Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (7) : 1275-1293     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01275
Regular Articles |
Nudging goal attainment: The motivating effects of temporal landmarks
ZHAO Xiaoying,LI Aimei(),WANG Haixia()
Management School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Download: PDF(614 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

Temporal landmarks defined as any distinct event that stands out in the everyday humdrum of life, may be beneficial to goal-pursuit motivation. Specifically, when individual experience a current temporal landmark or expects a future temporal landmark, their levels of goal-pursuit motivation would be enhanced, and at the same time, their goal-related behaviors would be more likely to occur. In addition, temporal landmarks may increase individuals’ senses of psychological separation of temporal selves and then enhance goal-pursuit motivation through a series of mental processes such as increased self-efficacy, cognitive consistency, loss aversion and discrepancy-reduction. Future research should focus on examining the motivating effects and duration of temporal landmarks and its generalizability. Moreover, it is worth for future studies to investigate the potential mechanisms of temporal landmarks and to conduct a considerable amount of empirical studies to nudge decision making by manipulating temporal landmarks.

Keywords temporal landmarks      goal attainment      the motivating effects      self-appraisal across time      nudge     
ZTFLH:  B849:C91  
Corresponding Authors: Aimei LI,Haixia WANG     E-mail: tliaim@jnu.edu.cn;whxpsy@pku.edu.cn
Issue Date: 22 May 2019
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Xiaoying ZHAO
Aimei LI
Haixia WANG
Cite this article:   
Xiaoying ZHAO,Aimei LI,Haixia WANG. Nudging goal attainment: The motivating effects of temporal landmarks[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(7): 1275-1293.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01275     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I7/1275
  
[1] 何贵兵, 李纾, 梁竹苑 . (2018). 以小拨大: 行为决策助推社会发展. 心理学报, 50(8), 803-813.
[2] 理查德·塞勒, 卡斯·桑斯坦 . (2018). 助推: 如何做出有关健康、财富与幸福的最佳决策(刘宁译). 北京: 中信出版社. (原著出版于2008)
[3] 孙炯雯, 郑全全 . (2004). 在社会比较和时间比较中的自我认识. 心理科学进展, 12(2), 240-245.
[4] 徐岚, 陈全, 崔楠, 陆凯丽 . (2019). 享受当下, 还是留待未来?——时间观对跨期决策的影响. 心理学报, 51(1), 96-105.
[5] 叶和旭, 赵然 . (2015). 时间标志对锻炼动机的影响: 时间监控能力的调节作用. 中国健康心理学杂志, 23(3), 436-440.
[6] Ahn H-K., Liu M. W., & Soman D . (2009). Memory markers: How consumers recall the duration of experiences. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(3), 508-516.
[7] Alter A. L., & Hershfield H. E . (2014). People search for meaning when they approach a new decade in chronological age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17066-17070.
[8] Ayers J. W., Althouse B. M., Johnson M., & Cohen J. E . (2014). Circaseptan (weekly) rhythms in smoking cessation considerations. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174(1), 146-148.
[9] Bartels D. M., & Rips L. J . (2010). Psychological connectedness and intertemporal choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(1), 49-69.
[10] Beshears J., Dai H., Milkman K. L., & Benartzi S . (2017). Framing the future in the field: Pre-commitment nudges and potential of fresh start messaging. working paper.
[11] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Faststats: Obesity and overweight. Retrieved November 29, 2018, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/overwt.htm
[12] Cialdini R. B . (2007). Influence: The psychology of Persuasion. New York: HarperCollins.
[13] Colby H., & Chapman G. B . (2013). Savings, subgoals, and reference points. Judgment and Decision Making, 8(1), 16-24.
[14] Conway M. A. (1990). Autobiographical memory: An introduction. Maidenhead BRK, England: Open University Press.
[15] Dai H., & Li C. , (2019). How experiencing and anticipating temporal landmarks influence motivation. Current Opinion in Psychology, 26, 44-48.
[16] Dai H., Mao D., Riis J., Volpp K. G., Relish M. J., Lawnicki V. F., & Milkman K. L . (2017). Effectiveness of medication adherence reminders tied to “fresh start” dates: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiology, 2(4), 453-455.
[17] Dai H., Milkman K. L., & Riis J . (2014). The fresh start effect: Temporal landmarks motivate aspirational behavior. Management Science, 60(10), 2563-2582.
[18] Dai H., Milkman K. L., & Riis J . (2015). Put your imperfections behind you: Temporal landmarks spur goal initiation when they signal new beginnings. Psychological Science, 26(12), 1927-1936.
[19] Gabarron E., Lau A. Y., & Wynn R . (2015). Is there a weekly pattern for health searches on wikipedia and is the pattern unique to health topics? Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(12), e286.
[20] Gollwitzer P . (2012). Mindset theory of action phases. In P. van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 526-545). London: Sage Publications.
[21] Haddock G . (2004). Temporal self-appraisal and attributional focus. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(6), 787-794.
[22] Hanko K., Crusius J., & Mussweiler T . (2010). When I and me are different: assimilation and contrast in temporal self-comparisons. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(1), 160-168.
[23] Heath C., Larrick R. P., & Wu G . (1999). Goals as reference points. Cognitive psychology, 38(1), 79-109.
[24] Hennecke M., & Converse B. A . (2017). Next week, next month, next year: How perceived temporal boundaries affect initiation expectations. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(8), 918-926.
[25] Kivetz Y., & Tyler T. R . (2007). Tomorrow I’ll be me: The effect of time perspective on the activation of idealistic versus pragmatic selves. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102(2), 193-211.
[26] Koo M., & Fishbach A. , (2008). Dynamics of self-regulation: How (un)accomplished goal actions affect motivation. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 94(2), 183-195.
[27] Kurbat M. A., Shevell S. K., & Rips L. J . (1998). A year’s memories: The calendar effect in autobiographical recall. Memory & Cognition, 26(3), 532-552.
[28] LeBoeuf R. A., Williams E. F., & Brenner L. A . (2014). Forceful phantom firsts: Framing experiences as firsts amplifies their influence on judgment. Journal of Marketing Research, 51(4), 420-432.
[29] Lee J., & Dai H. , (2017). The motivating effects of temporal landmarks: Evidence from the field and lab. Missouri Law Review, 82(3), 8.
[30] Li H. , (2018). A future-minded lark in the morning: The influence of time-of-day and chronotype on metaphorical associations between space and time. Metaphor and Symbol, 33(1), 48-57.
[31] Libby L. K., & Eibach R. P . (2011). Self-enhancement or self-coherence? Why people shift visual perspective in mental images of the personal past and future. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(5), 714-726.
[32] Libby L. K., Eibach R. P., & Gilovich T . (2005). Here's looking at me: the effect of memory perspective on assessments of personal change. Journal of personality and social psychology, 88(1), 50-62.
[33] Liu W . (2008). Focusing on desirability: The effect of decision interruption and suspension on preferences. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(4), 640-652.
[34] Milkman K. L . (2012). Unsure what the future will bring? You may overindulge: Uncertainty increases the appeal of wants over shoulds. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 119(2), 163-176.
[35] Milkman K. L., Rogers T., & Bazerman M. H . (2008). Harnessing our inner angels and demons: What we have learned about want/should conflicts and how that knowledge can help us reduce short-sighted decision making. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(4), 324-338.
[36] Norcross J. C., Mrykalo M. S., & Blagys M. D . (2002). Auld lang Syne: Success predictors, change processes, and self-reported outcomes of New Year's resolvers and nonresolvers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(4), 397-405.
[37] Oettingen G., Mayer D., Timur Sevincer A., Stephens E. J., Pak H. J., & Hagenah M . (2009). Mental contrasting and goal commitment: The mediating role of energization. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(5), 608-622.
[38] Oettingen G., Mayer D., & Thorpe J . (2010). Self-regulation of commitment to reduce cigarette consumption: Mental contrasting of future with reality. Psychology and Health, 25(8), 961-977.
[39] Peetz J., & Wilson A. E . (2013). The post-birthday world: Consequences of temporal landmarks for temporal self-appraisal and motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 249-266.
[40] Peetz J., & Wilson A. E . (2014). Marking time: Selective use of temporal landmarks as barriers between current and future selves. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(1), 44-56.
[41] Pronin E., Olivola C. Y., & Kennedy K. A . (2008). Doing unto future selves as you would do unto others: Psychological distance and decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(2), 224-236.
[42] Rajagopal P., & Rha J-Y. , (2009). The mental accounting of time. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30(5), 772-781.
[43] Robinson J. A. (1986). Temporal reference systems and autobiographical memory. In D. C. Rubin (Eds.), Autobiographical Memory (pp. 159-188). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[44] Schmidt A. M., & DeShon R. P . (2010). The moderating effects of performance ambiguity on the relationship between self-efficacy and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 572-581.
[45] Sela A., Berger J., & Liu W . (2008). Variety, vice, and virtue: How assortment size influences option choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(6), 941-951.
[46] Shai I., Schwarzfuchs D., Henkin Y., Shahar D. R., Witkow S., Greenberg I., .. Stampfer M. J . (2008). Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(3), 229-241.
[47] Shum M. S . (1998). The role of temporal landmarks in autobiographical memory processes. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3), 423-442.
[48] Smith I. H . (2014). The disruption model of inspiration: Toward a general model of "being inspired to act". Salt Lake City: The University of Utah.
[49] Soster R. L., Monga A., & Bearden W. O . (2010). Tracking costs of time and money: How accounting periods affect mental accounting. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(4), 712-721.
[50] Touré-Tillery M., & Fishbach A. , (2012). The end justifies the means, but only in the middle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(3), 570-583.
[51] Townsend C., & Liu W. , (2012). Is planning good for you? The differential impact of planning on self-regulation. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(4), 688-703.
[52] Trope Y., & Liberman N. , (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117(2), 440-463.
[53] Tu Y., & Soman D. , (2014). The categorization of time and its impact on task initiation. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(3), 810-822.
[54] Wilson A. E., & Ross M. , (2001). From chump to champ: people′s appraisals of their earlier and present selves. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(4), 572-584.
[55] Zauberman G., Levav J., Diehl K., & Bhargave R . (2010). 1995 feels so close yet so far: The effect of event markers on subjective feelings of elapsed time. Psychological Science, 21(1), 133-139.
[1] XIE Kai-Jie,MA Jia-Tao,HE Quan,JIANG Cheng-Ming. Descriptive norms promote willingness to voluntarily donate blood rather than actual blood donation[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(6): 1019-1024.
[2] ZHANG Shuwei,LIANG Xinyi,YUE Jinglun. Behavioral social policy: Nudge in the practice and exploration of public welfare[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 429-438.
[3] LIU Huan,SUI Xiao-Yang,HUANG Yuan-Na,LIN Rong-Ping,XU Ming-Xing. The nudging role of behavioral economics in retirement savings decisions: Current situation and future prospects[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 418-428.
[4] LIU Pei,FENG Yidan,LI Aimei,LIU Wei,XIE Jianfei. Disclosing behavioral anomalies in economic management: Implications for mental accounting theory[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 406-417.
[5] LIU Yongfang,FAN Wenjian,HOU Rixia. From theory, research, to applications: Richard H. Thaler and his contributions[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 381-393.
[6] Lianlian YANG,Xiting HUANG,Tong YUE,Peiduo LIU. Timing mechanism of retrospective duration estimation[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(8): 1374-1382.
[7] WANG Tong; YANG Qing; HUANG Xiting. The double-edged effect and mechanism of episodic future thinking on goal attainment[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(5): 846-856.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech