Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (11) : 1917-1928     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01917
Regular Articles |
Effectiveness and mechanism of leader anger in the workplace
FENG Cailing()
Business School, Monash University, Melbourne 3145, Australia
Download: PDF(686 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Abstract  

Leader anger is one of the most common and perceived workplace negative emotions, which has a significant impact on improving work relationships, behavior and performance. Nonetheless, there is an important controversy on whether leader anger in the workplace leads to negative work outcomes or the possible positive implications across different contexts, that is, hinders or promotes leadership effectiveness. It is still unclear why and how leader anger affects leadership effectiveness. We aim at adding to this literature by addressing important issues such as concept, positive and negative effectiveness, two-path mechanisms, boundary conditions under which anger expression in the workplace will lead to specific positive or negative outcomes. We finally proposed future prospects from its concept, structure and measurement, event antecedents and outcomes, mediating mechanisms, context factors, research method and levels, leaving us much space for the follow-up.

Keywords leader anger in the workplace      leadership effectiveness      two-path mechanisms      boundary conditions     
ZTFLH:  B849:C93  
Corresponding Authors: Cailing FENG     E-mail: china_clf@126.com
Issue Date: 23 September 2019
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Cailing FENG
Cite this article:   
Cailing FENG. Effectiveness and mechanism of leader anger in the workplace[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(11): 1917-1928.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01917     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I11/1917
领导愤怒的
有效性(+/-)
研究者 样本来源 中介变量 调节变量 备注
领导有效性(+) Madera和Smith
(2009)
来自会计、律师、教师、护士等不同行业的322名员工。 下属情绪 个体层/绩效情境(产品失败情境)
下属绩效(+/-) Chi和Ho (2014) 中国台湾40家企业, 191对上下级配对数据, 86名上级, 191名下级。 人格(责任心和宜人性)权力距离导向 个体层/绩效情境
辱虐管理(+) Mawritz等(2014) 美国东北部和中西部地区的金融、保险、银行、食品服务、零售、教育和健康行业, 215对上下级配对数据。 个体层/道德情境
员工绩效(+) Wang和Seibert
(2015)
从美国中西部的银行、电器工程、酒店行业选取三家公司的66名领导和247名下属。 团队表面伪装
团队负面情绪
团队层/绩效情境
下属的上级导向偏离行为(+)
下属努力(-)
Schwarzmüller等
(2017)
从德国一家大型商务网选取了165名被试。 下属愤怒水平 下属焦虑水平 个体层/绩效情境
领导有效性(+/-) Wang等(2018) Study 1:125名大学生, 实验法;
Study 2:从MTurk网站招募165名员工, 问卷调查;
Study 3:222名领导。
情感反应
推理加工
违背类型
辱虐领导
个体层/道德情境
工作家庭干扰(+)
工作家庭充实(-)
Ahmed等(2018) 美国不同行业招募145名被试,
印度不同行业招募176名被试
个体层/家庭情境
领导有效性(+/-) Shao等(2018) Study 1:从MTurk网站招募264名员工, 问卷调查;
Study 2:125名澳洲大学生, 实验法;
Study 3:89名大学生, 实验法。
特质推理
动机推理
内隐人格理论 个体层/绩效情境
下属对领导
的信任(-)
Shao等(2018) Study 1:138名澳洲大学生参加网络问卷调查, 117名大学生参加实验室研究;
Study 2:217名员工, 实验法。
领导正直
领导仁慈
下属公平导向
下属关怀导向
个体层/道德情境
  
1 Adam, H., &Brett,J. M . ( 2018). Everything in moderation: The social effects of anger depend on its perceived intensity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 76, 12-18.
2 Ahmed S. F., Eatough E. M., & Ford M. T . ( 2018). Relationships between illegitimate tasks and change in work-family outcomes via interactional justice and negative emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 104, 14-30.
3 Adler R. S., Rosen B., & Silverstein E. M . ( 1998). Emotions in negotiation: how to manage fear and anger. Negotiation Journal, 14( 2), 161-179.
4 Aquino K., Douglas S., & Martinko M. J . ( 2004). Overt anger in response to victimization: Attributional style and organizational norms as moderators. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9( 2), 152-164.
5 Averill,J. R . ( 1982). Anger and aggression: An essay on emotion . New York: Springer-Verlag.
6 Batja, M. ( 2001). Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80( 1), 68-74.
7 Berkowitz, L. . ( 1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. Contemporary Sociology, 23( 23), 575.
8 Bucy,E. P., &Newhagen,J. E . ( 1999). The emotional appropriateness heuristic: Processing televised presidential reactions to the news. Journal of Communication, 49( 4), 59-79.
9 Cabral J. C. C., Tavares P. d. S., &de Almeida, R. M. M. . ( 2016). Reciprocal effects between dominance and anger: A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 761-771.
10 Callister R. R., Geddes D., & Gibson D. F . ( 2017). When is anger helpful or hurtful? Status and role impact on anger expression and outcomes. Negotiation & Conflict Management Research, 10( 2), 69-87.
11 Carver,C. S., &Harmon-Jones E. 2009). Anger is an approach-related affect: Evidence and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135( 2), 183-204.
12 Chakravarti, S. ( 2014).Sing the rage:Listening to anger after mass violence. University of Chicago Press.
13 Chi,N. W., &Ho,T. R . ( 2014). Understanding when leader negative emotional expression enhances follower performance: The moderating roles of follower personality traits and perceived leader power. Human Relations, 67( 9), 1051-1072.
14 Connelly, S., &Ruark G. 2010). Leadership style and activating potential moderators of the relationships among leader emotional displays and outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 21( 5), 745-764.
15 Damen, F., van Knippenberg, B. & van Knippenberg D. 2008). Affective match in leadership: Leader emotional displays, follower positive affect, and follower performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38( 4), 868-902.
16 Dasborough M. T., Ashkanasy N. M., Tee E. Y. J., &Tse, H. H. M. . ( 2009). What goes around comes around: How meso-level negative emotional contagion can ultimately determine organizational attitudes toward leaders. The Leadership Quarterly, 20( 4), 571-585.
17 Dweck C. S., Chiu C. Y., & Hong Y. Y . ( 1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6( 4), 267-285.
18 Eberly,M. B., &Fong,C. T . ( 2013). Leading via the heart and mind: The roles of leader and follower emotions, attributions and interdependence. The Leadership Quarterly, 24( 5), 696-711.
19 Fisk,G. M., &Friesen,J. P . ( 2012). Perceptions of leader emotion regulation and LMX as predictors of followers' job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 23( 1), 1-12.
20 Frijda N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
21 Geddes, D., &Callister,R. R . ( 2007). Crossing the line (s): A dual threshold model of anger in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32( 3), 721-746.
22 Geddes, D.,Callister,R. R& Gibson, D. (2018). A message in the madness: Functions of workplace anger in organizational life. Academy of Management Perspectives 2016. 0158
url: https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.
23 Gianakos, I. . ( 2011). Issues of anger in the workplace: Do gender and gender role matter?. Career Development Quarterly, 51( 2), 155-171.
24 Gibson,D. E., &Callister,R. R . ( 2010). Anger in organizations: review and integration. Journal of Management, 36( 1), 66-93.
25 Gibson D. E., Schweitzer M. E., Callister R. R., & Gray B . ( 2009). The influence of anger expressions on outcomes in organizations. Negotiation and Con?ict Management Research, 2( .3), 236-262.
26 Glomb,T. M . ( 2002). Workplace anger and aggression: informing conceptual models with data from specific encounters. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7( 1), 20-36.
27 Gooty J., Connelly S., Griffith J., & Gupta A . ( 2010). Leadership, affect and emotions: A state of the science review. The Leadership Quarterly, 21( 6), 979-1004.
28 Hareli S., Rafaeli A., & Parkinson B . ( 2008). Emotions as social entities: Interpersonal functions and effects of emotion in organizations. In N. M. Ashkanasy & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Research companion to emotion in organizations(pp. 349-359). London, U.K.: Edward Elgar Ltd.
29 Harmon-Jones, E. . ( 2004). On the relationship of frontal brain activity and anger: Examining the role of attitude toward anger. Cognition & Emotion, 18( 3), 337-361.
30 Hatfield E., Cacioppo J. T. ,& Rapson, R. L. ( 1994) . Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
31 Hershcovis M. S., Turner N., Barling J., Arnold K. A., Dupré K. E., Inness M., … Sivanathan N . ( 2007). Predicting workplace aggression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92( 1), 228-238.
32 Hess U., Adams R. B Jr. , & Kleck, R.( 2007). When two do the same it might not mean the same: The perception of emotional expressions shown by men and women In U Hess & P Philippot (Eds), Group dynamics and emotional expression (pp 33-50) .New York,NY: Cambridge University Press.
33 Hoffman,M. L . ( 1989). Empathic emotions and justice in society. Social Justice Research, 3( 4), 283-311.
34 Hong Y. Y., Levy S. R., & Chiu C. Y . ( 2001). The contribution of the lay theories approach to the study of groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5( 2), 98-106.
35 Jesse, P. ( 2007). The emotional construction of morals (pp. 701-704). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
36 Kassinove, H. . ( 2016. How to recognize and deal with anger. Retrieved November 1, 2016 from 2016). How to recognize and deal with anger. Retrieved November 1, 2016 from .
url: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recognize-anger.aspx
37 Lebel,R. D . ( 2017). Moving beyond fight and flight: A contingent model of how the emotional regulation of anger and fear sparks proactivity, Academy of Management Review, 42( 2), 190-206.
38 Lerner,J. S., &Keltner D. 2001). Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81( 1), 146-159.
39 Lindebaum, D., &Fielden S. 2011). ‘It’s good to be angry’: Enacting anger in construction project management to achieve perceived leader effectiveness. Human Relations, 64( 3), 437-458.
40 Lindebaum, D., &Geddes D. 2016). The place and role of (moral) anger in organizational behavior studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37( 5), 738-757.
41 Lindebaum D., Jordan P. J., & Morris L . ( 2016). Symmetrical and asymmetrical outcomes of leader anger expression: A qualitative study of army personnel. Human Relations, 69( 2), 277-300.
42 Madera,J. M., &Smith,D. B . ( 2009). The effects of leader negative emotions on evaluations of leadership in a crisis situation: The role of anger and sadness. The Leadership Quarterly, 20( 2), 103-114.
43 Martinko M. J., Harvey P., & Douglas S. C . ( 2007). The role, function, and contribution of attribution theory to leadership: A review. The Leadership Quarterly, 18( 6), 561-585.
44 Matthiesen,S. B., &Einarsen,S. V . ( 2007). Perpetrators and targets of bullying at work: Role stress and individual differences. Violence & Victims, 22( 6), 735-753.
45 Mawritz M. B., Folger R., & Latham G. P . ( 2014). Supervisors’ exceedingly difficult goals and abusive supervision: The mediating effects of hindrance stress, anger, and anxiety. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35( 3), 358-372.
46 Novaco R. W. (1994). Anger as a risk factor for violence among the mentally disordered. In J. Monahan & H. J. Steadman (Eds.),Violence and mental disorder:Developments in risk assessment (pp. 21-59) .Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
47 Pfeffer, J. . ( 2010). Power: Why some people have it and others don’t. New York, NY:Harper Collins Publishers.
48 Potegal, M., &Novaco,R. W . ( 2010). A brief history of anger. In M. Potegal, G. Stemmler & C. Spielberger (Eds.), International handbook of anger: Constituent and concomitant biological, psychological, and social processes (pp. 9-24). New York, NY: Springer.
49 Rajah R., Song Z., & Arvey R. D . ( 2011). Emotionality and leadership: Taking stock of the past decade of research. The Leadership Quarterly, 22( 6), 1107-1119.
50 Robert C., Probst T. M., Martocchio J. J., Drasgow F., Lawler J. J . ( 2000). Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85( 5), 643-658.
51 Salancik,G. R., &Pfeffer J. 1978) Social Information- Processing Approach to Job Attitudes and Task Design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 224-253.
52 Schwarzmüller T., Brosi P., & Welpe I. M . ( 2017). Sparking anger and anxiety: Why intense leader anger displays trigger both more deviance and higher work effort in followers. Journal of Business & Psychology, 33( 6), 761-777.
53 Shao, B. . ( 2019). Moral anger as a dilemma? An investigation on how leader moral anger influences follower trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 30( 3), 365-382.
54 Shao B., Wang L., &Tse, H. H. M. . ( 2018). Motivational or dispositional? The type of inference shapes the effectiveness of leader anger expressions. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(6), 709-723.
55 Shockley K. M., Ispas D., Rossi M. E., & Levine E. L . ( 2012). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between state affect, discrete emotions, and organizational performance. Human Performance, 25, 377-411.
56 Siegel,J. M . ( 1986). The multidimensional anger inventory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51( 1), 191-200.
57 Simon,R. W., &Nath,L. E . ( 2004). Gender and emotion in the United States: Do men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior? The American Journal of Sociology, 109, 1137-1176.
58 Sorial, S. . ( 2017). The expression of anger in the public sphere. Journal of Social Philosophy, 48( 2), 121-143.
59 Spielberger,C. D . ( 1999). Staxi-2: State-trait anger expression inventory-2. Odessa, FL:Psychological Assessment Resources.
60 Stephens,J. P., &Carmeli A. 2016). The positive effect of expressing negative emotions on knowledge creation capability and performance of project teams. International Journal of Project Management, 34 ( 5), 862-873.
61 Stickney,L. T., &Geddes D. 2014). Positive, proactive, and committed: The surprising connection between good citizens and expressed (vs. suppressed) anger at work. Negotiation & Conflict Management Research, 7( 4), 243-264.
62 Stickney,L. T., &Geddes D. 2016). More than just “blowing off steam”: The roles of anger and advocacy in promoting positive outcomes at work. Negotiation and Conflflict Management Research,9 , 141-157.
63 Sutton,R. I . ( 1991). Maintaining norms about expressed emotions: The case of bill collectors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36( 2), 245-268.
64 Tepper,B. J., &Henle,C. A . ( 2011). A case for recognizing distinctions among constructs that capture interpersonal mistreatment in work organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32( 3), 487-498.
65 Thiel C. E., Connelly S., & Griffith J. A . ( 2012). Leadership and emotion management for complex tasks: Different emotions, different strategies. The Leadership Quarterly, 23( 3), 517-533.
66 Tsui A. S., Zhang Z. X., Wang H., Xin K. R., & Wu J. B . ( 2006). Unpacking the relationship between CEO leadership behavior and organizational culture. The Leadership Quarterly, 17( 2), 113-137.
67 van Kleef,G.A . ( 2014). Understanding the positive and negative effects of emotional expressions in organizations: EASI does it. Human Relations, 67( 9), 1145-1164.
68 van Kleef G.A. ,( 2016) The interpersonal dynamics of emotion: Toward an integrative theory of emotions as social information . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
69 van Kleef,G. A., &C?té S. 2007). Expressing anger in conflict: When it helps and when it hurts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92( 6), 1557-1569.
70 van Kleef G. A .,de Dreu, C. K. W., & Manstead, A. S. R. . ( 2010). Chapter 2 - An interpersonal approach to emotion in social decision making: The emotions as social information model. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 45-96.
71 van Kleef G. A., Homan A. C., Beersma B., van Knippenberg D., van Knippenberg B., & Damen F . ( 2009). Searing sentiment or cold calculation? The effects of leader emotional displays on team performance depend on follower epistemic motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 52( 3), 562-580.
72 van Kleef G. A., Homan A. C., & Cheshin A . ( 2012). Emotional influence at work: Take it EASI. Organizational Psychology Review, 2( 4), 311-339.
73 van Kleef G. A., Wanders F., Stamkou E., & Homan A. C . ( 2015). The social dynamics of breaking the rules: Antecedents and consequences of norm-violating behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 25-31.
74 van Knippenberg D., & van Kleef,G. A . ( 2016). Leadership and affect: Moving the hearts and minds of followers. The Academy of Management Annals, 10( 1), 799-840.
75 Waldman D. A., Balthazard P. A., & Peterson S. J . ( 2011). Leadership and neuroscience: Can we revolutionize the way that inspirational leaders are identified and developed? Academy of Management Perspectives, 25( 1), 60-74.
76 Wang, G., &Seibert,S. E . ( 2015). The impact of leader emotion display frequency on follower performance: Leader surface acting and mean emotion display as boundary conditions. The Leadership Quarterly, 26( 4), 577-593.
77 Wang L., Restubog S., Shao B., Lu V., &van Kleef, G. A. . ( 2018). Does anger expression help or harm leader effectiveness? The role of competence-based versus integrity-based violations and abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 61( 3), 1050-1072.
78 Watson D., Clark L. A., & Tellegen A . ( 1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The panas scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54( 6), 1063-1070.
79 Weiner, B. ( 2000). Intrapersonal and interpersonal theories of motivation from an attributional perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 12( 1), 1-14.
80 Weiner, B. ( 2010). The development of an attribution-based theory of motivation: A history of ideas. Educational Psychologist, 45, 28-36.
81 Weiss,H. M., &Cropanzano R. 1996). Affective events theory: a theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, 1-74.
82 Yaffe, T., &Kark R. 2011). Leading by example: The case of leader OCB. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94( 6), 806-820.
[1] LIU Peng,SHEN Hongkui. Modulating maladaptive human memory: Evidence from reconsolidation[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(8): 1417-1426.
[2] WANG Honglei,SUN Jianmin. The negative effects of empowering leadership: Theoretical mechanisms and boundary conditions[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(5): 858-870.
[3] LV Hongjiang, HAN Chengxuan, WANG Daojin.  The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness: A meta-analysis[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(2): 204-220.
[4] TAN Le; SONG Heyi; YANG Xiao. The influence mechanism of environmental uncertainty on leadership effectiveness based on cognitive perspective[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2016, 24(9): 1339-1352.
[5] SUN Jianmin; WANG Honglei. The potential mechanisms involved in the negative effect of high performance work system[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2016, 24(7): 1091-1106.
[6] ZHAO Qi; LI Feng. Team leadership and team effectiveness: A multilevel study through the lens of social identity theory[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2016, 24(11): 1677-1689.
[7] CHEN Pei; YANG Fu; SHI Wei. Servant leadership: Concept, measurements, influencing factors,  and consequences[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2016, 24(1): 143-157.
[8] WANG Zhen; XU Haoying; DU Chenduo. The Trickle-Down Effect in Leadership Research: A Review and Prospect[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2015, 23(6): 1079-1094.
[9] WANG Zhen;SONG Meng;SUN Jianmin. Authentic Leadership: Conceptualization, Measurement and Nomological Network[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2014, 22(3): 458-473.
[10] WANG Biying; GAO Riguang. The Effectiveness of Servant Leadership Behaviors in Chinese Organizational Context: A Longitudinal Research[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2014, 22(10): 1532-1542.
[11] WANG Zhen;SUN Jian-Min;ZHAO Yi-Jun. Leadership Effectiveness in the Chinese Context: A Meta-Analysis of Transformational Leadership, Leader-Member Exchange and Abusive Supervision[J]. , 2012, 20(2): 174-190.
[12] YU Bo;LIU Xin-Mei. “Opening the Black Box”: The Development and Prospect on the Mediating Variable for the Transformational Leadership[J]. , 2009, 17(01): 158-164.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech