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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (6) : 1093-1110     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01093
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A multi-level paradigm analysis of organizational neuroscience: the philosophical foundation, theoretical foundation, and research method
LIU Yuxin1(),CHEN Chen1,ZHU Nan1,JI Zheng2
1 Business School, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China
2 School of Insurance and Economics, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China
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Abstract  

As an emerging interdisciplinary field, organizational neuroscience is revolutionizing and reconstructing the micro-foundation of organizational behavior by exploring the biological mechanism beneath the organizational phenomenon. From multi-level paradigm perspective, we offer a fine-grained analysis of the organizational neuroscience by articulating its philosophical foundation (from Reductionism to Emergency), theoretical foundation, involving Socially Situated Cognition theory (SSC), multilevel research and reverse inference, and research methods (i.e., Neuroimaging Methods and ANS methods). We also suggest new avenues to build new organization and management theory and articulate a future research agenda for the application of neuroscientific methods.

Keywords organizational neuroscience      paradigm      philosophical foundation      theoretical foundation      research method     
ZTFLH:  B849: C93  
  B845  
Corresponding Authors: Yuxin LIU     E-mail: liuyx21@263.net
Issue Date: 22 April 2019
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Yuxin LIU
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Cite this article:   
Yuxin LIU,Chen CHEN,Nan ZHU, et al. A multi-level paradigm analysis of organizational neuroscience: the philosophical foundation, theoretical foundation, and research method[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(6): 1093-1110.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01093     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I6/1093
层次类别 形而上学范式
哲学层
社会学范式
理论层
人工范式
方法和技术层
核心
内涵
?又称“元范式”;
?指由一个学科的本体论和认识论所决定的最抽象的世界观;
?一系列宏观的、整体的关于某学科的信仰、思想、推断、标准、视角等的总称
?位于“抽象-具体”连续体的中间;
?包括学科内不同流派间产生的被公认的科学成就, 被广泛接受的科学规范, 以及虽未被广泛接受, 但基于学科公认的规则而取得的科学成就;
?学科内各种规范、规则的总称
?又称“构造范式”, 是范式体系中最具体和最基础的层次;
?即“范例”(Exemplar)。反应研究的具体细节, 包括具体的研究工具、研究过程、实际的操作方式和研究指导文本或指南等
学科
贡献
?ON的形而上学范式经历了从还原论到涌现论的发展;
?对“神经-个体-群体-组织”四层面间关系的认知, 从直线决定和层层向下的还原关系(还原论), 发展为层级结构依次堆叠、层级间彼此依存却又相互独立的间接关系(涌现论);
?涌现论认为, 低层面元素的简单相互作用可以产生复杂的高层面系统
?ON的社会学范式包括理论基础、研究内容和研究准则等内容。
?理论基础上, 经历了从无到有、从模糊不清到“社会情境认知理论”主导的发展过程;
?研究内容上, 从纯粹个体层面的研究拓展到可进行群体层面的研究;
?研究准则上, 一直秉承逆向推理的指导思想, 在数据获取上经历了从只重视“神经层面数据”, 到神经、个体等“多层面数据”并重的转变
?ON的人工范式经历了从只提倡采用神经成像法, 到神经成像类方法和皮肤电活动等生理指标并重, 再到上述认知神经科学研究工具和问卷法、观察法等组织行为学传统研究方法并存的发展过程。
?对认知神经科学研究工具也经历了从全盘接受到有选择地筛选使用的过程
  
名称 方法描述 优点 局限 适用范围
fMRI 利用大脑活动会导致局部血流量增加的原理, 通过标记血流的改变来间接确定任务中激活的脑区 空间精确度高;
较易获取激活脑区的图像结果, 数据分析难度较低
无法准确记录秒以下更短时间的脑活动;
价格高昂, 普及性差;
被试被置于幽闭空间, 实验难度高, 重复次数受限
认知功能脑区的确定;
评估个体差异的神经基础;
评估实验干预前与干预后脑区功能的变动;
评估任务进行和停顿期间脑区功能的连通性
EEG ERP EEG测量大脑电活动, 研究由特定事件(刺激或运动)所诱发的变化;
ERP是EEG的升级版, 通过提取嵌埋在EEG中的信号, 进行叠加和平均等运算
时间精确度高;
普通环境下实验, 实验可多次重复;
可进行被试间互动式测量
价格适中, 便于普及;
设备体积小, 便于携带
图像处理较困难, 不容易捕捉到有显著差异的波形;
很难确定特定事件的脑区发生源;
实验时参与者活动受限
尤其适用于需要被试间面对面互动的研究;
研究认知的时间进程问题;
检验与高频神经元震荡相关的假设
MEG 提供神经活动的磁信号记录 由于磁信号比电信号更稳定, 因此MEG在空间分辨率上比EEG有优势;
计算结果比EEG更可靠
价格比EEG高;
设备不可携带;
只能检测与颅骨表面平行的电流方向, 通常位于脑沟中
与EEG相类似
TMS 通过磁脉冲无创地在大脑产生局部刺激, 暂时改变局部脑生理特性 便于携带;
可引起虚拟损伤, 虚拟的刺激部位可精确定位至fMRI激活的区域
实验时间短, 噪声大;
只用于单个区域, 无法捕捉整个大脑的干预效果;
只能检测大脑表层皮质区域
验证孤立脑区与认知、行为间的关联
  
名称 分类 方法描述 适用范围
皮质醇(Cortisol)
睾酮(Testosterone)
催产素(Oxytocin)
肾上腺素(Adrenaline)
乙酰胆碱(Acetylcholine, ACH)
内分泌活动测量
(Neuroendocrine
activity, NA)
检测由主客观经历所引发的个体的唾液、血液、尿液中, 激素或神经递质含量的变化 压力应激反应和负向情绪;
竞争性情境中的支配性、防御性行为研究;
人际关系质量、信任研究;
工作负荷、工作成瘾研究;
学习、记忆、注意力、探究行为研究
心率(Heart Beat)
血压(Blood Pressure)
心率变异性(HRV)
其他心脏活动
心血管活动测量
(Cardiovascular
activity, CA)
测量由主客观经历所引发的个体心血管活动的变化 情绪和情感、压力研究、社会互动等
皮肤电活动(Electrodermal Activity, EDA) 测量心理因素引起的汗腺活动的变化 情绪和注意力研究
  
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