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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (5) : 773-788     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00773
Meta-Analysis |
The association between guilt and prosocial behavior: A systematic review and meta-analysis
TANG Ming,LI Weiqiang,LIU Fuhui,YUAN Bo()
Department of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
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Abstract  

A large body of research has examined the relationship between guilt and prosocial behavior - yet the findings are inconclusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of trait and state guilt on prosocial behavior, as well as potential moderators of this effect. A literature search yielded 46 qualified papers with 92 effect sizes and 17248 participants. Results showed that trait guilt was significantly associated with prosocial behavior (r = 0.36, p < 0.001), and this relationship was moderated by the type of prosocial behavior. The induction of state guilt also significantly impacted prosocial behavior, with a small effect size (d = 0.24, p < 0.001) - and this relationship was moderated by whether the recipient of the prosocial behavior was also the victim of the guilt-evoking act. No other moderators were found. The p-curve analysis showed that the p-curves of the two meta-analyzes were right skewed, indicating that the relationship between the guilt proneness and prosocial behavior and the effect of state guilt on the prosocial behavior had a real effect, not caused by publication bias or p hacking.

Keywords guilt      prosocial behavior      meta-analysis      moderate effect      p-curve     
ZTFLH:  B8498:C91  
Corresponding Authors: Bo YUAN     E-mail: yuanbopsy@gmail.com
Issue Date: 20 March 2019
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Ming TANG
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Fuhui LIU
Bo YUAN
Cite this article:   
Ming TANG,Weiqiang LI,Fuhui LIU, et al. The association between guilt and prosocial behavior: A systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(5): 773-788.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00773     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I5/773
  
作者(发表时间) 样本
数目
年龄 内疚
测量方法
内疚
性质
内疚
类型
亲社会
行为类型
亲社会
行为对象
出版
与否
文化
背景
相关
系数
丁菀, 2015 491 Ad UQ S IBG T UV UP E 0.32
方圆, 2017 388 Ad Q T IBG T UV P E 0.50
黄晓娇, 2016-a 577 A UQ S IBG R NV UP E 0.65
黄晓娇, 2016-c 25 A UQ S IBG C NV UP E -0.38
康家慧, 2014 1859 Ad Q T IBG T UV UP E 0.46
李磊, 2012-a 413 Ad Q T IBG T UV UP E 0.18
李磊, 2012-b 34 Ad Q T IBG O NV UP E 0.05
李娟, 2008 261 A UQ S IBG O UV UP E 0.35
刘金梅, 2009-a 655 A UQ S IBG R V UP E 0.49
刘谞, 2011-a 157 Ad UQ S IBG R V UP E 0.31
吕丽, 2017 358 Ad UQ S GBG R NV UP E 0.51
毛静思, 2012 667 A Q T IBG T UV UP E 0.36
Brown & Cehajic, 2008-a 173 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.46
Brown & Cehajic, 2008-b 257 A UQ S GBG R V P W 0.49
Cehajic-Clancy et al., 2011-a 139 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.66
Cehajic-Clancy et al., 2011-b 97 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.42
Figueiredo et al., 2016 464 Ad UQ S GBG O V P W 0.17
Halmburger et al., 2015 63 Ad UQ S IBG O NV P W -0.06
Harth et al., 2013-a 67 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.37
Harth et al., 2013-a 67 Ad UQ S GBG E V P W 0.17
Harth et al., 2013-b 81 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.6
Harth et al., 2013-b 81 Ad UQ S GBG E V P W -0.21
Iyer et al., 2007-a 194 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.39
Iyer et al., 2007-b 185 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.35
Jordan et al., 2016-a 101 Ad UQ T IBG F NV P W 0.37
Kahn et al., 2016-a 87 Ad UQ S IBG C V P W 0.32
Kahn et al., 2016-b 85 Ad UQ S IBG C V P W 0.23
Konstam et al., 2011 148 Ad Q T IBG F NV P W 0.17
Leach et al., 2006-a 159 Ad Q S GBG I V P W 0.15
Leach et al., 2006-b 203 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.40
Leonard et al., 2015-a 363 Ad Q T GBG O V P W 0.17
Linda et al., 2016 568 Ad Q T IBG T UV P W 0.21
作者(发表时间) 样本
数目
年龄 内疚
测量方法
内疚
性质
内疚
类型
亲社会
行为类型
亲社会
行为对象
出版
与否
文化
背景
相关
系数
Mashuri et al., 2017-a 200 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.43
Mashuri et al., 2017-b 200 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.19
Mcgarty et al., 2005-a 164 Ad UQ T GBG O V P W 0.58
Mcgarty et al., 2005-b 106 Ad UQ S GBG O V P W 0.66
Ongley et al., 2014 160 C UQ S IBG O NV P W 0.14
Roberts et al., 2014 93 C Q T IBG O NV P W 0.59
Roberts et al., 2014 93 C Q T IBG C NV P W 0.57
Roos et al., 2014 395 C Q S IBG T UV P W 0.34
Rotella & Richeson, 2013-b 39 Ad Q S IBG R NV P W 0.79
Shepherd et al., 2013-a 179 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.49
Shepherd et al., 2013-b 186 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.66
Strelan, 2007 176 Ad Q T IBG F NV P W -0.33
Swim & Miller, 1999-a 102 Ad UQ T GBG I V P W 0.51
Swim & Miller, 1999-b 51 Ad UQ T GBG I V P W 0.4
Swim & Miller, 1999-c 364 Ad UQ T GBG I V P W 0.52
Swim & Miller, 1999-d 124 Ad UQ T GBG I V P W 0.19
Wan et al., 2016-a 180 Ad Q S IBG O NV P E 0.33
Wan et al., 2016-b 180 Ad Q S IBG O NV P E 0.3
Wohl et al., 2013-a 284 Ad UQ S GBG O V P W -0.35
Wohl et al., 2013-b 88 Ad UQ S GBG O V P W 0.01
Zimmermann et al., 2011-a 96 Ad UQ S GBG R V P W 0.31
Zimmermann et al., 2011-b 156 Ad UQ S GBG O V P W 0.24
  
作者(发表时间) 实验组
样本量
控制组
样本量
年龄 内疚
类型
内疚诱
发方式
亲社会
行为类型
亲身会
行为对象
控制组 出版
与否
文化
背景
丁芳 等, 2014-a 60 60 A IBG CS O V C P E
丁芳 等, 2014-b 60 60 A IBG CS O NV C P E
杜灵燕, 2012-a 407 360 A IBG MS H NV S UP E
杜灵燕, 2012-b 35 37 A IBG MS D NV C UP E
杜灵燕, 2012-b 35 35 A IBG MS D NV S UP E
刘谞, 2011-b 48 48 Ad IBG CS R V C UP E
孙铭鸿, 2015 85 80 A IBG MS D NV C UP E
张晓贤 等, 2012-a 27 28 C IBG CS H NV C P E
张晓贤 等, 2012-b 33 28 C IBG CS H NV C P E
de Hooge et al., 2007-a 42 39 Ad IBG GR O NV C P W
de Hooge et al., 2007-a 42 45 Ad IBG GR O NV S P W
de Hooge et al., 2007-b 44 37 Ad IBG GR H NV C P W
de Hooge et al., 2007-b 44 48 Ad IBG GR H NV S P W
作者(发表时间) 实验组
样本量
控制组
样本量
年龄 内疚
类型
内疚诱
发方式
亲社会
行为类型
亲身会
行为对象
控制组 出版
与否
文化
背景
de Hooge et al., 2011-a 16 17 Ad IBG GR R V C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-a 16 17 Ad IBG GR D NV C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-b 58 34 Ad IBG GR R V C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-b 58 34 Ad IBG GR D NV C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-c 25 24 Ad IBG GR R V C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-c 25 24 Ad IBG GR D NV C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-d 71 72 Ad IBG CS R V C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-d 71 72 Ad IBG CS D NV C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-e 22 22 Ad IBG CS R V C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-f 23 23 Ad IBG MS R V C P W
de Hooge et al., 2011-f 23 23 Ad IBG MS R V S P W
Ferguson & Branscombe, 2010 19 55 Ad GBG MS E V C P W
Furukawa et al., 2016-a 107 107 Ad IBG MS R V C P E
Furukawa et al., 2016-b 107 107 Ad IBG MS O NV C P E
Graton et al., 2016-a 28 28 Ad IBG GR E NV C P W
Graton et al., 2016-a 28 28 Ad IBG GR E NV S P W
Graton et al., 2016-b 45 45 Ad IBG GR E NV C P W
Graton et al., 2016-c 41 41 Ad IBG GR E NV C P W
Jordan et al., 2016-b 54 47 Ad IBG GR O NV C P W
Jordan et al., 2016-c 103 106 Ad IBG GR O NV C P W
Polman & Ruttan, 2012 64 64 Ad IBG GR D NV C P W
Solak et al., 2016-a 30 30 Ad GBG MS O V C P W
Solak et al., 2016-b 34 34 Ad GBG MS O V C P W
Solak et al., 2016-b 34 34 Ad GBG MS D V C P W
Zhang et al., 2017 59 49 Ad IBG MS D NV C P E
  
  
  
调节变量 k r LL UL QB p
年龄 成人 44 0.34 0.26 0.42 0.79 0.672
青少年 6 0.41 0.18 0.64
儿童 4 0.44 0.17 0.72
内疚测量方式 正式问卷 16 0.33 0.19 0.47 0.19 0.665
自编问卷 38 0.36 0.27 0.46
内疚类型 个体内疚 25 0.33 0.22 0.44 0.38 0.538
群体内疚 29 0.38 0.28 0.48
亲社会行为对象 非受害方 13 0.3 0.14 0.46 0.61 0.736
受害方 33 0.38 0.28 0.47
未指明对象 8 0.36 0.17 0.55
文化背景 西方 14 0.37 0.22 0.52 0.04 0.836
东方 40 0.35 0.26 0.44
亲社会行为类型 补偿 19 0.53 0.42 0.64 20.33 0.002
合作 4 0.26 0 0.52
环保 2 -0.02 -0.39 0.34
宽恕 3 0.07 -0.22 0.35
其它 14 0.25 0.12 0.38
群际支援 5 0.38 0.16 0.6
特质 7 0.36 0.18 0.53
  
调节变量 k d LL UL QB p
年龄 成人 30 0.2 0.05 0.35 1.54 0.461
青少年 2 0.32 -0.29 0.93
儿童 6 0.42 0.1 0.73
控制组设置 羞耻 7 0.18 -0.12 0.48 0.21 0.650
中性 31 0.26 0.11 0.41
内疚类型 个体内疚 34 0.23 0.09 0.37 0.22 0.642
群体内疚 4 0.34 -0.09 0.77
内疚诱发方式 材料启动 13 0.39 0.18 0.61 3.25 0.119
回忆范式 17 0.09 -0.1 0.29
情境启动 8 0.3 0.02 0.57
亲社会行为对象 非受害方 24 0.12 -0.03 0.28 6.72 0.009
受害方 14 0.47 0.26 0.68
文化背景 西方 14 0.37 0.22 0.52 1.39 0.238
东方 40 0.35 0.26 0.44
亲社会行为类型 补偿 9 0.56 0.28 0.84 7.15 0.128
环保 5 0.22 -0.15 0.59
捐款 10 0.11 -0.15 0.36
其它 9 0.22 -0.04 0.47
助人 5 0.07 -0.27 0.42
  
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