ZHENG Xifu.  Hot topics on the research in empathy from the perspective of neuroscience[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(11): 1922-1931.
[15] MENG Jing; SHEN Lin. Empathy in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: Symptoms, theories and neural mechanisms[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(1): 59-66.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech