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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (5) : 914-925     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00914
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The features and theories of materialists’ self-concept
ZHOU Jing1,XIE Tian2()
1 School of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China
2 Department of Psychology, Philosophy School, Wuhan 430072, China
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Abstract  

Classical studies define and understand the phenomenon of materialism from the perspective of a person’s traits, values, goals, and needs. Although self-concept has always been a clue through materialism research, researchers have recently attempted to synthesize the existing research on self-concept. Relevant studies have shown that materialists’ self-evaluation is low and their self-knowledge is inconsistent. Low self-evaluation is characterized by low self-esteem, contingent self-esteem. The inconsistent self-knowledge is manifested by an unclear self-concept, a discrepancy in explicit and implicit self-esteem, and self-disparity (a discrepancy between notions of an ideal and real self). Two recent comprehensive theories- the theory of materialistic escape from the self and identity goal pursuits theory of materialism-suggest that materialism is one’s use of material possession as a means of escaping from one’s self-awareness or as a means of constructing and pursuing self-identity. By well interpreting the existing research findings, these two theories make up for the lack of integration theories of materialism research. Future research should transcend the materialists’ self-deficiency approach and make greater theoretical contributions by borrowing the theories of self-concept.

Keywords materialism      self-concept      theory of materialistic escape from the self      identity goal pursuits theory of materialism     
ZTFLH:  B849: C91  
Corresponding Authors: Tian XIE     E-mail: thanksky520@126.com
Issue Date: 20 March 2019
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Jing ZHOU,Tian XIE. The features and theories of materialists’ self-concept[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(5): 914-925.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00914     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I5/914
步骤 自我逃离理论 物质主义的自我逃离理论
(物质主义者的认知、情绪与行为)
(1) 感到自己没有达到标准。由于标准或期望被设定得太高, 导致现实与标准之间的巨大落差, 让个体感到自己没有达到标准。 物质主义者会更多地感到自己没有达到标准, 更多地感到对自己生活的失望。
(2) 自责。对于没有达到标准或遭遇的挫折被归咎于自我, 产生自责。 物质主义者会更倾向于因挫折、失望感到自责、不足和低自尊。
(3) 强烈的自我觉察。没有达到标准引起的自责进一步让自我成为焦点, 导致强烈的自我觉察。 物质主义者会体验到更多令自己厌恶的自我觉察(如较大的自我差距)。
(4) 不良的情绪体验。与强烈且消极的自我意识相伴的是个体不愉快的、厌恶的情绪体验, 如持续的或频繁发生的忧虑。 物质主义者会体验到更多的不良情绪。
(5) 认知解构。认知解构是一种以具体思维代替抽象思维, 聚焦于眼下而不考虑过去和未来的思维方式。这是一种注意的窄化, 是对所有的与意义和情绪有关的问题的逃避。这一过程的目的是让痛苦的情绪体验最小化, 因为在一定程度上, 对当前处境意义的理解以及当前处境与抽象标准的比较是导致情绪产生的原因。 物质主义者会表现出更多的认知解构, 例如狭窄、刻板、具体, 以及聚焦于当前的思维方式, 因为这会有助于他们从不良情绪体验中逃离出来。
(6) 冲动性和非理性行为。具体的和低水平的思维让指导行为的内部控制(比如理性的分析和社会规范的抑制)解除了, 因此个体会出现冲动性和非理性的行为。由于个体不能总是保持认知解构状态, 因此会再次出现厌恶的情绪体验。为了能短暂地逃避厌恶情绪, 个体会重新开始冲动性和非理性的行为。成功的自我逃离还会包含获得一个新的自我认同(至少是在短暂的时间内), 从而替换个体试图逃离的自我。 物质主义者会表现出更多的冲动、短视, 以及非理性的行为模式。与之相伴的是, 物质主义者还会试图去寻找对自我的新的、不同的认同, 从而最终完成从以前的自我中逃离出来的过程。
  
认同动机 定义 示例:在寻求动机满足的过程中
采用了较多的物质主义行为
示例:在寻求动机满足的过程中
采用了较少的物质主义行为
自尊 维持和增强积极的自我概念 通过外科手术获得满意的外貌 通过锻炼和节食改善自己的身材和外貌
延续感 在时间流逝和情境变化中维持个体的认同, 包括整个生命历程(表现为变化)以及人生中的重要转折点 获取故乡本土画家的画作 通过捐款帮助故乡修缮社区活动中心
区别感 建立和维持与他人相区别的认同 定制改装自己的车, 为其涂上颜色鲜艳的车漆, 配置(个性化)车饰。 发现自己有俄国血统后, 参加俄语和俄国文化课程的学习
归属感 形成与他人的亲密感以及被他人的接受感 移居到一个新城市的时候, 购买和穿戴当地运动队的服饰和配饰 移居到一个新城市的时候, 加入当地的休闲运动队
效能感 维持和加强对生活事件的胜任感和控制感 装裱学术文凭和证书, 并悬挂在办公室墙上 训练三项全能并参加比赛
意义感 加强个人生命是有目的、有意义的
感觉
通过兼职收入为自己的家人购置更大的“梦想”之家 通过兼职收入送儿子去“梦想”的艺术院校深造
  
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