Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2018, Vol. 26 Issue (10) : 1857-1868     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01857
The brain mechanisms of the physical exercise enhancing cognitive function
XIA Haishuo1,DING Qingwen2,ZHUANG Ya3,CHEN Antao1()
1 School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
2 Department of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
3 Department of Physical Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Download: PDF(433 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info

It has been identified that physical exercise is able to enhance cognitive functions, attracting attention to the underlying brain mechanisms. The literature shows that the enhancing effects rely basically on two distinct mechanisms, on the microscale and macroscale levels, respectively. At the microscale level, physical exercise favored synaptogenesis and the survival of neurons through better nutrient supply and metabolism. At the macroscale level, physical exercise could enhance cognition through enlarging the volume of white and grey matter, and changing the brain activity and functional connectivity. Notably, multiple factors could influence the enhancing effects of physical exercise on cognition, such as individual differences, time, and the interaction between physical exercise and cognitive stimulations. These factors provide new directions to conduct deep and systematic investigations on the brain mechanisms of enhancing effects on the two levels.

Keywords physical exercise      cognitive enhancement      brain imaging      brain derived neurotrophic factor      synaptogenesis     
Corresponding Authors: Antao CHEN     E-mail:
Issue Date: 27 August 2018
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
XIA Haishuo
DING Qingwen
CHEN Antao
Cite this article:   
XIA Haishuo,DING Qingwen,ZHUANG Yan, et al. The brain mechanisms of the physical exercise enhancing cognitive function[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(10): 1857-1868.
URL:     OR
1 Alosco M. L., Spitznagel M. B., Cohen R., Raz N., Sweet L. H., Josephson R., .. Gunstad J . ( 2014). Decreased physical activity predicts cognitive dysfunction and reduced cerebral blood flow in heart failure. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 339( 1-2), 169-175.
2 An T. D., Zagaar M. A., & Alkadhi K. A . ( 2015). Moderate treadmill exercise protects synaptic plasticity of the dentate gyrus and related signaling cascade in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular Neurobiology, 52( 3), 1067-1067.
3 Anazodo U. C., Shoemaker J. K., Suskin N ., & Lawrence, K. S. S. ( 2013). An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation. NeuroImage: Clinical, 3, 388-395.
4 Anderson B. J., Eckburg P. B., & Relucio K. I . ( 2002). Alterations in the thickness of motor cortical subregions after motor-skill learning and exercise. Learning & Memory, 9( 1), 1-9.
5 Ashburner J., & Friston, K. J . ( 2000). Voxel-based morphometry-the methods. NeuroImage, 11( 6), 805-821.
6 Bedi, K. S . ( 2003). Review. Nutritional Neuroscience, 6( 3), 141-152.
7 Bélanger M., Allaman I., & Magistretti P. J . ( 2011). Brain energy metabolism: Focus on astrocyte-neuron metabolic cooperation. Cell Metabolism, 14( 6), 724-738.
pmid: 22152301 url:
8 Bherer L., Lussier M., Desjardins L., Fraser S., Li K. Z., Berryman N., .. Vu T . ( 2017). Effects of physical exercise, cognitive training, and combined intervention on executive functions. Innovation in Aging, 1( 1), 1365.
9 Blumen H. M., Gopher D., Steinerman J. R., & Stern Y . ( 2010). Training cognitive control in older adults with the space fortress game: The role of training instructions and basic motor ability. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2, 145.
10 Brown J., Cooper-Kuhn C. M., Kempermann G., van Praag H., Winkler J., & Gage F. H . ( 2003). Enriched environment and physical activity stimulate hippocampal but not olfactory bulb neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17( 10), 2042-2046.
11 Brudzynski S. M., & Gibson, C. J . ( 1997). Release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens caused by stimulation of the subiculum in freely moving rats. Brain Research Bulletin, 42( 4), 303-308.
12 Burdette J. H., Laurienti P. J., Espeland M. A., Morgan A., Telesford Q., Vechlekar C. D., .. Rejeski W. J . ( 2010). Using network science to evaluate exercise-associated brain changes in older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2, 2.
pmid: 2893375 url:
13 Caruso R., Santucci A., Caruso M. P., Pittella F., Dellafiore F., Corbetta S., & Mosconi E . ( 2015). Physical activity, dietary habits and cognitive decline in over 65 years Italian outpatients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional pilot study. International Diabetes Nursing, 12( 2), 69-73.
14 Chaddock-Heyman L., Erickson K. I., Voss M. W., Knecht A. M., Pontifex M. B., Castelli D. M., .. Kramer A. F . ( 2013). The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: A randomized controlled intervention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 72.
15 Chang Y. K., Labban J. D., Gapin J. I., & Etnier J. L . ( 2012). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Brain Research, 1453, 87-101.
16 Chen A. G., Zhu L. N., Yan J., & Yin H. C . ( 2016). Neural basis of working memory enhancement after acute aerobic exercise: fMRI study of preadolescent children. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1804.
17 Chirles T. J., Reiter K., Weiss L. R., Alfini A. J., Nielson K. A., & Smith J. C . ( 2017). Exercise training and functional connectivity changes in mild cognitive impairment and healthy elders. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 57( 3), 845-856.
18 Choo M., Miyazaki T., Yamazaki M., Kawamura M., Nakazawa T., Zhang J. L., .. Kano M . ( 2017). Retrograde BDNF to TrkB signaling promotes synapse elimination in the developing cerebellum. Nature Communications, 8, 195.
pmid: 5543168 url:
19 Christie B. R., Eadie B. D., Kannangara T. S., Robillard J. M., Shin J., & Titterness A. K . ( 2008). Exercising our brains: How physical activity impacts synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Neuromolecular Medicine, 10( 2), 47-58.
pmid: 18535925 url:
20 Colberg S. R., Somma C. T., & Sechrist S. R . ( 2008). Physical activity participation may offset some of the negative impact of diabetes on cognitive function. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 9( 6), 434-438.
21 Colcombe S. J., Erickson K. I., Scalf P. E., Kim J. S., Prakash R., Mcauley E., .. Kramer A. F . ( 2006). Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 61( 11), 1166-1170.
pmid: 17167157 url:
22 Colcombe S. J., Kramer A. F., Erickson K. I., Scalf P., McAuley E., Cohen N. J., .. Elavsky S . ( 2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101( 9), 3316-3321.
pmid: 14978288 url:
23 Cotman C. W., Berchtold N. C., & Christie L. A . ( 2007). Exercise builds brain health: Key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends in Neurosciences, 30( 9), 464-472.
24 Cox E. P., O'Dwyer N., Cook R., Vetter M., Cheng H. L., Rooney K., & O'Connor H . ( 2016). Relationship between physical activity and cognitive function in apparently healthy young to middle-aged adults: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19( 8), 616-628.
25 Davis C. L., Tomporowski P. D., McDowell J. E., Austin B. P., Miller P. H., Yanasak N. E., .. Naglieri J. A . ( 2011). Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: A randomized, controlled trial. Health Psychology, 30( 1), 91-98.
26 De Luca, C. R., & Leventer, R. J . ( 2008). Developmental trajectories of executive functions across the lifespan. In V. Anderson, R. Jacobs, P. J. Anderson,( Eds.), Executive functions and the frontal lobes: A lifespan perspective
27 Dhar M., Zhu M., Impey S., Lambert T. J., Bland T., Karatsoreos I. N., .. Wayman G. A . ( 2014). Leptin induces hippocampal synaptogenesis via CREB-regulated microRNA-132 suppression of p250GAP. Molecular Endocrinology, 28( 7), 1073-1082.
28 Erickson K. I., Hillman C. H., & Kramer A. F . ( 2015). Physical activity, brain, and cognition. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 27-32.
29 Erickson K. I., Voss M. W., Prakash R. S., Basak C., Szabo A., Chaddock L., .. Kramer A. F . ( 2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108( 7), 3017-3022.
pmid: 21282661 url:
30 Espeland M. A., Lipska K., Miller M. E., Rushing J., Cohen R. A., Verghese J ., .. for the LIFE Study Investigators.( 2017). Effects of physical activity intervention on physical and cognitive function in sedentary adults with and without diabetes. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 72( 6), 861-866.
31 Etnier J.L., Labban J. D., Piepmeier A., Davis M. E., & Henning D. A . ( 2014). Effects of an acute bout of exercise on memory in 6 th grade children . Pediatric Exercise Science, 26( 3), 250-258.
32 Etnier J. L., Salazar W., Landers D. M., Petruzzello S. J., Han M., & Nowell P . ( 1997). The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19( 3), 249-277.
33 Fabel K., Fabel K., Tam B., Kaufer D., Baiker A., Simmons N., .. Palmer T. D . ( 2003). VEGF is necessary for exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18( 10), 2803-2812.
pmid: 14656329 url:
34 Fink G. R., Frackowiak R. S., Pietrzyk U., & Passingham R. E . ( 1997). Multiple nonprimary motor areas in the human cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 77( 4), 2164-2174.
pmid: 9114263 url:
35 Flodin P., Martinsen S., Mannerkorpi K., Löfgren M., Bileviciute-Ljungar I., Kosek E., & Fransson P . ( 2015). Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy. NeuroImage: Clinical, 9, 134-139.
36 Friston K. J., Frith C. D., Liddle P. F ., & Frackowiak, R. S. J. ( 1993). Functional connectivity: The principal-component analysis of large (pet) data sets. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 13( 1), 5-14.
pmid: 8417010 url:
37 Girard I., & Garland, T. J . ( 2002). Plasma corticosterone response to acute and chronic voluntary exercise in female house mice. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92( 4), 1553-1561.
pmid: 11896022 url:
38 Gligoroska J. P., & Manchevska, S. ( 2012). The effect of physical activity on cognition -physiological mechanisms. Materia Socio-Medica, 24( 3), 198-202.
39 Greicius M. D., Krasnow B., Reiss A. L., & Menon V . ( 2003). Functional connectivity in the resting brain: A network analysis of the default mode hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100( 1), 253-258.
pmid: 12506194 url:
40 Haring B., Leng X., Robinson J., Johnson K. C., Jackson R. D., Beyth R., .. Wassertheil‐Smoller S . ( 2013). Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative memory study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2( 6), e000369.
41 Hayes S. M., Alosco M. L., & Forman D. E . ( 2014). The effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive and neural decline in aging and cardiovascular disease. Current Geriatrics Reports, 3( 4), 282-290.
42 Heisz J. J., Clark I. B., Bonin K., Paolucci E. M., Michalski B., Becker S., & Fahnestock M . ( 2017). The effects of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29( 11), 1895-1907.
pmid: 28699808 url:
43 Heyman E., Gamelin F. X., Goekint M., Piscitelli F., Roelands B., Leclair E., .. Meeusen R . ( 2012). Intense exercise increases circulating endocannabinoid and BDNF levels in humans-possible implications for reward and depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37( 6), 844-854.
44 Hindin S. B., & Zelinski, E. M . ( 2012). Extended practice and aerobic exercise interventions benefit untrained cognitive outcomes in older adults: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60( 1), 136-141.
45 Ho A. J., Raji C. A., Becker J. T., Lopez O. L., Kuller L. H., Xue H., .. Thompson P. M . ( 2011). The effects of physical activity, education, and body mass index on the aging brain. Human Brain Mapping, 32( 9), 1371-1382.
pmid: 3184838 url:
46 Hohenfeld C., Nellessen N., Dogan I., Kuhn H., Müller C., Papa F., .. Reetz K . ( 2016). EP 131. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback training in elderly leads to cognitive improvement and changes in cerebral connectivity. Clinical Neurophysiology, 127( 9), e295-e296.
47 Hötting K., Reich B., Holzschneider K., Kauschke K., Schmidt T., Reer R., .. Röder B . ( 2012). Differential cognitive effects of cycling versus stretching/coordination training in middle-aged adults. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 31( 2), 145-155.
48 Hötting K., & Röder, B. ( 2013). Beneficial effects of physical exercise on neuroplasticity and cognition. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37( 9), 2243-2257.
pmid: 23623982 url:
49 Hötting K., Schauenburg G., & Röder B . ( 2012). Long- term effects of physical exercise on verbal learning and memory in middle-aged adults: Results of a one-year follow-up study. Brain Sciences, 2( 3), 332-346.
50 Holzschneider K., Wolbers T., Röder B., & Hötting K . ( 2012). Cardiovascular fitness modulates brain activation associated with spatial learning. NeuroImage, 59( 3), 3003-3014.
pmid: 22027496 url:
51 Hsu C. L., Best J. R., Davis J. C., Nagamatsu L. S., Wang S., Boyd L. A., .. Liu-Ambrose T . ( 2018). Aerobic exercise promotes executive functions and impacts functional neural activity among older adults with vascular cognitive impairment. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52( 3), 184-191.
52 Huxley R. R., Misialek J. R., Agarwal S. K., Loehr L. R., Soliman E. Z., Chen L. Y., & Alonso A . ( 2014). Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 7( 4), 620-625.
53 Hyman C., Hofer M., Barde Y. A., Juhasz M., Yancopoulos G. D., Squinto S. P., & Lindsay R. M . ( 1991). BDNF is a neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Nature, 350( 6315), 230-232.
pmid: 2005978 url:
54 Ji L., Zhang H., Potter G. G., Zang Y. F., Steffens D. C., Guo H., & Wang L . ( 2017). Multiple neuroimaging measures for examining exercise-induced neuroplasticity in older adults: A quasi-experimental study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 9, 102.
55 Kempermann G., Fabel K., Ehninger D., Babu H., Leal- Galicia P., Garthe A., & Wolf S. A . ( 2010). Why and how physical activity promotes experience-induced brain plasticity. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 4, 189.
pmid: 3000002 url:
56 Kim J. I., Jeong H. C., Won J. Y., Ka S. S., & Oh B. S . ( 2014). Effects of aerobic exercise on middle-aged male smokers' blood vessel health. Journal of Digital Convergence, 12( 4), 349-356.
57 Klempin F., Beis D., Mosienko V., Kempermann G., Bader M., & Alenina N . ( 2013). Serotonin is required for exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Journal of Neuroscience, 33( 19), 8270-8275.
pmid: 23658167 url:
58 Köbe T., Witte A. V., Schnelle A., Lesemann A., Fabian S., Tesky V. A., .. Flöel A . ( 2016). Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment. NeuroImage, 131, 226-235.
59 Koirala G. R., Lee D., Eom S., Kim N. Y., & Kim H. D . ( 2017). Altered brain functional connectivity induced by physical exercise may improve neuropsychological functions in patients with benign epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 76, 126-132.
60 Kronenberg G., Bick-Sander A., Bunk E., Wolf C., Ehninger D., & Kempermann G . ( 2006). Physical exercise prevents age-related decline in precursor cell activity in the mouse dentate gyrus. Neurobiology of Aging, 27( 10), 1505-1513.
61 Kylasov A., & Gavrov, S. ( 2011). Diversity of sport: Non-destructive evaluation (pp. 462-491). Paris: UNESCO: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems.
62 Landeira B. S., Santana T. T., Araújo J. A. M., Tabet E. I., Tannous B. A., Schroeder T., & Costa M. R . ( 2016). Activity-independent effects of CREB on neuronal survival and differentiation during mouse cerebral cortex development. Cerebral Cortex, 28( 2), 538-548.
63 Lee J. K. W., Koh A. C. H., Koh S. X. T., Liu G. J. X., Nio A. Q. X ., & Fan, P. W. P. ( 2014). Neck cooling and cognitive performance following exercise-induced hyperthermia. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114( 2), 375-384.
pmid: 24318656 url:
64 Leckie R. L., Oberlin L. E., Voss M. W., Prakash R. S., Szabo-Reed A., Chaddock-Heyman L., .. Erickson K. I . ( 2014). BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 895.
pmid: 25566019 url:
65 Liu-Ambrose T., Nagamatsu L. S., Voss M. W., Khan K. M., & Handy T. C . ( 2012). Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: A 12-month randomized controlled trial. Neurobiology of Aging, 33( 8), 1690-1698.
66 Louis B., Erickson K. I., & Liu-Ambrose T . ( 2013). A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2013, 657508.
67 Meeusen R., Smolders I., Sarre S., de Meirleir K., Keizer H., Serneels M., .. Michotte Y . ( 1997). Endurance training effects on neurotransmitter release in rat striatum: An in vivo microdialysis study. Acta Physiologica, 159( 4), 335-341.
68 Pajonk F. G., Wobrock T., Gruber O., Scherk H., Berner D., Kaizl I., .. Falkai P . ( 2010). Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67( 2), 133-143.
69 Pedersen, B. K . ( 2017). Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: Role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 47( 8), 600-611.
pmid: 28722106 url:
70 Piepmeier, A. T . ( 2015). A closer look at the role of BDNF as a causal link in the physical activity cognition relationship: A dose-response study (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG).
71 Pierpaoli C., Jezzard P., Basser P. J., Barnett A., & Di Chiro G . ( 1996). Diffusion tensor MR imaging of the human brain. Radiology, 201( 3), 637-648.
pmid: 8939209 url:
72 Prakash R. S., Voss M. W., Erickson K. I., & Kramer A. F . ( 2015). Physical activity and cognitive vitality. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 769-797.
pmid: 25251492 url:
73 Rahe J., Petrelli A., Kaesberg S., Fink G. R., Kessler J., & Kalbe E . ( 2015). Effects of cognitive training with additional physical activity compared to pure cognitive training in healthy older adults. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 10, 297-310.
74 Rajab A. S., Crane D. E., Middleton L. E., Robertson A. D., Hampson M., & Macintosh B. J . ( 2014). A single session of exercise increases connectivity in sensorimotor- related brain networks: A resting-state fMRI study in young healthy adults. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 625.
75 Rhyu I. J., Bytheway J. A., Kohler S. J., Lange H., Lee K. J., Boklewski J., .. Cameron J. L . ( 2010). Effects of aerobic exercise training on cognitive function and cortical vascularity in monkeys. Neuroscience, 167( 4), 1239-1248.
pmid: 3417752 url:
76 Roelofs E. J., Smith-Ryan A. E., Trexler E. T., Hirsch K. R., & Mock M. G . ( 2016). Effects of pomegranate extract on blood flow and vessel diameter after high-intensity exercise in young, healthy adults. European Journal of Sport Science, 17( 3), 317-325.
77 Schonewille M., Gao Z., Boele H. J., Veloz M. F. V., Amerika W. E., Šimek A. A ., .. de Zeeuw, C. I.( 2011). Reevaluating the role of ltd in cerebellar motor learning. Neuron, 70( 1), 43-50.
pmid: 21482355 url:
78 Shatil E., ( 2013). Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5, 8.
79 Skriver K., Roig M., Lundbye-Jensen J., Pingel J., Helge J. W., Kiens B., & Nielsen J. B . ( 2014). Acute exercise improves motor memory: Exploring potential biomarkers. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 116, 46-85.
pmid: 25128877 url:
80 Stranahan A. M., Khalil D., & Gould E . ( 2007). Running induces widespread structural alterations in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Hippocampus, 17( 11), 1017-1022.
81 Stranahan A. M., & Mattson, M. P . ( 2012). Recruiting adaptive cellular stress responses for successful brain aging. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13( 3), 209-216.
pmid: 22251954 url:
82 Streit W. J. ( 2002). Physiology and pathophysiology of microglial cell function. In: W. J. Streit (ed.), Microglia in the regenerating and degenerating central nervous system. New York: Springer.
83 Stroth S., Hille K., Spitzer M., & Reinhardt R . ( 2009). Aerobic endurance exercise benefits memory and affect in young adults. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 19( 2), 223-243.
pmid: 18609015 url:
84 Swain R. A., Harris A. B., Wiener E. C., Dutka M. V., Morris H. D., Theien B. E., .. Greenough W. T . ( 2003). Prolonged exercise induces angiogenesis and increases cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat. Neuroscience, 117( 4), 1037-1046.
85 Tanne D., Freimark D., Poreh A., Merzeliak O., Bruck B., Schwammenthal Y., .. Adler Y . ( 2005). Cognitive functions in severe congestive heart failure before and after an exercise training program. International Journal of Cardiology, 103( 2), 145-149.
86 Thomas A. G., Dennis A., Bandettini P. A., & Johansen- Berg H . ( 2012). The effects of aerobic activity on brain structure. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 86.
pmid: 3311131 url:
87 Tsai C. L., Chen F. C., Pan C. Y., Wang C. H., Huang T. H., & Chen T. C . ( 2014). Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 41, 121-131.
88 van der Borght K., Kóbor-Nyakas D. E., Klauke K., Eggen B. J. L., Nyakas C., van der Zee, E. A., & Meerlo P . ( 2009). Physical exercise leads to rapid adaptations in hippocampal vasculature: Temporal dynamics and relationship to cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Hippocampus, 19( 10), 928-936.
89 Vankim N. A., & Nelson, T. F . ( 2013). Vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among college students. American Journal of Health Promotion, 28( 1), 7-15.
90 Vaynman S., Ying Z., Wu A., & Gomez-Pinilla F . ( 2006). Coupling energy metabolism with a mechanism to support brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity. Neuroscience, 139( 4), 1221-1234.
91 Voelcker-Rehage C., & Niemann, C. ( 2013). Structural and functional brain changes related to different types of physical activity across the life span. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37( 9), 2268-2295.
92 Voss M. W., Prakash R. S., Erickson K. I., Basak C., Chaddock L., Kim J. S., .. Kramer A. F . ( 2010). Plasticity of brain networks in a randomized intervention trial of exercise training in older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2, 32.
93 Voss M. W., Vivar C., Kramer A. F., & van Praag H . ( 2013). Bridging animal and human models of exercise- induced brain plasticity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17( 10), 525-544.
pmid: 4565723 url:
94 Wang Y., Kang J., Kemmer P. B., & Guo Y . ( 2016). An efficient and reliable statistical method for estimating functional connectivity in large scale brain networks using partial correlation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 123.
95 Wong, R. Y . ( 2017). Physical exercise, cognition, and function in older people. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 18( 4), 282-283.
pmid: 28236611 url:
96 Wrann C. D., White J. P., Salogiannnis J., Laznik-Bogoslavski D., Wu J., Ma D., .. Spiegelman B. M . ( 2013). Exercise induces hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1α/FNDC5 pathway. Cell Metabolism, 18( 5), 649-659.
pmid: 3980968 url:
97 Xiong J. Y., Li S. C., Sun Y. X., Zhang X. S., Dong Z. Z., Zhong P., & Sun X. R . ( 2015). Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male appswe/ps1de9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation. Biology of Sport, 32( 4), 295-300.
98 Ziegler G., Dahnke R., Jäncke L., Yotter R. A., May A., & Gaser C . ( 2012). Brain structural trajectories over the adult lifespan. Human Brain Mapping, 33( 10), 2377-2389.
pmid: 21898677 url:
99 Zochodne, D. W . ( 2014). Mechanisms of diabetic neuron damage: Molecular pathways. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 126, 379-399.
[1] TONG Wei, CHEN Taolin, HUANG Xiaoqi, GONG Qiyong, FANG Xiaoyi.  Episodic and background craving: Distinguishing pathway of caving effect on nicotine addition[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(11): 1932-1941.
[2] LI Songqing; ZHAO Qingbai; ZHOU Zhijin; ZHANG Yi. The Cognitive and Neural Mechanism of Text and Picture Processing in Multimedia Learning[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2015, 23(8): 1361-1370.
[3] HAN Shi-Hui;ZHANG Yi-Fan. A Cultural Neuroscience Approach to Self-Concept Representation[J]. , 2012, 20(5): 633-640.
[4] DING Guo-Sheng;LI Yan-Yan. The Role of Early Sign-language Experience in Shaping the Structure and Function of the Deaf Brain[J]. , 2012, 20(3): 328-337.
[5] SHEN Wang-Bing;LIU Chang;CHEN Jing–Jing. Neural Basis of Creativity: Evidence From Structural and Functional Imaging[J]. , 2010, 18(09): 1420-1429.
[6] WANG Nai-Yi; LUO Yue-Jia; DONG Qi. Neural Correlates of Aesthetics[J]. , 2010, 18(01): 19-27.
[7] LIU Cong-Hui;WANG Yong-Mei;YU Guo-Liang;WANG Yong-Jun. Related Theories and Exploration on Dynamic Model of Empathy[J]. , 2009, 17(05): 964-972.
[8] FU Yan;WANG Da-Hua. Cognitive Aging and the Brain: HAROLD Model Debate[J]. , 2009, 17(01): 86-91.
[9] CUI Fang;NAN Yun;LUO Yue-Jia. A Review of Cognitive Neuroscience Studies on Empathy[J]. , 2008, 16(02): 250-254.
[10] Gao Bing;Cao Hui;Cao Pin. The Brain Mechanism of Syntactic Processing[J]. , 2006, 14(01): 32-39.
[11] Luo Jing,Ying Xiaoping. Thinking and Language: Evidences from Cognitive Neuroscience[J]. , 2005, 13(04): 454-465.
[12] Zhang Zhijie,Huang Xiting. The Brain Mechanism Of Temporal Cognition[J]. , 2003, 11(01): 44-48.
Full text



Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech