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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (3) : 453-464     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00453
Meta-Analysis |
How violent video games affect prosocial outcomes: A meta-analysis
SHAO Rong,TENG Zhaojun,LIU Yanling()
Research Center for Mental Health Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
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Abstract  

Violent video game is a new kind of medium which depicts intentional attempts by individuals to inflict harm on others. Prosociality is an important characteristic that distinguishes human beings from animals, which includes prosocial cognition, emotion and behavior that show in interpersonal communication, such as altruism, helping behavior and so on. The current research conducted a meta-analytic review of studies that examined the impact of violent video games on prosocial outcomes, and focused on the role of moderating variables in the relationship between violent video games and prosocial outcomes. Data from 24 journal articles and 63 effect sizes with 18554 participants revealed that violent video games had negative main effects on prosocial outcomes, but the effect size was small (r = -0.10); moderation analysis showed that the effects between violent video games and prosocial outcomes were moderated by gender, age of participants, measurement and types of prosocial outcomes. Future research should consider using new models such as take together for GAM and GLM model to guide the research which explore the relationship between violent video games and prosocial outcomes, optimizing the experimental paradigm which measures prosocial outcomes. What’s more, it is necessary to pay attention to the effects of individual differences and features of video games.

Keywords violent video games      prosocial outcomes      meta-analysis      moderated effects     
ZTFLH:  B849: C91  
Corresponding Authors: Yanling LIU     E-mail: ssq@swu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 22 January 2019
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Rong SHAO
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Cite this article:   
Rong SHAO,Zhaojun TENG,Yanling LIU. How violent video games affect prosocial outcomes: A meta-analysis[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(3): 453-464.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00453     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I3/453
作者 男性% 被试群体 平均年龄(岁) N 测量类型 指标 统计分析 r
王晨雪, 2011 A 36.14 大学生 21.2 55 E B T-test -0.05
王晨雪, 2011 B 36.99 大学生 20.47 49 E B T-test 0.17
王晨雪, 2011 C 36.99 大学生 20.47 49 E A T-test -0.07
王子祥, 2016 A 47.67 儿童 10 59 E B T-test 0.16
王子祥, 2016 B 47.67 儿童 10 58 E B T-test -0.14
温广辉, 2014 A 100 儿童 8.87 33 E B T-test 0.08
温广辉, 2014 B 100 儿童 10.51 31 E B T-test -0.20
温广辉, 2014 C 100 儿童 12.20 32 E B T-test -0.17
温广辉, 2014 D 0 儿童 9.00 27 E B T-test 0.12
温广辉, 2014 E 0 儿童 10.32 29 E B T-test -0.27
温广辉, 2014 F 0 儿童 12.30 28 E B T-test 0.10
杨序斌, 2014 A 83.74 大学生 20.1 246 S A Correlation -0.45
杨序斌, 2014 B 83.74 大学生 20.1 246 S B Correlation -0.42
Bartholow et al., 2005 A 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation 0.10
Bartholow et al., 2005 B 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation 0.16
Bartholow et al., 2005 C 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation -0.14
Bartholow et al., 2005 D 100 大学生 20 200 S A Correlation -0.45
B?sche, 2010 100 大学生 22.72 27 E C Correlation 0.30
Ferguson & Garza, 2011 50.5 青少年 14.6 873 S B Correlation 0.08
Fraser et al., 2012 A 100 大学生 19.6 243 S B Correlation -0.02
Fraser et al., 2012 B 100 大学生 19.6 243 S B Correlation -0.01
Fraser et al., 2012 C 100 大学生 19.6 243 S B Correlation 0.08
Fraser et al., 2012 D 0 大学生 19.6 547 S B Correlation -0.20
Fraser et al., 2012 E 0 大学生 19.6 547 S B Correlation -0.17
Fraser et al., 2012 F 0 大学生 19.6 547 S B Correlation 0.12
Gentile et al., 2009 A 73 青少年 13 727 S B Correlation -0.43
作者 男性% 被试群体 平均年龄(岁) N 测量类型 指标 统计分析 r
Gentile et al., 2009 B 73 青少年 13 727 S B Correlation 0.22
Gentile et al., 2009 C 73 青少年 13 727 S A Correlation -0.41
Gentile et al., 2009 D 73 青少年 13 727 S A Correlation -0.04
Gentile et al., 2011 A 51 儿童 9.7 430 S B Correlation -0.36
Gentile et al., 2011 B 51 儿童 9.7 430 S B Correlation -0.35
Gentile et al., 2011 C 51 儿童 9.7 430 S B Correlation -0.31
Greitemeyer et al., 2012 25 大学生 20 16 E B T-test -0.27
Greitemeyer & Brauer, 2010 35.59 大学生 23 39 E A T-test -0.19
Greitemeyer & Osswald, 2010 37.04 大学生 21.81 40 E B χ2-test 0.02
Jin & Li, 2017 A 61.19 大学生 19.73 268 S B Correlation 0.02
Jin & Li, 2017 B 52.38 大学生 23.8 42 E B Correlation 0.30
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2010 A 48.5 青少年 13.4 1236 S A Correlation -0.35
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2010 B 48.5 青少年 14.5 1230 S A Correlation -0.29
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2010 C 48.5 青少年 13.4 1236 S B Correlation 0.18
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2010 D 48.5 青少年 14.5 1230 S B Correlation 0.25
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2011 A 100 青少年 13.4 848 S B Correlation -0.08
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2011 B 0 青少年 13.4 837 S B Correlation -0.08
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2011 C 100 青少年 13.4 848 S B Correlation 0.24
Krahé & M?lleIr, 2011 D 0 青少年 13.4 837 S B Correlation 0.15
Li et al., 2012 72.68 儿童青少年 11.2 1114 S A T-test -0.19
Prot et al., 2014 A 73 青少年 12.2 3034 S A Correlation -0.15
Prot et al., 2014 B 73 青少年 12.2 2360 S A Correlation -0.14
Prot et al., 2014 C 73 青少年 12.2 2232 S A Correlation -0.14
Prot et al., 2014 D 73 青少年 12.2 3034 S B Correlation -0.13
Prot et al., 2014 E 73 青少年 12.2 2360 S B Correlation -0.13
Prot et al., 2014 F 73 青少年 12.2 2232 S B Correlation -0.13
Saleem et al., 2012a* 54.45 儿童青少年 12.4 123 E B T-test -0.11
Saleem et al., 2012b 69.91 大学生 19.57 220 S A T-test -0.09
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 A 56 大学生 20.3 32 E B χ2-test -0.42
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 B 56 大学生 20.3 32 E B χ2-test -0.05
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 C 55 大学生 21.63 32 E B χ2-test 0.17
Tear & Nielsen, 2013 D 55 大学生 21.63 32 E B χ2-test -0.07
Teng et al., 2011 A 100 大学生 21.00 53 S A T-test -0.11
Teng et al., 2011 B 0 大学生 21.00 79 S A T-test 0.06
Whitaker & Bushman, 2012 A 46 大学生 19.6 101 E B T-test -0.19
Whitaker & Bushman, 2012 B 39 大学生 19.4 65 E B T-test 0.05
Zhen et al., 2011 44 儿童青少年 14.68 795 S A Correlation -0.22
  
模型 独立样本 异质性 Tau-squared
Q df (Q) p I-squared Tau-squared SE 方差 Tau
随机效应 63 1081.34 62 0.00 94.27% 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.17
  
模型 独立样本 N 效应值及0.95的置信区间 双尾检验
点估计 下限 上限 z p
随机效应 63 18554 -0.10 -0.15 -0.05 -4.14 0.00
  
调节变量 同质性分析 类别 独立样本 效应值及95%置信区 双侧检验
Q组间 df p 点估计 下限 上限 z p
男性比例 5.93 2 0.05 40%以下 16 -0.03 -0.10 0.05 -0.69 0.49
40%~70% 20 -0.08 -0.20 0.05 -1.24 0.22
70%~100% 27 -0.15 -0.20 -0.09 -4.81 < 0.001
被试群体 10.59 3 0.01 儿童 11 -0.18 -0.28 -0.07 -3.18 < 0.001
青少年 19 -0.08 -0.16 0.01 -1.82 0.07
儿童与青少年 3 -0.20 -0.24 -0.15 -9.00 < 0.001
大学生与成人 30 -0.10 -0.16 -0.03 -2.91 < 0.001
平均年龄 6.21 2 0.045 6~12 17 -0.18 -0.21 -0.14 -9.07 < 0.001
12~18 16 -0.06 -0.19 0.07 -0.88 0.38
18岁以上 30 -0.10 -0.16 -0.03 -2.91 < 0.001
测量类型 3.78 1 0.05 量表 40 -0.13 -0.18 -0.07 -4.38 < 0.001
行为实验法 23 -0.03 -0.11 0.05 -0.82 0.42
亲社会性
指标
12.06 2 < 0.001 亲社会行为 43 -0.05 -0.12 0.01 -1.66 0.10
亲社会情感 19 -0.19 -0.25 -0.14 -6.77 < 0.001
亲社会认知 1 -0.37 -0.66 0.01 -1.92 0.06
  
  
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