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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (11) : 1826-1841     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01826
Research Method |
Interpretative phenomenological analysis in China: A systematic review and guideline
HOU Liqi1,TANG Xinfeng2(),HE Li3,JIA Xiaoming4
1 Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
2 Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3 Teachers’ College, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100011, China;
4 School of Humanities and Social Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
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Abstract  

As a qualitative method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has been increasingly employed in psychology and other social sciences disciplines. In China, the quality of research using IPA was doubtful, and thus a systematic review of the current studies was warranted. Through a comprehensive search in Chinese and English database and screening, 49 articles were included. According to Smith’s criterion, 26 studies explicitly referred to IPA theoretical principles; 33 studies had clear and transparent data collection and analysis process. Most of the studies (n = 40) were coherent and plausible, however, only a small proportion of the studies (n = 13) provided strong evidence to support the themes. In the forty-nine included studies, only 4 articles were rated as “good”, 11 articles were “acceptable”, and the remaining 34 articles were “unacceptable”. Based on previous research and recommendations, this study attempted to present a guideline to conduct and write a good IPA study.

Keywords interpretative phenomenological analysis      systematic review      qualitative research     
ZTFLH:  B841  
Issue Date: 23 September 2019
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Liqi HOU
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Cite this article:   
Liqi HOU,Xinfeng TANG,Li HE, et al. Interpretative phenomenological analysis in China: A systematic review and guideline[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(11): 1826-1841.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01826     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I11/1826
(1)合格的研究必须满足以下四个条件:
1.1 明确表示该研究遵循了IPA的三个理论原则:现象学、诠释学和特则取向
1.2 研究过程足够清晰透明, 包括如何选取研究对象、如何进行访谈和分析过程
1.3 条理清晰、言之成理
1.4 每个主题都有足够的证据加以支持, 具体如下:
1.4.1 样本量1~3:每个主题下都有来自所有研究对象的摘录
1.4.2 样本量4~8:每个主题下至少有3位研究对象的摘录
1.4.3 样本量8以上:每个主题下至少有3位研究对象的摘录, 以及该主题在研究对象中出现的频次; 或者每个主题下都有一半研究对象的摘录
1.5 补充条件 如果研究不能完全满足以上四点, 但是符合下面的三项中的任何一项, 可以被认为是部分合格, 在本研究中被归为合格一类:
1.5.1 研究提取出多个主题, 虽然不能满足条件1.4, 但是部分主题有趣且有足够的证据支持。
1.5.2 研究有多个研究对象, 虽然不能满足条件1.4, 但是摘录均来自某一位研究对象且条理清晰, 那么可将该研究看作是特则取向的案例研究, 归入合格的类别。
1.5.3 研究涉及多个类别的研究对象, 比如男性和女性, 如果某一类研究对象的分析和结果符合1.1~1.4, 那么该研究也可算作合格研究。

(2)如果研究没有满足以下条件中的任何一个, 则被判定为不合格:
2.1 不符合IPA的理论原则
2.2 研究过程不够清晰透明
2.3 不够有趣且证据不足
研究被判定为不合格往往是因为其缺乏证据支持, 通常有以下表现形式:
2.3.1 从大样本中提取大量描述性的、粗浅的主题
2.3.2 每个主题只有简短的总结和一两条未经解释的摘录
2.3.3 没有足够的摘录支撑所说明的主题
2.3.4 没有呈现每个主题在研究对象中出现的频率(在样本量8以上的研究中)
2.3.5 分析粗糙, 缺乏细节

(3)优秀的研究必须满足上述合格研究的所有条件, 且必须满足以下三个条件:
3.1文章中心突出、分析深入
3.2资料翔实、解释很具说服力
3.3引人入胜、发人深省
  
  
研究 年份 语言 地区 样本量 研究领域 条件1IPA
理论原则
条件2清
晰透明
条件3言
之成理
条件4证
据强度
效度
Cheng et al. (2010) 2010 英文 中国香港 7 丧亲 1 1 1 0 1
Cheng (2017) 2017 英文 中国香港 7 LGBT 0 0 1 0 1
Cheng (2018) 2018 英文 中国香港 4 LGBT 0 0 1 1 1
Chou et al. (2013) 2013 英文 中国台湾 15 身体疾病 0 0 1 0 1
Chou et al. (2014) 2014 英文 中国台湾 11 身体疾病 0 1 1 0 1
Fan et al. (2012) 2012 英文 中国台湾 33 身体疾病 0 1 1 0 1
Fu et al. (2018) 2018 英文 中国大陆 6 丧亲 1 1 1 0 0
Fung et al. (2016) 2016 英文 中国香港 13 精神疾病 0 1 1 0 1
Fung (2016) 2016 英文 中国香港 2 学习过程及师生关系 1 1 1 1 0
Fung (2018a) 2018 英文 中国香港 1 其他 1 1 1 1 1
Fung (2018b) 2018 英文 中国香港 2 学习过程及师生关系 1 1 1 0 1
Ho et al. (2014) 2014 英文 中国香港 10 精神疾病 1 0 1 1 1
Hou et al. (2013) 2013 英文 中国大陆 86 身体疾病 1 1 1 0 0
Ko et al. (2013) 2013 英文 中国台湾 15 精神疾病 0 1 1 0 1
Komorowski et al. (2006) 2006 英文 中国大陆 15 身体疾病 1 1 1 0 1
Li et al. (2015) 2015 英文 中国大陆 16 学习过程及师生关系 0 1 1 0 0
Liu et al. (2015a) 2015 英文 中国大陆 6 学习过程及师生关系 1 1 1 1 1
Liu et al. (2015b) 2015 英文 中国大陆 8 学习过程及师生关系 1 1 1 1 1
Liu et al. (2017) 2017 英文 中国台湾 13 临终护理 1 1 1 0 1
Luo et al. (2018) 2018 英文 中国大陆 16 身体疾病 0 1 1 0 1
Ng et al. (2016) 2016 英文 中国香港 8 学习过程及师生关系 1 1 1 0 1
Southcott et al.
(2018)
2017 英文 中国大陆 15 学习过程及师生关系 0 0 1 0 1
To et al. (2009) 2009 英文 中国香港 10 其他 1 1 1 1 1
Wang et al. (2012) 2012 英文 中国大陆 6 身体疾病 1 1 1 0 0
Wang et al. (2015) 2015 英文 中国大陆 12 身体疾病 1 1 1 0 1
Wang et al. (2016) 2016 英文 中国大陆 25 学习过程及师生关系 1 1 1 0 1
Zhang et al. (2018) 2018 英文 中国大陆 16 其他 1 1 0 0 0
房蕊(2013) 2013 中文 中国大陆 43 其他 1 0 0 0 0
何丽等(2017a) 2017 中文 中国大陆 11 丧亲 0 1 1 0 0
何丽等(2017b) 2017 中文 中国大陆 5 丧亲 0 1 1 0 0
解海霞等(2015) 2015 中文 中国大陆 12 身体疾病 0 1 1 0 0
李梅等(2017) 2017 中文 中国大陆 28 丧亲 0 1 1 0 0
李秀等(2017) 2017 中文 中国大陆 6 丧亲 0 0 1 0 0
刘冬等(2014) 2014 中文 中国大陆 8 LGBT 1 1 1 1 0
刘冬等(2016) 2016 中文 中国大陆 40 LGBT 0 0 0 0 0
刘盈君等(2014) 2014 中文 中国台湾 7 临终护理 1 0 1 0 1
刘盈君等(2017) 2017 中文 中国台湾 13 临终护理 1 0 1 0 1
彭艳琼等(2016) 2016 中文 中国大陆 8 身体疾病 0 0 0 1 1
钱玉芬(2011) 2011 中文 中国台湾 6 LGBT 1 1 1 1 0
田国素(2013) 2013 中文 中国大陆 10 身体疾病 0 0 0 0 0
汪昌华等(2017a) 2017 中文 中国大陆 6 学习过程及师生关系 1 0 0 0 0
汪昌华等(2017b) 2017 中文 中国大陆 6 学习过程及师生关系 1 0 0 1 0
王冰等(2016) 2016 中文 中国大陆 5 学习过程及师生关系 1 1 1 0 1
王艳波等(2011) 2011 中文 中国大陆 3 身体疾病 0 0 0 1 0
王艳波等(2017a) 2017 中文 中国大陆 38 身体疾病 0 1 1 0 0
王艳波等(2017b) 2017 中文 中国大陆 6 学习过程及师生关系 0 1 0 1 0
许洪梅等(2016) 2016 中文 中国大陆 33 身体疾病 0 1 1 0 1
尹秋馨等(2015) 2015 中文 中国大陆 5 身体疾病 1 1 1 0 0
张媛媛等(2013) 2013 中文 中国大陆 15 身体疾病 0 0 1 0 0
  
  
  
  
1. 明确指出使用IPA的原因
●在做研究之前, 要想好为什么要选用IPA, 而非扎根理论、话语分析或主题分析等。选用IPA主要的原因在于想通过研究者的解释(诠释学)去理解特定群体(特则取向)的生活经验(现象学)。
2. 关注点应清晰明确
●好的IPA研究都有着清晰的主题。一般来说, 有三种类型的研究主题:
(1) “X群体如何看待Y经历?”, 比如Smith和Rhodes (2015)对抑郁症病人如何看待其第一次抑郁症发作经历的研究;
(2) “X群体如何看待Z概念?”, 比如研究神职人员对人是什么样这一问题的看法(Vignoles, Chryssochoou, & Breakwell, 2004);
(3) “X群体如何看待Y经历对Z概念的影响?”, 比如研究早期阿尔茨海默病患者如何看待和处理疾病对他们自我感知的影响(Clare, 2003)。
3. 选取较为同质的研究对象
●IPA研究得益于对某一特定群体在特定背景下的生活经验的深入探究, 因此应选取较为同质的研究对象, 即使选取的研究对象在一些对该生活经验影响较大的社会人口学变量上较为一致。
4. 进行高质量的访谈
●通过有效的访谈获取资料是好的IPA研究的先决条件, 这需要访谈者掌握熟练的技巧来进行提问和追问。IPA一般采用一对一的半结构化访谈或非结构化访谈。
5. 采用迭代的分析流程
●诠释学中有一个非常著名的概念——诠释学循环, 指的是部分和整体的关系。要了解任何特定的部分, 需要看整体, 对整个文本的了解, 可能会加深对部分文本的理解; 要了解整体, 需要要看部分, 对部分文本的深入理解, 可能会促进对文本整体的理解。
●虽然IPA给出了6个步骤的分析流程, 但这只是对一般流程的指导。在实际的分析过程中, 需要反复分析和思考资料, 要求动态的、非线性的思维方式。
6. 使用足够的摘录以支持主题
●研究需要引用足够的摘录来支持其提取出来的主题。在样本量为1~3的研究中, 每个主题下需要有来自所有研究对象的摘录; 在样本量为4~8的研究中, 每个主题下至少应有3位研究对象的摘录; 当研究的样本量大于8时, 每个主题下至少应有3位研究对象的摘录同时注明每个主题在所有研究对象中出现的频次; 或每个主题下至少包含一半研究对象的摘录。
7. 要求研究者的解释而不仅是描述
●IPA最重要的特征之一是强调研究者的解释。这里涉及一个双重诠释的过程:研究者尝试理解研究对象对自身生活经验的理解。不过解释应始终基于文本而进行, 且存在不同的层次。
8. 分析需要显示出研究对象间的趋同和分歧
●当IPA研究有不止1位研究对象时, 结果部分需要呈现研究对象间共同的主题, 也需要展示个体经验的独特性。文章需要展现并分析不同研究对象如何以不同的、独特的方式来体现该共同主题。对相似与差异、趋同和分歧的细致分析是优秀IPA研究的标志。
9. 使用独立核验来保证质量
●将研究的所有资料(研究计划、访谈提纲、录音、转录稿、分析过程及报告)提供给没有参与该研究过程的研究者, 让他们根据这些资料来检查最终的报告是否合理、可信。
  
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doi: 10.1080/14780887.2018.1475534
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