Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (2) : 322-328     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00322
Regular Articles |
Why trying to lose weight brings fat? Psychological mechanisms and influencing factors of overeating among restrained eaters
WANG Shaorui1,CHEN Hong1,2()
1 School of Psychology, Southwest University
2 Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715, China;
Download: PDF(448 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

As a common strategy used to lose weight in female group, restrained eating becomes increasingly popular nowadays. However, previous studies have proved that it was not an effective method to lose or maintain weight. Although restricting their consumption consciously, in many circumstances, restrained eaters are even easier to overeat compared with unrestrained ones. Many studies have explored the causes of restrained eaters’ overeating and factors influencing it. This article reviewed researches about overeating among restrained eaters at home and abroad and summarized the two psychological mechanisms: attentional bias and inhibitory control deficit. What’s more, this article also generalized five influencing factors of overeating among restrained eaters, including preload, emotional arousal, ego depletion, cognitive resource distraction, personality and social factors. At last, we discussed inadequacies of previous studies and looked forward to the future researching directions.

Keywords restrained eating      overeating      attentional bias      inhibitory control     
ZTFLH:  B845  
Corresponding Authors: Hong CHEN     E-mail: chenhg@swu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 25 December 2018
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Shaorui WANG
Hong CHEN
Cite this article:   
Shaorui WANG,Hong CHEN. Why trying to lose weight brings fat? Psychological mechanisms and influencing factors of overeating among restrained eaters[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(2): 322-328.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00322     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I2/322
1 孔繁昌 . ( 2012). 限制性饮食对食物线索注意偏向的神经机制(博士学位论文). 西南大学, 重庆.
2 孔繁昌, 张妍, 陈红, 石明丽, Todd Jackson, 高笑 . ( 2011). 限制性饮食者对食物线索的认知偏向: 行为和脑机制的证据. 心理科学进展, 19( 9), 1355-1362.
url: http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-XLXD201109014.htm
3 刘豫, 陈红, 李书慧, 罗念 . ( 2017). 在线抑制控制训练对失败的限制性饮食者不健康食物选择的改善. 心理学报, 49( 2), 219-227.
url: http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-XLXB201702008.htm
4 苏艳华 . ( 2017). 成功与失败限制性饮食者抑制控制力的脑机制研究(博士学位论文). 西南大学, 重庆.
5 翁春燕, 陈红, 朱岚 . ( 2012). 限制性饮食者对食物线索的注意偏向: 基于目标矛盾理论模型. 心理学报, 44( 5), 680-689.
url: http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-XLXB201205012.htm
6 魏鑫旻 . ( 2013). 消极情绪启动下限制性饮食者对食物线索的注意偏向和饮食行为研究(硕士学位论文). 西南大学, 重庆.
7 王维 . ( 2015). 限制性饮食者的去抑制效应(硕士学位论文). 西南大学, 重庆.
8 许辰 . ( 2014). 情绪状态对不同亚类限制性饮食者进食量的影响(硕士学位论文). 西南大学, 重庆.
9 袭玉荣, 陈红 . ( 2017). 情绪对两类限制性饮食者行为抑制控制的影响. 心理学进展, 7( 1), 124-139.
url: http://www.hanspub.org/journal/cta.aspx?paperID=19644
10 尹新红 . ( 2014). 媒体形象对限制性饮食者进食行为的影响及ERP研究(硕士学位论文). 西南大学, 重庆.
11 周一舟, 陈红, 高笑 . ( 2012). 限制性饮食的神经机制. 中国临床心理学杂志, 20( 5), 642-645.
url: http://www.cqvip.com/QK/97961X/201205/43783281.html
12 Anschutz D.J . ( 2011). Beloved bodies & forbidden foods: Media influence on body image and food intake. (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Radboud University.
13 Anschutz D. J., Engels R. C. M. E., Becker E. S., & van Strien T . ( 2008). The bold and the beautiful. Influence of body size of televised media models on body dissatisfaction and actual food intake. Appetite, 51( 3), 530-537.
pmid: 18479780 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195666308001396
14 Andreyeva T., Long M. W., Henderson K. E., & Grode G. M . ( 2010). Trying to lose weight: Diet strategies among Americans with overweight or obesity in 1996 and 2003. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110( 4), 535-542.
pmid: 20338279 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002822309020999
15 Baumeister R. F., Bratslavsky E., Muraven M., & Tice D. M . ( 1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74( 5), 1252-1265.
pmid: 9599441 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1252
16 Baucom,D. H., & Aiken P.A . ( 1981). Effect of depressed mood in eating among obese and nonobese dieting and nondieting persons. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 41( 3), 577-585.
pmid: 7306374 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/7306374
17 Bellisle F. & Dalix A.M . ( 2001). Cognitive restraint can be offset by distraction, leading to increased meal intake in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74( 2), 197-200.
pmid: 11470720 url: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/74/2/197/4739591
18 Boon B., Stroebe W., Schut H., & Ijntema R . ( 2002). Ironic processes in the eating behaviour of restrained eaters. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7( 1), 1-10.
pmid: 14596713 url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1348/135910702169303
19 Boon B., Stroebe W., Schut H., & Jansen A . ( 1997). Does cognitive distraction lead to overeating in restrained eaters? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25( 4), 319-327.
url: http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S1352465800018725
20 Cools J., Schotte D. E., & Mcnally R. J . ( 1992). Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101( 2), 348-351.
pmid: 1583231 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0021-843X.101.2.348
21 Côté M., Gagnon-girouard M-P., Provencher V., & Bégin C . ( 2016). Induced dyadic stress and food intake: Examination of the moderating roles of body mass index and restraint. Eating Behaviors, 23, 86-90.
pmid: 27591722 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1471015316302264
22 Demos K. E., Kelley W. M., & Heatherton T. F . ( 2011). Dietary restraint violations influence reward responses in nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23( 8), 1952-1963.
pmid: 20807052 url: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/10.1162/jocn.2010.21568
23 Dong D., Lei X., Jackson T., Wang Y., Su Y., & Chen H . ( 2014). Altered regional homogeneity and efficient response inhibition in restrained eaters. Neuroscience, 266( 18), 116-126.
pmid: 24513387 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306452214000839
24 Franken,I. H. A . ( 2003). Drug craving and addiction: Integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacological approaches. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 27(4), 563-579.
pmid: 12787841 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278584603000812
25 Meule A., Vögele C., & Kübler A . ( 2012). Restrained eating is related to accelerated reaction to high caloric foods and cardiac autonomic dysregulation. Appetite, 58( 2), 638-644.
pmid: 22142510 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195666311006520
26 Myrseth,K. O. R., & Fishbach, A. ( 2009). Self-control: A function of knowing when and how to exercise restraint. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18( 4), 247-252.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01645.x
27 Gibson E. L., Andersson-Gylden C., & Mcnamara A . ( 2012). The role of reward sensitivity in successful weight maintenance in non-obese young women. Appetite, 59( 2), 626-626.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666312003212
28 Heatherton T. F., Herman C. P., Polivy J., King G. A., & Mcgree S. T . ( 1988). The (mis)measurement of restraint: An analysis of conceptual and psychometric issues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97( 1), 19-28.
pmid: 3280636 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0021-843X.97.1.19
29 Heatherton,T. F., & Vohs K.D . ( 1998). Why is it so difficult to inhibit behavior? Psychological Inquiry, 9( 3), 212-216.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327965pli0903_4
30 Hetherington M. M., Anderson A. S., Norton G. N. M., & Newson L . ( 2006). Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others. Physiology & Behavior, 88( 4-5), 498-505.
pmid: 16757007 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16757007
31 Herman,C. P., & Mack, D. ( 1975). Restrained and unrestrained eating. Journal of Personality, 43( 4), 647-660.
pmid: 1206453 url: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/jopy/43/4
32 Hepworth R., Mogg K., Brignell C., & Bradley B. P . ( 2010). Negative mood increases selective attention to food cues and subjective appetite. Appetite, 54( 1), 134-142.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195666309006357
33 Hollitt S., Kemps E., Tiggemann M., Smeets E., & Mills J. S . ( 2010). Components of attentional bias for food cues among restrained eaters. Appetite, 54( 2), 309-313.
pmid: 20005274 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195666309006825
34 Hofmann W., Adriaanse M., Vohs K. D., & Baumeister R. F . ( 2014). Dieting and the self-control of eating in everyday environments: An experience sampling study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 19( 3), 523-539.
pmid: 3784634 url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/bjhp.2014.19.issue-3
35 Hofmann W., Rauch W., & Gawronski B . ( 2007). And deplete us not into temptation: Automatic attitudes, dietary restraint, and self-regulatory resources as determinants of eating behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43( 3), 497-504.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022103106000837
36 Jansen A., Louwerse E., Leemans N., & Schouten E . ( 1998). Self-esteem as a better predictor of restrained eaters' food intake than attributional style and disinhibition tendency. European Journal of Personality, 12( 1), 43-56.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/%28ISSN%291099-0984
37 Jansen A., Nederkoorn C., van Baak L., Keirse C., Guerrieri R., & Havermans R . ( 2009). High-restrained eaters only overeat when they are also impulsive. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47( 2), 105-110.
pmid: 19038379 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0005796708002210
38 Kakoschke N., Kemps E., & Tiggemann M . ( 2014). Attentional bias modification encourages healthy eating. Eating Behaviors, 15( 1), 120-124.
pmid: 24411764 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1471015313001438
39 Keller C. & Siegrist, M. ( 2014). Successful and unsuccessful restrained eating. does dispositional self-control matter? Appetite, 74( 1), 101-106.
pmid: 24333943 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195666313004790
40 Kemps E., Tiggemann M., Orr J., & Grear J . ( 2014). Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20( 1), 94-102.
pmid: 24079387 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/24079387
41 Kong F., Zhang Y., & Chen H . ( 2015). Inhibition ability of food cues between successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters: A two-choice oddball task. Plos One, 10( 4), e0120522.
pmid: 25886063 url: https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120522
42 Kuijer R., de Ridder D., Ouwehand C., Houx B., & van den Bos, R. ( 2008). Dieting as a case of behavioural decision making. Does self-control matter? Appetite, 51( 3), 506-511.
pmid: 18479777 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195666308001141
43 Mills J. S., Polivy J., Herman C. P., & Tiggeman M . ( 2002). Effects of exposure to thin media images: Evidence of self-enhancement among restrained eaters. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28( 12), 1687-1699.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/014616702237650
44 Ogden J., Oikonomou E., & Alemany G . ( 2017). Distraction, restrained eating and disinhibition: An experimental study of food intake and the impact of 'eating on the go'. Journal of Health Psychology, 22( 1), 39-50.
pmid: 26296575 url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1359105315595119
45 Ouwens M. A., van Strien T ., & van der Staak, C. P. F. ( 2003). Tendency toward overeating and restraint as predictors of food consumption. Appetite, 40( 3), 291-298.
pmid: 12798787 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195666303000060
46 Pollert,G. A., & Veilleux J.C . ( 2018). Attentional bias is more predictive of eating behavior after self-control exertion. Eating Behaviors, 29, 25-27.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1471015317301599
47 Polivy J., Heatherton T. F., & Herman C. P . ( 1988). Self-esteem, restraint, and eating behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97( 3), 354-356.
pmid: 3192831 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0021-843X.97.3.354
48 Rachel, A. ( 2014). Training response inhibition to reduce food consumption (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Cardiff University.
49 Samantha J. B., Mathias R-A., Christian B., & Helgi B. S . ( 2012). A debate on current eating disorder diagnoses in light of neurobiological findings: Is it time for a spectrum model? BMC Psychiatry, 12( 1), 76.
pmid: 22770364 url: http://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-12-76
50 Schotte D. E., Cools J., & Mcnally R. J . ( 1990). Induced anxiety triggers overeating in restrained eaters. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99( 3), 317-320.
pmid: 2212283 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0021-843X.99.3.317
51 Schur E. A., Heckbert S. R., & Goldberg J. H . ( 2010). The association of restrained eating with weight change over time in a community-based sample of twins. Obesity, 18( 6), 1146-1152.
pmid: 3954714 url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1038/oby.2009.506
52 Schmeichel,B. J . ( 2007). Attention control, memory updating, and emotion regulation temporarily reduce the capacity for executive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 136( 2), 241-255.
pmid: 17500649 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0096-3445.136.2.241
53 Stunkard,A. J., & Messick, S. ( 1985). The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29( 1), 71-83.
pmid: 3981480 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0022399985900108
54 Snoek H. M., van Strien. T., Janssens J. M. A. M ., & Engels, R. C. M. E. ( 2008). Restrained eating and bmi: A longitudinal study among adolescents. Health Psychology, 27( 6), 753-759.
pmid: 19025271 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/19025271
55 Stroebe W., Mensink W., Aarts H., Schut H., & Kruglanski A. W . ( 2008). Why dieters fail: Testing the goal conflict model of eating. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44( 1), 26-36.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S002210310700008X
56 Stroebe W., Papies E. K., & Aarts H . ( 2008). From homeostatic to hedonic theories of eating: Self-regulatory failure in food-rich environments. Applied Psychology, 57( s1), 172-193.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00360.x
57 Tice D. M., Baumeister R. F., Shmueli D., & Muraven M . ( 2007). Restoring the self: Positive affect helps improve self-regulation following ego depletion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43( 3), 379-384.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022103106000862
58 van der Laan, L. N.,de Ridder D. T., Charbonnier L., Viergever M. A., & Smeets P. A . ( 2014). Sweet lies: Neural, visual, and behavioral measures reveal a lack of self-control conflict during food choice in weight- concerned women. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8( 8), 184.
pmid: 4033222 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4033222/
59 van der Laan N., Charbonnier L., Griffioen-roose S., Kroese F. M., van Rijn. I ., & Smeets, P. A. M. ( 2016). Supersize my brain: A cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry study on the association between self-reported dietary restraint and regional grey matter volumes. Biological Psychology, 117, 108-116.
pmid: 26995784 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301051116300631
60 van Koningsbruggen G. M., Stroebe W., & Aarts H . ( 2013). Successful restrained eating and trait impulsiveness. Appetite, 60( 1), 81-84.
pmid: 23017465 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S019566631200387X
61 van Strien. T . ( 1997). The concurrent validity of a classification of dieters with low versus high susceptibility toward failure of restraint. Addictive Behaviors, 22( 5), 587.
pmid: 9347061 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S030646039600069X
62 Vohs,K. D., & Heatherton T.F . ( 2000). Self-regulatory failure: A resource-depletion approach. Psychological Science, 11( 3), 249-254.
pmid: 11273412 url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9280.00250
63 Werthmann J., Field M., Roefs A., Nederkoorn C., & Jansen A . ( 2014). Attention bias for chocolate increases chocolate consumption-An attention bias modification study. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 45( 1), 136-143.
pmid: 24140811 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24140811
64 Werthmann J., Roefs A., Nederkoorn C., Mogg K., Bradley B., & Jansen A . ( 2012). Can (not) take my eyes off food. Attention bias, craving and overeating. Appetite, 59( 2), 637-637.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666312003625
65 Woody E. Z., Costanzo P. R., Liefer H., & Conger J . ( 1981). The effects of taste and caloric perceptions on the eating behavior of restrained and unrestrained subjects. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5( 4), 381-390.
url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01173690
66 Zhou Y. Z., Xiao G., Hong C., & Kong F. C . ( 2017). High-disinhibition restrained eaters are disinhibited by self-regulatory depletion in the food-related inhibitory control. Eating Behaviors, 26, 70-75.
pmid: 28183003 url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1471015316302343
[1] WANG Xieshun, SU Yanjie. From motor imitation to social cognition: The role of self-other control[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(4): 636-645.
[2] Yan SUN,Lin FANG,Tingyu WANG,Li CUI. The influence factors and neural mechanisms of inhibitory control in autism spectrum disorders[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(8): 1450-1464.
[3] Jing ZHOU,Bin XUAN. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the frontal lobe region on inhibitory control[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(11): 1976-1991.
[4] Sun Juncai, Liu Ping.  The advantage of empathy from evidence of visual processing[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(suppl.): 7-7.
[5] DENG Zhijun, WU Huizhong, CHEN Yinghe.  The working memory account of the spatial-numerical associations[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(9): 1492-1502.
[6] CHANG Xin, BAI He, WANG Pei.  The influenced factors of bilinguals’ language switching costs[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(9): 1469-1478.
[7] CHEN Jie, LIU Lei, WANG Rong, SHEN Haizhou.  The effect of musical training on executive functions[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(11): 1854-1864.
[8] YANG Ling, MA Xue, CAO Hua, SU BoBo, XU Jing, CAI YuTong.  The injury, reversibility and intervention strategies of inhibitory control for methamphetamine users[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(10): 1769-1779.
[9] MA Yuanxiao; RAN Guangming; CHEN Xu. The feature and neural mechanism of attentional bias among individuals with insecure attachment[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2016, 24(3): 392-401.
[10] YAN Wansen; ZHANG Ranran; LIU Sujiao. The neural mechanisms of impulsivity implicated in drug addiction and non-drug addiction[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2016, 24(2): 159-172.
[11] LI Songwei; FAN Fumin. Cognitive Bias Modification for Anxiety Disorders: Application and Conflict[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2015, 23(9): 1588-1598.
[12] WANG Qiandong; LI Qinggong; CHEN Kaikai; FU Genyue. Attentional Bias to Untrustworthy Faces: Evidence From Eye Tracking Data[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2015, 23(9): 1508-1513.
[13] ZHENG Xinyi; YANG Yanqun; Said Easa. Behavior Performance and Neural Mechanism of Pseudoneglect and Its Transportation Application[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2015, 23(12): 2085-2095.
[14] ZHAO Xin;ZHANG Peng;CHEN Ling. Attentional Bias Training towards Social Anxiety[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2014, 22(8): 1246-1257.
[15] PENG Suhao;TANG Qian;XUAN Bin. A Unified Framework of the Genes-Brain-Behavior for Inhibitory Control with Aging[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2014, 22(8): 1236-1245.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech