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      2017年, 第25卷, 第suppl.期 刊出日期:2017-08-26 上一期    下一期
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     错觉形状知觉的双阶段生成加工:MEG研究
    刘玲, 罗欢
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 1-1.  
    摘要   ( 230 ) PDF (0KB)( 167 )
    目的:将局部信息整合成一个完整的形状(例如:错觉形状知觉)是人类视觉的核心功能。这一加工过程被认为是一个生成加工(generative process), 即由上至下的信号携带预测信息(如:错觉形状知觉)发出反馈调控, 由下至上的信号则表征预测错误(如:预测信息和实际的由下至上的输入信息之间的差异)。 虽然最近的fMRI研究为错觉形状知觉的预测编码假说提供了支持的证据, 但是这一生成加工的神经动态特性和相关脑区仍然是未知的。 方法:为回答这一问题, 我们实用脑磁图(magnetoenphalography, MEG)记录被试在观看pacman 图形时的大脑活动, 这些pacman的不同组合形式可能形成或不能形成一个错觉形状知觉(Kanizsa三角形错觉)。关键的一点, 我们使用了追踪神经时间响应函数的方法并通过随机的调整每个pacman的亮度以提取出大脑针对每个pacman的特异的神经动态活动, 并比较他们在形成错觉(整合条件)和不能形成错觉(非整合条件)时的神经动态活动差异。 结果:首先, 我们发现大脑对pacman的响应在整合条件下比非整合条件更弱。这一结果与之前的预测编码假说相一致, 即在整合条件下, 对形状错觉的知觉会产生更少的预测错误。其次, 我们发现这一抑制的神经动态活动包含一早一晚两个加工阶段, 并涉及不同的神经振荡频率和加工脑区。具体来说, 在100-150 毫秒的早期阶段, 在双侧视觉皮层(V1和V2)和TPJ脑区的beta 频率(14-20hz)的活动强度在整合条件下更弱。而在200-400ms的晚期阶段, 右侧的IFG和TPJ脑区的theta频率(4-7hz)的活动在整合条件下更弱。 结论:根据以上结果, 我们认为错觉形状知觉包含两个加工阶段:一个早期的加工, 由初级视皮层快速的编码预测错误, 然后是一个晚期的, 在额顶皮层形成了错觉形状知觉并作为前景被加工后, 背景信息被抑制的加工阶段。
     汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的视觉大细胞通路功能探究:一项ERPs研究
    孟泽龙, 赵婧, 毕鸿燕
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 2-2.  
    摘要   ( 234 ) PDF (0KB)( 203 )
     目的:本研究旨在采用事件相关电位技术比较汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童与同年龄对照组儿童在视觉大细胞通路功能上的差异, 以及探究汉语儿童的视觉大细胞通路功能与汉语阅读能力间的关系。
    方法:共13名汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童(7男, 平均年龄11.32±0.86岁)和13名同年龄对照组儿童(9男, 平均年龄11.04±0.92岁)参与实验。给被试呈现水平或竖直的光栅, 要求被试看到水平光栅时按键反应, 看到竖直光栅时不反应。分别有高时间频率条件(5周期/度, 30Hz)、低空间频率条件(0.5周期/度, 2.5Hz)和小细胞通路条件(5周期/度, 30Hz)三种条件的光栅。只记录呈现竖直光栅时的ERP成分。预处理后选择双侧枕颞叶的电极(PO3/4、PO5/6、PO7/8、O1/2)计算P1成分(110~160ms)和N1成分(160~210ms)的峰值波幅和峰值潜伏期。之后, 两组被试完成包括汉字阅读流畅性、语音意识、语素意识和快速命名能力在内的阅读能力测验。
    结果:P1成分上, 阅读障碍儿童的激活强度显著小于同年龄对照组儿童, 且所有儿童在低空间频率条件下的峰值波幅高于高时间频率条件和小细胞通路条件, 峰值潜伏期也显著短于后面两者, 后面二者的峰值波幅与潜伏期无显著差异; N1成分上, 阅读障碍儿童的峰值潜伏期显著长于同年龄对照组儿童。相关分析表明, 高时间频率条件下的N1成分峰值波幅与汉字阅读流畅性成绩间呈显著的负相关, 低空间频率条件下的P1成分峰值波幅与语音意识成绩呈显著的正相关, 小细胞通路与各汉语阅读能力测验得分的相关均无统计学意义。
    结论:汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的时间频率敏感性和空间频率敏感性均存在缺陷, 且视觉大细胞通路的时间频率敏感性与阅读流畅性关系密切, 而空间频率敏感性则与汉语的语音意识关系密切。
     Human judgment of relative-frequency adapts to the environmental statistics via non-linear sequential effects
    Xiangjuan Ren (任祥娟), Hang Zhang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 3-3.  
    摘要   ( 163 ) PDF (0KB)( 85 )
     PURPOSE: In judgment and decision-making, people distort the probability or relative-frequency information in a stereotyped way: They overestimate small probabilities and underestimate large probabilities. Here we used a visual judgment task to investigate whether and how the distortion of relative-frequency may be influenced by the environmental statistics. METHODS: The task was to report the relative-frequency of black (or white) dots in an array of black and white dots on a continuous scale from 0 to 1. In 693 trials, the values of the stimuli ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 with four possible distributions: the uniform distribution (“Uniform”), 50/99 of the relative-frequencies no larger than 0.1 (“Low”), 50/99 no less than 0.9 (“High”), or 30/99 low and 30/99 high (“Extreme”). Sixteen subjects were assigned to each condition. We performed two lines of analyses. First, we applied a smoothing algorithm to the deviation of the reported to the objective relative-frequency, obtaining a continuous function of how the deviation varied with the objective relative-frequency (“distortion function”). Second, we modeled the dependence of the present response on the stimuli and responses 1 to 5 trials back. RESULTS: (1) The distortion functions had the shape of one sinusoid cycle, i.e. the typical pattern of overestimating small and underestimating large relative-frequencies. (2) Compared with the Uniform, the Low and Extreme conditions had a greater overestimation of small relative-frequencies, while the High and Extreme conditions had a greater underestimation of large relative-frequencies. That is, a higher concentration of the stimuli at the low or high end would be diluted in the responses, which agrees with Parducci’s (1965) range-frequency model. (3) A model based on non-linear sequential effects outperformed the range-frequency model in fitting subjects’ responses. CONCLUSIONS: Human judgment of relative frequency adapts to the environmental statistics. The adaptation is the result of non-linear sequential effects.
     掩蔽刺激与目标刺激的语义相似度对掩蔽效果的影响
    胡晶晶, 曹立人, John Mollonb
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 4-4.  
    摘要   ( 205 ) PDF (0KB)( 139 )
     目的:视觉掩蔽的效果随掩蔽刺激和目标刺激之间的变化而不同, Bhardwaj等(2012)的研究发现掩蔽的效果与目标刺激和掩蔽刺激之间的相似性有关。其研究主要揭示了形态相似度这一底层物理因素的影响。然而刺激之间还可能存在着其它方面的相似, 如语义相似性。大量研究表明语义加工涉及复杂的高层认知过程, 但也有研究表明个体能够在认知加工早期理解目标的语义特性。基于此, 本研究考察掩蔽刺激与目标刺激在语义方面的相似性是否会对掩蔽效果产生影响。 方法:研究主要采用Sperling的部分报告法考察瞬时记忆考察的掩蔽效果。实验一中, 目标刺激均为阿拉伯数字, 掩蔽刺激分别为具有高语义相似性的中文汉字大写数字和低语义相似性的白噪音。通过对比不同掩蔽条件下, 被试的报告绩效, 以衡量掩蔽效果。进一步的, 为控制形态复杂度的影响, 在实验二中设置倒置汉字掩蔽的条件。倒置汉字能在破坏语义加工的同时, 保持相同的形态复杂度, 对比其与白噪音、正立汉字条件下的绩效, 能够确定影响掩蔽效果的原因。 结果:实验一中, 被试在汉字掩蔽条件下的报告绩效显著低于噪音掩蔽条件, 且当部分报告法的声音提示延迟时间不同时, 这一差异稳定存在, 即汉字掩蔽的效果优于噪音掩蔽; 实验二中, 阶段性数据表明, 倒置汉字条件下, 被试的报告绩效仍然低于噪音掩蔽条件, 但优于正立汉字, 暗示着汉字掩蔽与目标刺激的语义相似性, 对掩蔽效果存在影响。 结论:掩蔽刺激与目标刺激在语义上的相似性, 会对掩蔽效果产生影响, 具有高语义相似性的掩蔽, 能够带来更好的掩蔽效果。
     场景主旨加工的上级水平优势:来自注意瞬脱范式的证据
    李梦琪, 陈志敏, 郑元杰, 任衍具
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 5-5.  
    摘要   ( 195 ) PDF (0KB)( 178 )
     目的:考察场景主旨层级加工的优先性及其对注意资源的需求。 方法:利用注意瞬脱范式, 在相同的T1任务(识别面孔)条件下, 记录被试在四种时间延迟条件下完成T2任务(识别不同层级的场景)的正确率。 结果:与基本水平相比, 上级水平的场景主旨识别正确率更高、瞬脱量更小、瞬脱期更长; 识别不同层级的场景主旨对识别面孔的正确率具有调节作用。 结论:与基本水平相比, 上级水平的场景主旨识别对注意资源的需求量较小, 支持场景主旨加工的上级水平优势观点。
     Valence concept contributes to perception of implicit facial emotion
    Li Shen (申莉), Xiaorong Cheng, Xianfeng Ding, Zhao Fana
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 6-6.  
    摘要   ( 148 ) PDF (0KB)( 99 )
     PURPOSE: The current study aimed to investigate whether valence concept plays a role in the formation of facial valence-perception and/or emotion-perception, and how valence concept affects the formation of a specific emotion (e.g. to distinguish which emotion it is rather than to distinguish its valence). METHODS: E1 adopted a sematic satiation technique (repeated same word for 30 times) to manipulate participants’ availability of valence concept before making a facial approachment judgment. E2 combined semantic satiation with priming technique. Participants repeated (negative, positive or neutral) words before seeing two successive emotional (angry, sad or disgustful) faces. There were three priming conditions, i.e., semantic priming (same emotion with different identity), response priming (same identity with different emotion), perceptual priming (both were same) and baseline (both were different). E2 used an implicit emotion task where participants were required to judge the eye distances between the two faces. E3 used an explicit task by requiring participants to judge whether the emotions of the two faces were same. RESULTS: E1 revealed no main effect of word satiation and no significant interactions, ps>.05 (n=31). The effects of response priming and sematic priming were not significant (ps>.05) in E2. However, the effect of perceptual priming was significant, F (2, 18) =6.97, p=.03. RTs were longer in the negative word repetition than in the neutral word repetition (p=.06) with no such an effect for the positive word repetition (p=.55). The E2 effect disappeared in E3. CONCLUSIONS: Though top-down valence concept is not a requisite for valence perception, it contributes to the formation of specific emotional perception at encoding rather than semantic or response stage. This effect was asymmetrical and observed only with negative (but not positive) concept satiation. Meanwhile, the association between valence concept and emotion perception occurred only in an implicit, but not explicit, facial emotion task.
     共情优势的视觉加工证据
    孙俊才, 刘萍
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 7-7.  
    摘要   ( 395 ) PDF (0KB)( 346 )
     目的:本研究拟从社会认知角度出发, 综合考察了高低共情被试在不同认知资源消耗条件下对不同类型情绪信息的注意偏向及具体成分的时间进程特点。
    方法:采用情绪Stroop范式、点探测范式与眼动追踪技术相结合, 以词语和面孔表情为实验材料。实验一采用情绪Stroop任务, 记录被试的注视时间及注视次数。实验二在实验一的基础上, 采用点探测任务, 记录被试的首次注视达到时间和注视时间、注视次数, 分别作为注意定向和注意维持的指标。
    结果:在实验一中, 所有被试都对负性刺激表现出注意偏向(注视时间更长、注视次数更多), 特别是对悲伤面孔。在实验二中, 所有被试都对情绪刺激的早期注意定向更快(首次注视到达时间更短); 但是, 只有高共情被试对情绪刺激的晚期注意维持更长(注视时间更长、注视次数更多), 特别是对高兴、悲伤面孔。
    结论:本研究表明高共情被试对情绪信息的注意定向-维持模式的加工优势, 仅发生于低认知资源消耗的面孔刺激条件下, 这为共情特质的优化提供了参考。 
     单字命名任务中影响汉字饱和进程的因素:来自眼动的证据
    裴宗雯, 牛盾
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 8-8.  
    摘要   ( 145 ) PDF (0KB)( 87 )
     目的:汉字饱和现象即多次书写或者一段时间持续注视一个熟悉的汉字时, 会在主观上对这个字的真实存在及书写正确性产生怀疑。如果按照矩阵形式整屏呈现多个部首相同的单字, 被试在报告读音时, 某些位置上汉字读音较其他位置更容易被错误报告。为探讨这是由矩阵位置所致(任意汉字在这个位置上都会产生读音提取困难)或汉字本身所致,本研究使用单字命名任务结合眼动追踪技术探究矩阵位置和汉字属性是否影响汉字饱和进程。
    方法:实验为2(汉字类型:普通字/特殊字)×2(矩阵位置:左/右)混合设计, 汉字类型为组内变量, 特殊字是指实验前使用相同实验程序筛选出来的读音错误报告次数较多的汉字; 普通字是指与特殊汉字相比, 会出现读音错误报告但次数较少的汉字。矩阵位置为组间变量。选取50名被试, 使用单字命名任务考察相同部首左右结构汉字的饱和进程。在5×9的汉字矩阵中, 每3个汉字被划为一个兴趣区, 每行第一个兴趣区为左区, 最后一个兴趣区为右区。
    结果:矩阵位置主效应不显著。不同汉字类型在凝视时间上存在显著差异, 特殊字凝视时间显著长于普通字凝视时间(p=0.000), 汉字类型和矩阵位置交互作用显著(p=0.010), 特殊字在矩阵左右区呈现时凝视时间都显著长于普通字; 在兴趣区注视次数上存在显著差异, 特殊字的注视次数显著多于普通字注视次数(p=0.000); 在读音错误个数上存在显著差异(p=0.000), 特殊字的读音错误个数显著多于普通字。
    结论:在以矩阵形式呈现的相同部首左右结构单字命名任务中, 汉字饱和进程显著受汉字类型的影响, 证明汉字本身的固有属性是影响汉字饱和的重要因素。同时, 在凝视时间上矩阵位置和汉字类型交互作用显著, 证明汉字饱和更倾向于部件整合困难, 这种困难有时候可以通过加工策略(组词)来克服。汉字哪些属性影响饱和进程是进一步研究此现象的方向之一。
     多重注意定势的证据:来自空间瞬脱的结果
    戴梦诺, 李艳菊, 杜峰
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 9-9.  
    摘要   ( 144 ) PDF (0KB)( 115 )
    目的:一直以来, 研究者对于人能同时保持几个注意定势不能达成一致。现有研究(Moore & Weissman, 2010)发现, 2个目标颜色都可以捕获注意而产生空间瞬脱, 因此说明人可以同时保持2个注意定势。经典的工作记忆理论认为人的视觉工作记忆容量在4个左右, 本研究试图探讨人是否可以同时保持4个注意定势。
    方法:1、使用空间瞬脱的范式测试4个目标色是否发生注意捕获。在空间瞬脱任务中, 被试需要同时记住4种目标颜色, 在屏幕中央快速闪现的十几个字母中寻找目标色的字母并报告字母身份。在每个试次中, 目标可能是任何一个目标色。在中央区域闪现字母的同时, 周边区域会出现彩色的井号作为干扰刺激(无关色、当前目标色、其它目标色), 一半的干扰刺激早于目标字母出现, 另一半迟于目标字母出现。实验关注各个颜色的干扰刺激是否影响被试对目标的判断。2、使用视觉变化探测范式测试被试的工作记忆容量。在变化探测任务中, 被试需要判断出现两次的4个彩色方块中是否有一个方块的颜色发生了变化。实验共招募了35位被试, 每人都需要依次完成空间瞬脱和变化探测任务。
    结果:在空间瞬脱任务中, 干扰刺激的颜色主效应显著(F=11.076, p<0.001, ηp2=0.246)和干扰刺激出现时间的主效应显著(F=27.036, p<0.001, ηp2=0.443), 两者交互作用显著(F=14.869, p<0.001, ηp2=0.304), 只有当干扰刺激早于目标字母出现时不同颜色干扰刺激之间才有显著差异。相比于无关色干扰刺激, 提前出现的其它目标色干扰刺激发生了注意捕获, 当前目标色干扰刺激没有发生捕获。将无关色干扰刺激条件下的正确率减去目标色干扰刺激条件下的正确率, 得到目标色干扰刺激的捕获量。并且当前目标色的捕获量和被试的工作记忆容量有显著的正相关(r=0.394, p=0.019), 其它目标色的捕获量和工作记忆容量有显著的正相关(r=0.362, p=0.033)、合并的捕获量也和被试的工作记忆容量有显著的正相关(r=0.447, p=0.007)。
    结论:被试可以保持4个注意定势。捕获的程度与被试的工作记忆容量有关。被试保持的多重注意定势的个数可能不少于他们的工作记忆容量。
    Could source amnesia occur in the context of working memory?
    Hui Chen
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 10-10.  
    摘要   ( 81 ) PDF (0KB)( 58 )
     We often remember information without its source (e.g. word or picture format). This phenomenon was termed source amnesia, which has been studied extensively in long-term memory, but rarely in the context of short-term/working memory. It is an open question as to whether source amnesia is always the result of forgetting over a prolonged period of time. This study attempted to address this issue by directly testing the possibility whether source amnesia could happen in the context of working memory by using surprise tests developed in the fields of inattentional blindness, change blindness, and attribute amnesia. Specifically, participants repeatedly judged the congruency between two color representations from one single object (i.e., ink color and identity of a color word) or two distinct objects (i.e., color of a square and identity of a color word), and then were unexpectedly asked to report the source of one color representation. The results consistently showed participants’ inability to report the source of a color representation, even though the color had just been attended and/or encoded into working memory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing source amnesia in a context of working memory with normal young participants, despite it is typically assumed only existing in long-term memory. These counterintuitive findings suggest a cognitive-economy view of memory function, in which source information is only stored when it is expected to be useful.
     The oscillated temporal-expectation model for visual priming
    Muzhi Wang (王牧之), Yan Huang, Huan Luo, Hang Zhang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 11-11.  
    摘要   ( 77 ) PDF (0KB)( 49 )
     PURPOSE: The reaction time (RT) of the visual priming task provides a window into the rich dynamics of brain activities. The task is to report the identity of a visual target that is preceded by a cue. The cue and the target may be congruent or incongruent. The RT is a function of the SOA (the length of the cue-to-target interval) with three regularities: (1) The RT decreases exponentially with the SOA. (2) The congruent RTs are shorter than the incongruent RTs (i.e. positive priming) at shortSOAs, but are longer than the incongruent RTs (i.e. negative priming) at long SOAs. (3) Both the congruent and incongruent RTs change periodically with SOA in the theta-band (~4 Hz) but in the reverse phases. Here we developed the oscillated temporal-expectation model (OTEM) to account for the observed RT-SOA function and tested the model in a new experiment.
    METHODS: OTEM assumes that the human brain has a constantly updated expectation for the onset time and the identity of the target during its waiting for the target. The temporal expectation, which determines the RT via its influence on the motor preparing rate, is based on previous experience and modulated by an attentional gain that oscillates with time. We performed a visual priming experiment to test OTEM, in which SOA and temporal uncertainty—two factors that usually co-vary—were disentangled. RESULTS: We found that the RT of visual priming was influenced by temporal uncertainty as well as by SOA. Temporal uncertainty exerted pronounced effects on the slow trend of the RT-SOA function but more subtle effects on the theta-band oscillation. OTEM could quantitatively predict the effects of both SOA and temporal uncertainty.
    CONCLUSION: OTEM provides a unified explanation for positive and negative priming and connects the oscillation in RT to attentional oscillation.
     The Influence of Working Memory Load of Binding on Selective Attention
    Nailang Yao (姚乃埌), Xiaoyue Pang, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 12-12.  
    摘要   ( 134 ) PDF (0KB)( 74 )
     PURPOSE: Ample studies have documented that working memory (WM) load has a comprehensive influence on selective attention in perception. Moreover, the influence of WM on selective attention is modulated by the type of WM subsystem, by revealing opposite modulation by central executive and visual WM. However, no study so far has examined the influence of WM load of binding on selective attention. Moreover, there are two opposite views as to this issue: On the one hand, an independent episodic buffer is suggested to be in charge of binding with the attention from of central executive, suggesting that binding load will functions as a type of central executive; on the other hand, recent studies revealed that object-based attention plays a key role in both visual WM and binding representation in WM, implying that binding load will serve as a type of visual WM load. To this end, we examined the influence of WM load of binding on selective attention by requiring the participants to memorize two or five bindings in WM.
    METHODS: Critically, a low load perceptual task was interpolated in the maintenance phase of WM. The low load perceptual task contained either a low-priority target or was an response competition task.
    RESULTS: In three experiments, we found that high WM load of binding led to reduced detection of low-priority target (Experiments 1-2), and less interference from the distractor in the response competition task (Experiment 3).
    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WM load of binding is similar to visual WM load, serving as a type of perceptual load and hence competing resources with the perceptual task.
     Teaching visual orientation discrimination through tactile learning
    Ding-Zhi Hu (胡定之), Guo-Zhen Liu, Cong Yu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 13-13.  
    摘要   ( 68 ) PDF (0KB)( 44 )
     PURPOSE: Our double training studies revealed that perceptual learning can generalize to not only new locations and orientations (Xiao et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2010), but also new physical stimuli encoded at different cortical processing stages (Wang et al., 2016). These results suggest that perceptual learning involves concept learning that improves the abstract concept of a trained feature (e.g., the concept of orientation). Here we demonstrate that such a concept can be represented and improved across the sensory modalities. METHODS & RESULTS: In Experiment I, participants first practiced tactile orientation discrimination (Tac_ori) using their index fingers that were stimulated by 3D-printed gratings at 40o or 130o. Although training improved Tac_ori thresholds (44.90%, p = 0.036 < 0.05), it had no effect on visual orientation discrimination (Vis_ori) at the trained orientation (p = 0.40) and untrained orthogonal orientation (p = 0.26). The participants then practiced an irrelevant visual contrast discrimination task (Vis_ctrst) at the trained orientation following a sequential double training procedure. After that, Vis_ori was improved at both trained orientation (27.7%, p = 0.012 < 0.05) and untrained orientation (22.5%, p = 0.025 < 0.05). Further training of Vis_ori failed to produce additional gain significantly (p = 0.093). In Experiment II, Tac_ori and Vis_ctrst were trained in the same sessions in alternating blocks of trials, which improved Vis_ori at both trained (26.20%, p = 0.017 < 0.05) and untrained orientation (21.34%, p = 0.025 < 0.05). Further training of Vis_ori did not improve Vis_ori thresholds significantly either (8.33%, p = 0.069). A control condition found that mere Vis_ctrst training had no impact on Vis_ori thresholds (p = 0.16). Therefore, tactile orientation discrimination learning can transfer completely to visual orientation discrimination with double training. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that stimulus orientation as a concept can be represented and improved across tactile and visual modalities. Tactile training of orientation discrimination thus can teach visual orientation discrimination.
     金钱强化下视知觉学习与人格的关系研究
    Mingxia Zhang (张明霞), Jiangbo Tu, Bo Dong, Chuansheng Chen, Min Bao
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 14-14.  
    摘要   ( 245 ) PDF (0KB)( 188 )
    PURPOSE: Recent research has shown that reinforcement can facilitate visual perceptual learning (VPL), but no study has examined the relations between individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity and VPL. This study tested the hypothesis that when monetary incentive was involved, the personality traits of harm avoidance and reward dependence (HA and RD, two measures of reinforcement sensitivity) would be linked to VPL performance.
    MEHTODS: We trained two groups of subjects with a visual motion direction discrimination task for six days. The experimental group (n=40) received monetary incentive feedback, whereas the control group (n=33) received non-monetary feedback.
    RESULTS: Results shown the score of HA was negatively correlated with VPL for the experimental group (p = 0.015), but not for the control group (p = .74). Further Fisher r-to-z transformation and assessment shown there was a significant difference between the two correlation coefficients (p=.03). RD was not a significant predictor.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that VPL is subject to modulation by a combination of factors such as reinforcement (involving motivation) and personality traits.
     猕猴V1和V2对轮廓线的层级加工受到图形上下文的影响
    Rujia Chen (陈汝佳), Feng Wang, Hualou Liang, Wu Li a
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 15-15.  
    摘要   ( 68 ) PDF (0KB)( 54 )
    PURPOSE: To investigate inter-areal and inter-laminar interactions during contour detection and their context dependency.
    METHODS: Two macaque monkeys were trained to detect visual contours formed by collinear bars when a cluttered background was present or absent. We simultaneously recorded neuronal responses at retinotopically matched locations in V1 and V2 while the monkeys performed the detection task. The recordings were done with a pair of laminar probes with 24 recordings sites spaced 100 µm apart and perpendicular to the cortical surface. We quantified the contour signals in different layers of V1 and V2, dissected the inter-areal directional interactions using Granger causality, and examined the temporal dynamics of laminar interactions in the presence and absence of interfering context.
    RESULTS: When the cluttered background was present, the responses of most V1 and V2 recording sites were significantly enhanced in delayed response components by the global contours centered on their receptive fields. These contour-signaling sites were mainly concentrated in V1 supragranular and upper infragranular layers, and in V2 supragranular and granular layers. These cortical layers were also the main layers showing contour-related interactions during 100-300 ms, when the contour signals rapidly increased. In contrast, when the background was absent, neuronal responses in V1 supragranular and granular layers were suppressed; responses in V2 were enhanced, but the latencies of contour-related signals were markedly shortened. Inter-areal interactions related to contour integration also shifted to early response components before 100 ms.
    CONCLUSIONS: Contour grouping engages inter-areal interplay among specific cortical layers; inter-areal exchange of information takes place within a limited time window; inter-areal and inter-laminar interactions are dependent on stimulus complexity.
     The neural mechanism underlying illusory complex motions
    Junxiang Luo (罗俊翔), Keyan He, Xiaohong Li, Ian Max Andoliana, Jiapeng Yin, Yong Gu, Wei Wanga
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 16-16.  
    摘要   ( 73 ) PDF (0KB)( 41 )
     PURPOSE: The Pinna illusion is a striking example of the perception of complex motion (rotation and radiation) in the absence of physical motion. For example, upon physically approaching or receding from the Pinna-Brelstaff figure, the observer experiences vivid illusory counter rotation of the figure. This visual phenomenon of illusory rotary motion is a well-known example of integration of local cues to form a global percept. Using psychophysical tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of visual cortices, we recently found that the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (illusory rotation) and a real physical rotation control stimulus both predominantly activated subarea MST in hMT+, each with a similar response intensity. However, the detailed neural mechanisms underlying the Pinna illusory rotation as well as radiation remain unknown.
    METHODS: By manipulation of the physical characteristics of the Pinna-Brelstaff figure, we could generate different types of illusory complex motion: rotation, expansion and contraction (radiation). We first test the illusory effect in human and nonhuman primate psychophysically, and then performed single-unit recordings of MST and MT in awake macaques.
    RESULTS: We found that up to two-thirds of MST neurons encode Pinna illusory complex motions, with similar tuning preferences to their corresponding real physical motions. A subset of MT neurons was found to encode the local motion signals with earlier response latency than MST neurons.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that neurons in area MST but not MT respond equivalently and respectively to Pinna illusory and real rotations, expansions and contractions. These findings suggest that the representation of illusory and real complex motion fields in primate MST relies on a similar cascade of neural integrative mechanisms from earlier visual areas to generate a global motion perception.
     Retina stimulation with low-frequency ultrasound in vivo
    Qiuju Jiang (姜秋菊), Huixia Zhao, Guofeng Li, Weibao Qiu, Hairong Zheng
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 17-17.  
    摘要   ( 53 ) PDF (0KB)( 45 )
     PURPOSE: More and more researches are exploring the neuromodulation effect of ultrasound (US) on the central nervous system (e.g. brain and retina) and the peripheral nervous system (such as skin). US stimulation has been regarded as a new noninvasive neurostimulation approach by many researchers. Our previous studies had shown that the temporal response patterns of RGCs could be modulated by US in vitro. In this article, we studied US stimulation to the retina in vivo. This study attempted to use low-frequency (2.25 MHz) focused US to stimulate the rat eyes and investigate the effect on the primary visual cortex.
    METHODS: Experiments were conducted on adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats (250–300 g). A 2.25 MHz focused US transducer (D = 0.75 in., SF = 2.0 in., Olympus, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to stimulate the rat eyes in vivo. Rats were anaesthetized with urethane (5 ml/kg, 20% aqueous solution, intraperitoneally; Sigma-Aldrich, Munich, Germany). Next, the rat was laid prone on an automatic heating pad (69002, RWD Life Science Co.) at 37℃ and with its head gently immobilized using a stereotaxic frame (68028, RWD Life Science Co.). The skin on the head was swabbed with iodine and then a local anesthetic (lidocaine hydrochloride, Lidocaine 0.5%, 1mL) was injected subcutaneously along the incision line. The skull was exposed and trephined in an area (4x4 mm2) overlaying the monocular visual cortex: 6.0 mm posterior to bregma, and 3.0 mm lateral from the midline, the depth of multi-electrode arrays implantation were 300-500µm below the pia surface. US stimulation was modulated in the pulsed mode, which parameters included: pulse repetition frequency (PRF) = 1 kHz, tone burst duration (TBD) = 0.5 ms, sonication duration (SD) = 300 ms, and inter-stimulus interval (ISI) = 3 s. In each experiment, 40 trials (stimulus trains) were delivered, and there were 2-min intervals between each experiment. The neural activities from the primary visual cortex was amplified, filtered and digitized by Cerebus 64-Channel system (Animal Use).
    RESULTS: As shown in Fig. 1a, the low-frequency focused US (2.25 MHz) transducer was used to stimulate the rat left eye and a 4x4 multi-electrode array was used to record neural activities from the right primary visual cortex. Some preliminary experimental results showed that the local field potentials and the single neuron spikes recorded from the primary visual cortex were both changed by US stimulation. Fig. 1b showed the responses of local field potentials that were recorded by 13 electrodes to US stimulation. The average latency of these responses was about 250 ms, which was consistent with the previous study. The peri-stimulus time histogram (PSTH) of a single spiking unit that was sorted by Offline Sorter showed that the neuron responded to US stimulation at the offset Fig. 1c.
    CONCLUSIONS: Such influence on the neural activities in brain demonstrated that the low-frequency focused US was capable of stimulating retinas in vivo, which might become a novel therapy tool for ophthalmic diseases.
     Sub-compartments within orientation columns of primary visual cortex: a proposal for a contour building architecture
    Ming Li Xue-Mei Song, Tao Xu, Anna Wang Roe, Dewen Hu, Chao-Yi Li
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 18-18.  
    摘要   ( 60 ) PDF (0KB)( 43 )
    PURPOSE: In the mammalian visual system, early stages of visual form perception begin with orientation selective neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). In many species (including humans, monkeys, tree shrews, cats, and ferrets), these neurons are organized in beautifully arrayed orientation columns, which shift in orientation preference across V1 and are highlighted by orientation pinwheels. However, to date, the relationship of orientation architecture to the encoding of elemental aspects of visual contours is still unknown.
    METHODS: Using a novel highly accurate method of targeting electrode position, combining with optical image and single-unit recording, we report for the first time the presence of three functionally distinct zones within single orientation domains.
    RESULTS: We found evidence for three concentric sub-regions centered on the orientation-pinwheel. The central-most region contains neurons with small receptive fields and strong suppressive surrounds, while the outermost region contains neurons with larger receptive fields and weak suppressive surrounds.
    CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that these zones subseries computation of distinct aspects of visual contours (linear orientation, local curvature, and contour singularities). The orientation domain thus embodies a three stage visual contour processor in V1.
     An unconventional distribution pattern of retinal ganglion cells in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
    W. Wang, C. Wang, Y. Zhou, R. Wei, Y. Nan, L. Deng, J. Gao, C. Zhang, D. Li, M. Pu (濮鸣亮)
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 19-19.  
    摘要   ( 59 ) PDF (0KB)( 33 )
    PURPOSE:: Characterize the vertical distribution pattern of retinal ganglion cells in the giant panda.?
    Methods: Four eyeballs were immediately collected from deceased adult pandas. Routine immunohistochemical staining techniques were applied to label retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) was used as an RGC marker to selectively label RGCs (custom-made by ProSci Inc, CA) and SMI-32 was used as an Alpha RGC marker. Immunostained RGCs were scanned under confocal microscopy and analyzed with commercial software (Adobe Photoshop and Microsoft Excel).
    RESULTS: As expected, the isodensity map of RGCs in the cat exhibited a typical horizontally positioned visual streak, in contrast, that of the panda showed a vertically oriented isodensity RGCs band. This band crossed the center of AC-like peak density region and extended vertically from the superior to the inferior retina (5.22 ± 0.46 mm, n=3). The averaged width of the band was 2.18 ± 0.32 mm (n=3). SMI-32 positive RGCs were also analyzed, accordingly.
    CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that the giant panda adopted a retinal structure that is essential for better visual performance and survival. These morphological characteristics of RGCs could be important for understanding visual adaptation and evolution of this living fossil.
     Retinal Ganglion Cell Responses to Low-frequency Focused Ultrasound Stimulation
    Huixia Zhao (赵慧霞), Qiuju Jiang, Guofeng Li, Weibao Qiu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 20-20.  
    摘要   ( 48 ) PDF (0KB)( 41 )
     PURPOSE: Acoustic retinal prosthesis has been put forward using high-frequency US with non-invasive and high-resolution advantages. But its application is limited by the difficulties in fabrication, energy consumption and acoustic attenuation. In the present study, low-frequency focused ultrasound stimulation (LFUS) had been demonstrated to activate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rat retinas. The neurophysiological properties of RGC responses to LFUS were also investigated.
    METHODS: A 2.25 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (D=0.75 in., SF=2.0 in.) was used to stimulate the rat retina which was cultured in a multi-electrode array system (MEA2100, MCS, Fig. 1). The acoustic property was evaluated by hydrophone (UMS3, Precision acoustics). Ultrasound (US) stimulation was modulated at pulsed mode. Light stimulation was modulated in the same mode to give an uniform field flashes. The electrophysiological data collected from MEA was detected for neural spikes and sorted by Plexon Offline Sorter. Only channels recording single-cell activities were adopted for subsequent analysis. Peri-stimulus time histograms and raster plots were plotted for each RGC using Spike 2.
    RESULTS: In total, 116 retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from 7 retinas were sorted and classified into four types according to light responses. The firing activity of 114 RGCs were modulated by repeated US stimulation. This suggested that low-frequency focused ultrasound stimulation (LFUS) could activate RGCs. The US responses didn’t correspond to the standard light responses and varied greatly between cell types. Besides, dual-peak responses to US stimulation were observed which were not reported previously. The temporal response properties of RGCs, including latency, firing rate, and response type, could be modulated by changing acoustic intensity.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings might imply a temporal neuromodulation effect of LFUS and provided an important foundation for the development of acoustic retinal prosthesis.
     A Two-view Learning Method on Procedural Texture Classification
    Ying Gao (高颖), Yan Liu, Junyu Dong, Lin Qi
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 21-21.  
    摘要   ( 63 ) PDF (0KB)( 48 )
    PURPOSE: Procedural textures are normally generated from mathematical models and commonly used in computer graphics applications such as games and animations. Classification of procedural texture is very important for selecting proper generation models. Pioneering study on human perception of procedural texture was conducted on perceptual features and semantic attributes. In a psychophysical experiment, Liu et al. presented textures to human observers and asked them to rate textures on twelve perceptual features. Dong et al. further obtained 43 semantic attributes on the same dataset. In this study, we proposed a two-view learning method on procedural textures classification using perceptual features and semantic attributes.
    METHODS: Texture perceptual features such as coarseness, density and direction, represents the subjective perceptions of the observers, can be seen as a special type of abstract information. While texture semantic attributes are more concrete descriptions of texture images given by observers, such as honeycombed, lined and netlike. The perceptual features and binary semantic attributes of 450 textures were selected in this experiment. We use canonical correlation analysis as the basic method of two-view learning to combine the perceptual features and semantic attributes to obtain a single feature vector, which is more discriminative than any of its single feature counterpart. Given a texture, the two properties will be simultaneously considered for texture classification.
    RESULTS: The 450 textures are generated from 23 representative procedural texture generation models. We tested the classification performance with perceptual features and semantic attributes as features respectively. The accuracies of cross validation for the two properties was 60.49% and 67.09% respectively. Then we tested the classification performance with the combined features and the accuracy was 79.01%, which outperformed the 12 perceptual features and 43 semantic attributes by more than 18% and 11% respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Experimental results demonstrated that both perceptual features and semantic attributes are effective properties in human perception, using the two-view learning method to combine the two properties is more effective in procedural textures classification.
     计算机视觉中注视区域对材质识别的影响
    尚小伟, 徐莹, 亓琳, 董军宇
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 22-22.  
    摘要   ( 95 ) PDF (0KB)( 61 )
    目的:材质的感知与识别在视觉科学和计算机视觉领域有初步的研究, 但是与物体识别领域取得的成果相比, 仍有许多尚未解决的问题。本文通过心理物理学实验和计算机视觉方法, 分析眼动数据, 研究视觉关注区域对于计算机识别准确率影响, 进而分析局部图像信息在计算机视觉系统的材质识别中的作用。
    方法:设计心理物理学实验,10名被试观察材质数据集FMD(Flickr Material Database)中的图像(10个类别, 每类50幅图像), 随机显示图像, 每幅图像显示时间为3秒, 间隔1秒。被试判断所观察图像中材质的类别(10AFC), 同时使用眼动仪记录被试观察图像时的眼动数据。根据全部被试的注视区域生成叠加热力图, 从每幅图像中裁剪同等尺寸的包含注视区域和非注视区域的子图像。将原始图像与根据眼动数据裁剪得到的两种子图像用卷积深度神经网络VGG-16和GoogLeNet进行微调, 测试计算机视觉系统的材质分类效果。
    结果:卷积深度神经网络的识别结果与人类视觉系统在材质识别任务中的表现一致:注视区域子图像的识别准确率(69.3%)高于非注视区域子图像的识别准确率(63.1%)。并且两者的识别准确率均低于原图作为输入时的结果 (78.7%)。
    结论:对于计算机视觉系统和人类的视觉系统来说, 注视区域的图像相较于非注视区域能提供更多材质感知的信息。材质的感知与识别不仅仅依赖于局部图像信息, 也需要使用图像的全局信息, 这对设计材质识别的计算机视觉系统提供了实验依据。
     内在参照系对角度知觉的影响
    许哲鑫, 陈妍, 蒯曙光
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 23-23.  
    摘要   ( 139 ) PDF (0KB)( 79 )
    目的:角度作为物体重要特征, 是人类形状知觉的重要组成部分。对于角度知觉加工过程一直存在线段知觉整合理论和整体特征匹配理论之间的争论。本研究提出一个关于角度知觉的层级计算模型, 用来解释前人理论之间的冲突。
    方法:我们根据之前的实验数据, 建立包含三个加工阶段的角度知觉层级模型。在第一个阶段中, 初级视觉皮层解码角度的两条边的朝向信息, 随后将两条边的朝向相减, 得到角度大小的初步估计; 在第二个阶段中, 高级视觉皮层将内在正交参照系进行坐标转换, 与角度的两边中最靠近水平或竖直方向的一条边对齐; 在第三个阶段中, 高级视觉皮层在内在参照系的帮助下对角度大小进行更加精确的估计。
    结果:基于内在参照系的角度知觉层级模型能够预测人对不同朝向的角度大小判断的阈限。这一模型为角度知觉加工提供了新的解释, 解决了线段知觉整合理论和整体特征匹配理论之间的冲突。
    结论:人类视觉系统能够利用水平和垂直的内在参照系计算角度的两条边之间的差别, 形成了对角度的整体知觉。
     短波长敏感视锥细胞适应水平与颜色对比度检测阈值的相关性
    施霖
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 24-24.  
    摘要   ( 68 ) PDF (0KB)( 40 )
     目的:探索颜色对比度检测阈值在不同短波长敏感视锥细胞适应水平上的变化规律。
    方法:在Smith和Pokorny1996年提出的视锥细胞色度空间中, 在不同的短波长敏感视锥细胞适应水平上, 分别沿着横坐标(L/LM)和纵坐标(S/LM)的正、负方向以及正、负流明对比度方向, 测量单脉冲颜色对比度检测阈值(chromatic contrast detection thresholds)。视觉刺激的颜色对比度强度遵循二维高斯分布函数变化, 其背景色度坐标分别从以下坐标点S/LM: 0.8、0.9、1、2、3和L/LM: 0.3、 0.335、0.37进行采样, 共计15个点。其峰值位置对应的色度坐标分别从每个背景坐标点沿着以下六个方向变化:+S/LM、-S/LM、+L/LM、-L/LM、+LM、-LM。除了流明对比度情形+LM和-LM以外, 其它情况下背景和峰值位置的流明值相同。视觉刺激呈现时间为25毫秒(160Hz刷新频率条件下的连续4帧), 开始声音提示以后, 刺激随机显示在中心十字旁的四个象限之一, 刺激中心距离十字中心2度视角, 刺激直径2度视角, 被试看到刺激显示位置后按下游戏手柄上的对应按钮, 实验软件给出不同音调的正确或错误的反馈提示。每个配置条件包括30次判断, 由两下一上阶梯方法(2d1u staircase)控制对比度强度变化, 初始值位于预先测量的阈值附近, 步长合适, 每个配置条件独立重复5次。总共14个被试, 男女各半, 年龄20-26岁, 色觉正常。实验所用的视觉刺激呈现系统对本色度空间中CRT显示器色域范围内坐标点的显示误差(1-度量值/期望值)低于5%, 160Hz、10位颜色深度条件下单帧显示正常, 无缺帧。
    结果:短波长敏感视锥细胞适应水平与颜色检测阈值间的相关关系在三个方向:S/LM、L/LM、LM上呈现出不同的相关趋势。
    结论:短波长敏感视锥细胞适应水平与颜色对比度检测敏感性相关。
     干眼症与焦虑及抑郁水平相关性研究
    刘 杰, 尹东芳, 张 莉, 李 娜, 刘慧杰, 薛玉花
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 25-25.  
    摘要   ( 198 ) PDF (0KB)( 160 )
     目的:探讨干眼症与焦虑及抑郁水平的相关性。方法:选择干眼症206例为观察组, 另选择眼科门诊查体健康成人206例为对照组, 采用综合医院焦虑抑郁量表, 对其焦虑及抑郁水平进行测评, 并分析其相关性。结果: 本次调查观察组检出抑郁阳性68例, 阳性率33.0%。观察组焦虑、抑郁分值非常显显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。观察组泪河面积、泪液分泌试验及泪膜破裂时间均显著或非常显著低(少)于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01)。Pearson相关分析结果显示, 干眼症与焦虑、抑郁水平显著相关(P<0.05)。结论:干眼症与焦虑、抑郁水平显著相关, 在治疗干眼症的同时, 应进行有针对性地心理干预。
     基于Web浏览器的随机点实验技术研究
    高正国, 孙天文, 梁振
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 26-26.  
    摘要   ( 86 ) PDF (0KB)( 84 )
     目的:随着在线实验越来越受欢迎, 视觉实验也逐渐加入在线实验的行列。在线视觉实验是将视觉实验所需要的视觉刺激通过网页呈现到被试面前。这项工作已经有了很好的开始, 例如:jsPsych库的设计。但此库并不能很好的支持有关随机点实验的研究。为了弥补此不足, 本文对此做了深入的研究。 方法:采用JavaScript、HTML5 canvas对随机点和分布区域进行制作, 分别使用setInterval和requestAnimationFrame(以下简称RAF)制作动画, 并分析其流畅性。 结果:通过google Timeline工具对setInterval和RAF的动画效果进行比较, 发现用setInterval制作的动画帧数明显低于用RAF制作的动画。RAF的动画效果更加流畅。 结论:有关随机点的视觉实验可以很好的通过在线实验的平台来实现, 而且与离线实验相比其有不受实验场地约束和被试易选取等优势。并且极大的降低了实验成本和提高了实验效率。实验的设计中采用RAF制作动画能够更好的实现随机点实验。
     Synchronized stimuli are perceived to be shorter
    Bo-Rong Lin (林博荣), Chang-Bing Huang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 27-27.  
    摘要   ( 46 ) PDF (0KB)( 38 )
     PURPOSE: Processing and telling time, or time perception, is vital for the survival of any organism. A variety of spatial cues have been found to be effective in modulating observers’ time perception. Here, we investigated the effect of synchronization, a form of temporal cue, on the perceived duration of visual stimuli in which spatial cues were largely controlled.
    METHODS AND RESULTS: Stimuli were 100 non-overlapping Gabor patches moving in one of two directions that orthogonal to their orientations. Synchronization of Gabor patches were defined by entropy and correlation; entropy refers to the probability of moving direction change and correlation refers to the likelihood that all Gabor elements reverse their motion directions simultaneously. In Experiment 1, nineteen observers performed a duration discrimination task that included four pairs of stimuli that differed in entropy and correlation and found that stimuli with high synchronization were perceived significantly shorter (by ~50ms) than random but otherwise identical stimuli of the same duration. This contraction effect couldn’t be explained by change in perceived speed (Experiment 2). Varying the display duration from 350 to 1050ms didn’t significantly affect the magnitude of perceived contraction (Experiment 3). Furthermore, we found no significant difference in both appearance and disappearance detection times to stimuli (Experiment 4), ruling out the possibility of different detection time with stimuli of different synchronization factors.
    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that synchronization can also effectively modulate time perception, possibly acting via slowing down the pacemaker, an essential part of the internal clock.
     Mutual transfer between visual and auditory temporal interval learning supports a central clock in temporal processing
    Shu-Chen Guan (官漱尘), Ying-Zi Xiong, Cong Yu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 28-28.  
    摘要   ( 65 ) PDF (0KB)( 47 )
    Temporal perceptual learning shows specificity to the visual or auditory modality, or asymmetric partial transfer from auditory to visual, but not vice versa. These findings are interpreted as evidence for distributed, rather than central, temporal processing (Ivry & Schlerf, 2008). For visual perceptual learning, location and orientation specificity can be eliminated with double training, indicating that learning specificity may not be used to infer the mechanisms of perceptual learning (e.g., Xiao et al., 2008). Here we investigated whether double training can eliminate the modality specificity in temporal learning.
    We first replicated asymmetric partial transfer results between auditory and visual learning of a temporal-interval discrimination (TID) task with standard training. The standard interval was marked by a pair of auditory beeps or visual gratings at 100-ms. The subjects practiced either the auditory or the visual TID task for 5 sessions. Visual TID learning had no impact on auditory TID performance (p=0.65), while auditory TID learning improved visual TID performance (p=0.005), although not as much as direction visual TID learning (p=0.028). However, complete learning transfer was evident with double-training. When visual TID learning was paired with an auditory frequency discrimination task at the same 100-ms interval, auditory TID performance was improved similarly to direct auditory training (p=0.051), indicating complete cross-modal learning transfer. Similarly, when auditory TID learning was paired with a visual contrast discrimination task at the same 100-ms interval, visual TID performance was improved equally as direct visual training (p=0.95), again indicating complete cross-modal learning transfer. In both cases we found no significant impact of practicing auditory frequency discrimination or visual contrast discrimination alone on TID performance.
    Our results suggest mutual and nearly complete learning transfer of TID learning between visual and auditory modalities, which are consistent with a central temporal processing mechanism shared by different modalities.
     材质图像识别与眼动分析
    徐莹, 尚小伟, 亓琳, 董军宇
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 29-29.  
    摘要   ( 121 ) PDF (0KB)( 66 )
     目的:材质的感知与识别是视觉感知领域的组成部分, 对研究人类视觉和计算机视觉系统具有重要意义。本文通过心理物理学实验, 对材质图像的注视区域进行基于人类视觉系统的材质识别的研究。 方法:实验一, 在FMD(Flickr Material Database)、OpenSurfaces以及人工收集的材质图像中, 选取织物、玻璃、皮革、金属、纸、塑料、石头、水、木头, 共9类、每类12幅图像作为10名被试的观察图像。其中, 所选图像去除了物体边缘信息, 减少被试观察材质时的影响。每幅图像显示时间为4秒, 间隔1秒。同时用眼动仪记录实验过程中的眼动数据。被试根据观察到的图像判断材质的类别。根据相应的热力图, 对注视区域进行进一步分析。实验二, 只保留实验一中注视区域的子图像, 由未参与实验一的另外12名被试针对子图像进行材质分类任务。 结果:注视区域子图像的平均识别准确率(82.5%)低于原图像的平均识别准确率(91.1%)。针对具体材质类别, 金属、水的注视区域图像与原图像的识别准确率差别很小(<2%); 玻璃、塑料的实验结果差别较大(>20%)。 结论:视觉系统通过单幅图像进行材质分类时, 原图像提供的信息量大于注视区域子图像, 因此仅观察注视区域图像的识别准确率较低。但对于某些材质, 注视区域子图像包含了材质识别所需的信息, 仅观察注视区域图像与观察原图像的识别效果相当。相反, 对于某些材质的识别, 注视区域子图像丢失了材质识别所需的信息, 仅观察注视区域图像与原图像的识别效果相差较大。
     分离光流信息与形状信息对个体朝向目标行进的影响
    陈静, 孙伟, 翟广涛, 李黎
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 30-30.  
    摘要   ( 65 ) PDF (0KB)( 60 )
     目的:已有的研究表明, 个体主要依赖光流和目标参照方向这两种视觉信息来控制自身朝向特定目标的行进。然而, 以往的研究所使用的测试场景不仅包含光流信息, 还提供形状信息。由于特定的形状信息也可以影响人们对自身运动的感知和控制, 因此早期的研究所观察到的光流信息对朝向目标行进的影响可能包含了光流和形状信息的共同作用。本研究的目的在于分离光流与形状信息对个体控制自身运动朝向目标行进的影响。
    方法:本研究的实验任务为使用虚拟现实技术的行走任务:10名被试带着头盔式显示器(Oculus Rift DK2, 视野94°x106°)在虚拟场景中朝着远处的目标以正常步速行进。目标分别呈现于如下四种场景中:(1)黑色的空旷空间, 此场景既不包含光流信息也不包含形状信息; (2)无纹理的房间, 此场景只包含一种特定的形状信息, 即地板、天花板和墙壁相交汇所形成的交汇线信息; (3)布满纹理的地面, 此场景只提供光流信息; (4)布满纹理的房间, 此场景既包含光流信息又包含交汇线信息。被试在虚拟场景中由光流信息所指示的行走速度与其实际的行走速度之间的比率(光流增益)分别0.5、1和4。为匹配个体在不同光流增益条件下行走的实际距离, 目标在虚拟场景中与被试的距离分别为4、8和32米。此外, 被试在虚拟场景中的行走方向向左或向右偏离其实际的行走方向20°。
    结果:光流信息和形状信息共同影响被试在虚拟场景中朝向目标的行进。相比于没有光流信息的场景, 被试在具有光流信息的场景中的行走路线更直, 行走方向与目标之间的偏差也最小。形状信息在距离被试较近时才起作用。当光流与形状信息并存时, 形状信息的影响会被削弱。光流增益越大, 光流信息就越强, 被试的行走路线就越早变直, 行走方向与目标间的偏差也越早变小。
    结论:形状信息确实影响着个体朝向目标的行进, 但这种影响在离被试较近时才显现出来。而光流信息则是一种较为强力的信息, 它的出现能够减弱形状信息的影响, 并且光流信息越强, 其对于朝向目标行进的影响介入就越早。
     网络成瘾级别对大学生注意网络功能的影响
    张小荣, 张潮, 闫捷, 武朵朵, 秦晓斐, 韩娟
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 31-31.  
    摘要   ( 596 ) PDF (0KB)( 492 )
    本实验的目的是研究不同级别的网络成瘾对大学生的注意网络功能的影响。采用ANT实验范式, 设计4(暗示类型:空间提示、双边提示、中间提示、无提示)*3(靶子状态:一致、不一致、单个)的被试内实验。方法:选取32名大学生, 先采用YOUNG的网络成瘾量表将被试分成网络成瘾低度组和中度两组, 再结合ANT测验, 从注意网络的警觉、定向和执行控制三种功能来检测不同网瘾级别的大学生的注意网络功能。结果显示:(1)低度网瘾组大学生的平均反应时为573.14ms, 正确率为98.3。中度网瘾组大学生的平均反应时为643.46ms, 正确率为94.8。(2)重复度量方差分析的结果显示:在低度网瘾组中, 暗示类型和靶子状态对反应时的主效应都是显著的(F暗示类型(3, 30)=22.452, P=0.000; F靶子状态(2, 30)=10.603, P=0.000), 暗示类型和靶子状态对错误率的主效应显著(F暗示类型(3, 30)=10.257, P=0.000; F靶子状态(2, 30)=47.100, P=0.000); 中度网瘾组, 靶子状态对反应时的主效应显著(F(2, 30)=35.992, P=0.000), 暗示类型对反应时的主效应不显著(F(3, 30)=0.897, P=0.450)。暗示类型和靶子状态对错误率的主效应都显著(F暗示类型(3, 30)=13.522, P=0.000; F靶子状态(2, 30)=16.097, P=0.000)。(3)配对样本T检验结果显示:低度警觉-中度警觉组, t=4.610,p=0.000, 中度网瘾组大学生警觉功能效率显著降低; 低度执行控制-中度执行控制组, t=-1.147, p=0.026, 中度网瘾组大学生注意的执行控制功能的效应显著增加; 低度定向组-中度定向组, t=-1.852,p=0.084,低度网瘾组和中度网瘾组大学生的定向功能效应不存在差异。(4)ANT各指标与网瘾级别的Pearson相关检验显示:网瘾级别和注意的警觉作用效应呈现负性相关(r=-0.643,p=0.000), 即:网瘾级别越高, 注意的警觉作用越低; 网瘾级别和执行控制功能的效应呈现正性相关(r=0.536, p=0.041), 即:网瘾级别越是低, 注意执行控制功能的效应越低; 网瘾级别同注意的定向功能无显著的相关(r=0.322,p=0.072)。结论:网络成瘾被试的注意网络中警觉功能和执行控制功能存在异常, 定向功能则相对比较稳定。
     Self association facilitates attentional inhibition in human visual search
    Yangzhuo Li, Haoyue Qian, Tianyi Hu, Xiangping Gao
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 32-32.  
    摘要   ( 82 ) PDF (0KB)( 68 )
     PURPOSE: Previous research on attentional priority of self-associated stimuli mostly focused on the advantage in attentional attraction. The characteristics of self-associated stimuli in attentional inhibition remained unclear. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether self-associated information can facilitate inhibition compared with other information in human visual search.
    METHODS: Firstly participants completed an associative-learning task to associate color with label (e.g., green-self, blue-stranger). After that, they would finish a WM-guided visual search task. In this task, they were presented with several items to identify an unique target among the items. Participants were noted a specific color (e.g., red) in advance that need to be recalled and the items with the informed color could be excluded as distracters in the search display. This resulted in three conditions that the informed distracter color was either self-associated, stranger-associated, or neutral (no established association).
    RESULTS: The response times of the search task were significantly shorter when the informed distracter color was self-associated (i.e., green) compared with when the informed distracter color was stranger-associated (i.e., blue) or neutral (i.e., red). There was no significant difference in search time between stranger-associated color and neural color condition. The results suggested that when the distracters link to self, participants could inhibit the distracters rapidly and search faster.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study provided an evidence that the active inhibition of a self-associated stimulus improves visual search performance. This study also furthered our understanding about attentional priority of self-associated stimuli and extended the self attention network (SAN) model.
     社会性注意的视觉适应:社会与非社会线索的知觉对社会注意效应的不同影响
    纪皓月, 蒋毅, 王莉
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 33-33.  
    摘要   ( 270 ) PDF (0KB)( 175 )
     目的:社会性注意对人类的社会交往甚至是生存发展都有着至关重要的作用。从进化的角度来看, 社会线索相比非社会线索所诱发的注意效应而言应具有特殊性。然而迄今为止研究者通过各种行为和脑神经成像实验尚未得到一致的结论。本研究旨在借助视觉适应(visual adaptation)范式来探讨社会性注意在认知神经机制方面的特异性。
    方法:本研究分为三个实验。每个实验都先测量不具有预测性的生物运动行走方向线索诱发被试注意效应的基线水平。具体而言,采用中央线索范式的变式, 在屏幕中央先呈现向某一方向行走的生物运动刺激, 间隔很短的时间后在屏幕的左侧或右侧呈现一个靶刺激, 要求被试对靶刺激的空间位置进行快速判断。随后借助视觉适应手段, 分别用具有某一方向性的生物运动、眼睛注视和箭头刺激对被试进行一段时间的适应, 观察适应后生物运动行走方向所诱发注意效应的变化。如果几类线索诱发的注意效应涉及相同的神经机制, 那么人对某一类线索的适应将会影响其他线索诱发的注意效应, 反之则不会有影响。
    结果:本实验中采用的生物运动行走方向线索, 即使在明确告知被试其对靶刺激出现的空间位置不具有预测性的情况下, 仍然可以诱发被试显著的反射性注意定向, 该结果与前人的发现一致。当被试对采用向某一方向行走的生物运动刺激或带有某一注视方向的人脸图片进行视觉适应后, 生物运动行走方向所诱发的注意效应会发生改变, 表现在适应方向上的注意效应消失, 而非适应方向上的注意效应仍然存在。然而, 长时间适应指向某一方向的箭头线索不会影响生物运动行走方向所诱发的注意效应。
    结论:本研究表明不同种类的社会线索诱发的注意效应具有共同的认知神经机制, 而社会线索和非社会线索诱发的注意效应则具有不同的认知神经机制。这些发现支持社会性注意具有特异性的观点, 并为人类大脑中存在一个专门的“社会性注意检测器”(social attention detector)提供证据。
     RCS大鼠变性过程中内层视网膜呈活跃状态
    任意明, 翁传煌, 赵从健, 阴正勤
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 34-34.  
    摘要   ( 37 ) PDF (0KB)( 53 )
     目的:随着RCS大鼠视网膜变性进展, 外层感光细胞逐渐凋亡, 视网膜节细胞(RGCs)接受的自发传入和向下游的自发传出发生何种改变?可能的机制是什么?
    方法:采用全细胞膜片钳记录暗光下RGCs自发EPSC、IPSC和动作电位(sAP), 对比RCS变性大鼠和control鼠的P30、P45、P60、P90各时间段, 重点观察缝隙连接阻滞剂MFA和mGluR6激动剂L-AP4的作用。
    结果:1)P30至P90, RCS变性鼠的RGCs树突野维持相对稳定, 静息电位相对稳定, 且均维持产生动作电位的能力; 2)从P30到P90, RCS变性鼠的RGCs出现PSC振荡的现象逐渐明显, P90时为70%; 无PSC振荡的变性鼠和Control鼠, 加药L-AP4 后90%RGCs出现PSC振荡; 3)P30和P45时, RCS鼠部分类型RGCs的sEPSC幅值频率乘积和sAP频率较Control鼠高; 4)P45, MFA处理前后RCS鼠和Control鼠的sEPSC的下降百分比分别为88%和3%; P90, RCS鼠的PSC振荡可被MFA消除。
    结论:RCS视网膜变性过程中, 感光细胞逐渐凋亡, 而内层电活动呈活跃状态; 变性早期表现为RGCs的高sEPSC, 相应的呈现高sAP频率, 与缝隙连接的增效作用有关; 变性晚期呈现为PSC振荡, 与ON型双极细胞去传入有关, 其传递由缝隙连接介导。
     简单动作对后续视觉搜索任务的影响
    孙沛, 王非, 孙霁, 王紫萱, 林云
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 35-35.  
    摘要   ( 140 ) PDF (0KB)( 115 )
     目的:人与周围环境时刻进行着的互动, 一般情况下总是知觉在先、动作随后。但是许多研究发现后续的动作也会影响当前知觉状态, 甚至一个简单的、与后续任务无关的动作, 也会对随后的知觉产生显著的影响, 即所谓的动作效应。本研究尝试探讨这种影响是否可以存在于不同的反应通道。
    方法:在实验中, 首先要求受试对一个特定的视觉刺激(例如, 红色方块)做出一个简单动作反应(例如, 按键)。随后要求受试完成一项视觉搜索任务, 即在6条垂直的细线中找到1条发生倾斜的细线, 受试需要用手指按键或眼动进行报告。在搜索任务中, 依据斜线和先前视觉刺激的位置关系, 视觉刺激可以作为一个有效或无效的线索。
    结果:在位置有效的情况下, 视觉搜索在受试做出动作的情况下出现加速现象, 同时这种加速效应在手动和眼动两种条件下都可以被观察到。
    结论:上述结果表明动作效应可能发生于更高的认知层面, 而不是一种简单的刺激动作联结。
     Haze illusion in synergy with perceptual transparency at X-junctions
    Cheng Li, Danyang Liu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 36-36.  
    摘要   ( 63 ) PDF (0KB)( 36 )
     PURPOSE: In middle-level visual mechanism, the important role of X-junction as one typical visual structure has been discussed in the haze illusion (Adelson, 2000) and typical perceptual transparency studies (Kitaoka, 2005; Koenderink, 2010) respectively. Under the combined effects of X-junctions, we find that there exists typical transparency perception in the haze illusion, but how the two lightness perception phenomena affect each other at the perceived level is still lack of empirical research.
    METHODS: Subject: We build the visual experiments in a dark room with a LCD display to avoid the ambient light falling on the display screen. Five subjects all of normal vision participated: two experimenters and three volunteers naive to the experimental task. Procedure: In the typical constructed haze illusion with a changing additive factor, observers were firstly asked to judge the apparent haze state of the central regions from Hazy, Clear, and Paint. Then to determine whether the same region in the larger context with surrounding inducing X-junctions gave rise to perceptual transparency. The determination of apparent haze state with the perceptual transparency state forms the matching pair set.
    RESULTS: The matching data shows, under the central and inducing X-junctions’ effects, the perceived state of evaluated regions not only changes from apparent clear to haze but also presents perceptual transparency in the process of additive factor changing. The synergy of both visual phenomena varies from different inducing X-junctions surround: non-reversing X-junctions strengthen effects both of the haze illusion and the transparency perception, single-reversing ones help to affect the haze illusion and support regional transparency depending on the depth-order of layers, while double-reversing ones show no significant effects on both lightness perception phenomena. At the same time, the joint-factor representation map for haze illusion suggests the corresponding perceptual transparency region.
    CONCLUSIONS: The haze illusion in synergy with perceptual transparency is more complex than the single X-junction-based transparency perception analyses. It is found that the haze illusion is accompanied by the perceptual transparency which acts on certain effect on the formation and transformation of apparent haze. As the key configuration of perceptual organization, X-junctions play an important role in linking both lightness perception phenomena with mutual influence and distinction between each other.
     基于心理旋转范式探讨视觉表象的个体差异
    叶晓燕, 张得龙, 倪冰, 董霁月, 蔡红杰
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 37-37.  
    摘要   ( 182 ) PDF (0KB)( 174 )
    背景和目的:心理旋转是当前表象研究的经典实验范式。借助该范式, 研究者发现被试判断两个三维手柄形图形是否匹配所需的时间随着两个图形之间的角度差异(在纸平面或在深度平面)的增大而线性递增; 或者是被试判断字母或数字的正反情况所用的时间与这些字母或数字和直立位置的角度差的增大而递增。心理旋转的研究结果有力地支持将表象看作一种独立的心理表征的观点。本研究主要运用字母的心理旋转范式探讨视觉表象产生(generate)、整合(compose)、觉察(inspect)和操作(rotate)能力的个体差异, 以及进一步借助脑网络分析技术揭示视觉表象强度个体差异的神经基础。
    方法:我们使用正反字母”R”作为实验刺激。字母”R”的角度有4种条件:0°, 60°, 120°和180°。具体的实验流程:在实验之前要求被试记忆正反”R”的所有条件; 然后给被试呈现一张正”R”的大致轮廓(2000ms); 之后呈现不同角度的正”R”或反”R”作为探测刺激, 要求被试尽可能快和准确的判断探测刺激是正R还是反R。
    结果:(1)群组水平上被试判断字母的正反所用的时间随着角度的增加而增加; (2)个体水平上发现并不是所有被试的反应时都随角度增加而增加; (3)根据反应时把被试分成快慢两组, 并用这两组fMRI数据做进一步的脑网络分析, 发现反应快组的被试具有更高的“小世界”属性, 以及最短路径长度更短。
    结论:本研究表明心理旋转反应时快慢的差异可能代表被试表象能力的差异, 脑网络分析的结果表明视觉表象能力强的被试具有更快的信息转换速度, 然而反应时与旋转角度之间的关系存在明显的个体差异, 其背后是否涉及不同类型表征方式(非图画式表征), 仍需进一步探讨。
     The Role of Parieto-Occipital Junction in the Interaction between Dorsal and Ventral Streams in Disparity-Defined Near and Far Space Processing
    Wang Aijun, Li You, Zhang Ming, Chen Qi
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 38-38.  
    摘要   ( 43 ) PDF (0KB)( 38 )
     PURPOSE: Using functional MRI and a virtual three-dimensional paradigm, we aimed at examining whether the parieto-occipital junction (POJ) acts as an interface for the integration and processing of information between the dorsal and ventral streams in the near and far space processing.
    METHODS: Each participant completed two runs: a run for ‘match’ stimuli (visual angles of stimuli were matched in the near and far spaces, and a run for ‘natural’ stimuli (visual angles of stimuli were same in the near and far spaces. For each of ‘match’ and ‘natural’ runs, participants were asked to perform three types of tasks on an identical stimulus set: allocentric (ALLO) task, egocentric (EGO) task and high-level baseline (HLB) task. Therefore, the experimental design was a two (stimulus size: ‘match’ vs. ‘natural’) by two (spatial domains: Near vs. Far) by three (tasks: ALLO, EGO, and HLB) blocked design. Virtual reality three-dimensional near and far space was defined by manipulating binocular disparity, with -68.76 arcmin crossed disparity for near space and +68.76 arcmin uncrossed disparity for near space.
    RESULTS: The POJ and bilateral superior occipital gyrus (SOG) showed relative increased activity when responded to targets presented in the near space than in the far space, which was independent of the retinotopic and perceived sizes of target. Furthermore, the POJ showed the enhanced functional connectivity with both the dorsal and ventral streams during the far space processing irrespective of target sizes. In contrast, the bilateral SOG showed the enhanced functional connectivity only with the ventral stream if retinotopic sizes of targets in the near and far spaces were matched.
    CONCLUSIONS: The POJ acts as a neural interface between the dorsal and ventral streams in disparity-defined near space and far space processing.
     外源性注意与视觉意识的关系
    陈一凡, 于洋澜, 刘莹
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 39-39.  
    摘要   ( 159 ) PDF (0KB)( 119 )
     目的:众多意识理论都强调注意在意识中的重要性, 注意选择性地加强相关刺激的神经反应, 因此注意带来的知觉放大能够对视觉意识有促进作用。这项观点受到了越来越多的实证证据的挑战, 行为上, 有证据表明注意能够调节潜意识过程, 神经层面上, 注意和意识可能对因于彼此独立的神经反应。然而注意是一个多面的现象, 不同类型注意和意识的关系可能并不完全相同。先前的研究关注主要是内源性注意, 在几项内外源注意的比较研究中发现, 内源注意相比于外源注意与意识有更加紧密的联系。尽管内源注意和意识有这么紧密地联系, 是否在一定的情境下外源注意和意识仍旧有相互独立的证据。
    方法:为了探明上述问题, 在本研究中, 物理特征相同的刺激仅在一半的试次中可见, 另外通过一个刺激线索与目标的一致性操纵注意, 刺激线索的呈现时间为50毫秒, 一致试次所占的比例为50%, 通过这一范式来探索外源注意与意识的关系。
    结果:研究的结果显示出, 意识相关的脑活动在时间上跨度比较广, 线索后0-50ms, 180-200ms和750-800ms都发现了独立于一致性的意识相关活动; 一致性相关脑活动体现在750-80ms的时间窗内。因此, 结果揭示出外源性注意和视觉意识对应于不同的, 并且相对独立的脑机制。
    结论:一定的情境下外源注意和意识仍旧是相互独立的不同的过程。
     面相学中脸型与对应性格的关系
    开治中
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 40-40.  
    摘要   ( 643 ) PDF (0KB)( 406 )
     目的: 面相学在中国有近3000年的发展历史, 其认为通过看面相可以判断人的性格, 然而未有科学研究对其验证。本文通过实验探寻面相学中脸型与对应的性格之间关系, 以及脸型对人通过视觉认知评判性格的影响。
    方法:按照面相学中八种脸型, 由10名受训实验助理从3816张证件照中按指定程序筛选出的64张典型脸并施测获得这64人对应的实测16项性格特质(16PF)分数。再另外随机抽取8张证件照, 通过图像处理技术将每张照片中人脸修改成为8种脸型(五官不变, 脸型是唯一变量), 获得64张人工脸。由949名大学生被试在实验室中使用e-prime2.0程序按照《16项性格特质评分表》对这128张脸通过视觉认知进行性格评价。通过SPSS统计分析不同脸型之间的视觉评价性格特质分数和实测性格特质(16PF)分数。
    结果:总体上, 8种典型脸的16PF实测分数都没有出现异于其他所有脸型的典型特征(方差分析组间差异都不显著)。通过LSD两两比较法, 某些脸型还是在某些性格特质上与其他某些脸型差异显著(如心型脸M=2.625*在Q2特质上显著低于菱形脸M=4.375*, 而心型脸M=7.00*在A特质上显著高于椭圆形脸M=5.25*)。与之对应, 人们对8种脸型的视觉评价分数则有多种性格特质存在显著差异(如心型脸M=4.01**在A特质上显著低于其他各种脸型, 再如椭圆形脸M=6.35**则在B特质上显著高于其他各种脸型)。对比每种脸型的实测性格特质与视觉评估性格特质, 都出现了多种性格特质上的显著差异(如菱形脸在聪慧性t=-2.847**、怀疑性t=2.256*、自律性t=-2.182*上, 人们的视觉判断和实测结果大不相同)。
    结论:传统的面相学中脸型推理性格的理论并没有能得到本研究结果的支持, 所以并不可靠。而人们受到固有经验影响(如国字脸显得正直), 对脸型形成特有的社会认知, 从而影响对人的性格的判断。尽管不一定符合此人实际性格特质, 但脸型的确影响了多数人对于此人性格的看法。在这个看脸的时代, 如果能应用研究发现, 根据场合和对方喜好, 有针对性地化一个讨喜的脸型和妆容, 能够更快建立好感与信任。
     关于原发性青光眼合并高度近视者视网膜旁中央区对比敏感度的研究
    章婷, 张玉秋, 孙兴怀
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 41-41.  
    摘要   ( 52 ) PDF (0KB)( 38 )
     目的:原发性青光眼是以视网膜神经节细胞变性坏死为特征的一组眼病, 临床上依照视神经结构损伤和视功能降低一致而确诊。本研究通过高分辨光学相干断层扫描(OCT)技术获得原发性青光眼合并高度近视者(POAG-HM)视网膜旁中央4°内的神经节细胞内丛状层(GCIPL)厚度, 观察厚度下降的损伤区和厚度正常的上下、左右对照区内的对比敏感度。
    方法:本研究共有12名POAG-HM病人、6名单纯性高度近视者和12名正常被试参与实验。实验中, 特定于每个被试的高、中、低频率的Gabor图形分别呈现在损伤区和两个对照区, 被试进行Gabor图形的朝向辨别任务获得不同频率的对比度阈值, 并计算出相应的敏感度值。
    结果:POAG-HM病人损伤区内高、中、低频率的平均对比敏感度分别为2.62 ± 0.36%, 6.06 ± 0.49%和6.04 ± 0.78%, 均显著低于正常组的4.61 ± 1.16%(P < 0.05), 13.13 ± 1.67%(P < 0.01)和13.52 ± 1.38%(P < 0.001); 两个对照区内各个频率的对比敏感度也低于正常被试组, 但不显著。POAG-HM病人损伤区内中、低频率的对比敏感度显著低于自身对照区内的对比敏感度(上下区P MF < 0.05、P LF < 0.05, 左右区P MF < 0.001、P LF < 0.01); 而高频的对比敏感度则均无差别(上下区P = 0.788, 左右区P = 0.198); 正常被试组三个区域之间对比敏感度也无差别。单纯性高度近视者三个区域内各个频率的对比敏感度结果与正常被试组表现一致。经Pearson相关分析, 中、低频率的对比敏感度与GCIPL厚度存在弱的相关性(Pearson系数分别为中频0.495, 低频0.453), 且在0.01水平上显著; 高频不存在相关性。
    结论:结果显示, POAG-HM病人GCIPL厚度下降的损伤区内对比敏感度显著下降, 且与单纯的近视屈光因素影响关系不大; 同时GCIPL厚度正常的对照区高频对比敏感度与损伤区无差别, 提示青光眼旁中央区域对比敏感度功能下降最先累及高频部分, 且在视神经结构尚属正常的区域就已出现。
     无意识种族信息知觉加工
    袁杰, 胡晓晴, 傅世敏
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 42-42.  
    摘要   ( 189 ) PDF (0KB)( 133 )
     目的:在种族信息加工领域, 前人通过持续闪现抑制(CFS)范式在社会评价层面发现了无意识的本族效应(Yuan et al., 2017), 即被试对无意识呈现的异族面孔存在偏见。但是, 无意识呈现的种族面孔能否在知觉水平得到加工还尚无定论, 且研究甚少, 本研究采用bCFS(突破CFS)考察无意识呈现的本族面孔在知觉水平是否具有优势。
    方法:本研究包含两个实验。实验1的目标刺激为标准化的中国人与白人黑白面孔, 通过红蓝眼镜呈现在中国被试的非优势眼; 高对比度、彩色、快速闪现的蒙德里安(Mondrian)色块作为掩蔽刺激呈现在被试的优势眼。面孔刺激的对比度在1秒内从0增加到100%并保持不变, 直至被试按键; 因此, 在开始阶段, 面孔是被抑制的, 实现了无意识的效果。面孔随机出现在中央注视点两侧的两条弧形轨迹上, 被试的任务是判断面孔出现在注视点左侧或右侧。此外, 实验1还包含一个对照实验, 实验中蒙德里安色块和面孔刺激同时呈现在被试的双眼。实验2为了排除种族面孔所存在的熟悉性差异, 采用两种几何图形, 与种族概念进行联结学习。除了刺激为联结后的图形, 实验2与实验1基本相同。
    结果:实验1发现与异族面孔相比, 本族面孔能更快突破抑制进入意识; 而对照实验未发现差异, 排除了面孔低水平物理属性的影响。实验2发现被试在本族的联结学习中表现更好, 反应时更快, 正确率更高。同时, 代表本族的图形在突破抑制上也存在优势, 而对照实验则未发现差异。实验2重复了实验1的结果, 排除了面孔熟悉性的影响。
    结论:本研究通过两个实验, 发现种族信息可以在无意识下得到加工, 无意识呈现的本族面孔与代表本族的图形在知觉水平上存在优势。
    Individual alpha activity predicts perceptual states of color-motion binding
    Yanyu Zhang, Yifei Zhang, Fang Fang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 43-43.  
    摘要   ( 44 ) PDF (0KB)( 38 )
     PURPOSE: Integrating different visual features into a coherent object is an essential issue for the visual system which is referred as the binding problem. Previous studies have shown that early visual cortex plays a very important role in the active binding of color and motion (Zhang et al., 2014; 2016). However, our knowledge of the relationship between the binding problem and the neural oscillations is still incomplete.
    METHODS: We explored the role of neural oscillations in active color-motion binding with an illusory misbinding of color and motion (Wu et al., 2004). We probed the neural oscillations of the color-motion misbinding using electroencephalogram (EEG), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). Specifically, we presented a color-motion misbinding stimulus to subjects and recorded EEG signals while they reported whether they perceived the misbinding or the correct binding state.
    RESULTS: Results showed that alpha oscillatory activity in left occipital area increased when subjects reported the correct binding state, relative to the misbinding state. Moreover, we used tACS over left posterior area to enhance individual alpha activity and found an increase in the duration of the correct binding state. Furthermore, we also manipulated alpha frequency to investigate the behavioral changes at different frequencies. We found that delivering a higher frequency than individual alpha frequency that we got from EEG signal would increase the switching rate between the misbinding and the correct binding state and vice versa.
    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that alpha activity can determine the color-motion binding and individual alpha activity causally shaped the perceptual states of the color-motion binding. Our results provide new insight for the neural mechanisms of active color-motion binding in human visual cortex.
     The alleviation of crowding effect through perceptual learning
    Ziyun Zhua, Fang Fang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 44-44.  
    摘要   ( 38 ) PDF (0KB)( 34 )
     PURPOSE: Our recent study showed that crowding effect can be completely eliminated by perceptual learning (Zhu, Fan, and Fang, JOV 2016). Here, we present data to further characterize this process.
    METHODS: Subjects were trained on a crowded orientation discrimination task with a target centered at 10° eccentricity together with two abutting flankers positioned radially. The target and flankers were a circular patch of a sine-wave grating. Before and after training, we measured orientation discrimination thresholds with the crowded and isolated targets. In Experiment 1, the diameter of the target and flankers could be 1.5°, 2°, 2.5° or 3°.
    RESULTS: We found that the extent of alleviation of the crowding effect by training depended on the center-to-center distance between the target and flankers. The greater the distance, the less crowding effect after training. When the distance was larger than 3°, the crowding effect can be completely eliminated. In Experiment 2, we first replicated our previous finding that there was little transfer of the learning effect between the left and right visual fields. A new finding is that the learning effect to eliminate crowding could completely transfer from the upper to the lower visual filed, but not vice versa. In Experiment 3, we examined whether the learned ability to eliminate the orientation crowding could generalize to eliminate letter crowding. Before and after training, we also measured the contrast thresholds for identifying crowded and isolated target letters, which had the same size as and were placed at the same location as the target grating. We found that the learning effect could completely transfer and eliminate the letter crowding effect.
    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that, with a relative large target, crowding effect is dominated by some high-level cognitive components, though constrained by visual hemifield properties. The cognitive components can be modified by perceptual training.
     知觉整合的客体数量影响L形刺激的横竖错觉强度
    李泽宇, 李峙
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 45-45.  
    摘要   ( 68 ) PDF (0KB)( 54 )
     目的:横竖错觉(horizontal vertical illusion)是指当一条横线和一条竖线刺激具有相同物理长度时, 竖线的主观感知长度要稍长些。许多研究表明, 刺激的结构对横竖错觉的强度有影响。比如, 当横线和竖线组成一个“L”形时, 横竖错觉的强度(约5%)要小于当横线和竖线组成倒置的“T”形时的错觉强度(约10%)。有关知觉整合(perceptual grouping)的研究显示, L形刺激可能被知觉为一个完整的客体, 而T形刺激可能被知觉为两个独立的客体(一条横线与一条竖线)。这提示知觉整合可能对横竖错觉的强度有影响。本文通过两个实验, 考察了知觉整合是否真会影响横竖错觉强度。也就是说, 即使同是L形刺激, 当L的两条边被知觉成单一客体时, 相应的横竖错觉强度是否会比当它们被知觉为两条独立线段时的错觉强度更小。
    方法:在实验1中, 我们首先让被试对单独出现的白色横线或竖线进行长度感知任务, 以此作为横竖错觉的基线。随后, 我们让被试在刺激结构为标准的L形刺激和L形刺激结构由两条分开的线段组成的条件下, 比较横线和竖线的长度。在实验2中, 我们让被试对标准的L形刺激以及对由部分交叠的红条和绿条组成的L形刺激进行长度比较任务。
    结果:实验1的结果发现, 被试的横竖错觉强度在基线条件下和两条线段分开的条件下无显著差异, 并均显著大于在两条线段连接(标准L形)条件下的错觉强度。实验2的结果发现, 被试的横竖错觉强度在只有部分重叠的红条和绿条组成的L形刺激条件下, 要显著大于在标准的L形刺激条件下的强度。
    结论:两个实验的结果都表明, 当构成L的两条线段被知觉为两个独立客体时(实验一中是空间中分离; 实验二中是颜色分离), 相应的横竖错觉的强度都会显著大于当L被知觉为单一客体时的横竖错觉。这些结果表明, 对视觉刺激的知觉整合会影响横竖错觉强度, 当刺激被感知为两个客体时比刺激被感知为单一客体时的错觉量要更大。
     基于拓扑知觉理论的拓扑特征提取方法
    彭鹏, 李朝义, 李永杰
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 46-46.  
    摘要   ( 91 ) PDF (0KB)( 57 )
     目的:拓扑知觉理论揭示了视觉处理过程是从大范围到局部的处理方式, 但目前尚无有效的数学模型用于提取图像的拓扑特征。本工作基于拓扑知觉理论提出一个简单高效的方法, 提取人工图像的拓扑特征并可用于进行图像分类。
    方法:首先通过对图像进行拓扑不变性变换, 演化成不同的基本拓扑结构, 包括点结构、基结构、嵌套、平行以及复合结构。然后提出一种亏格函数, 用于描述“洞”与“点”结构之间的拓扑关系; 之后生成拓扑特征向量, 通过计算向量之间的“拓扑距离”以实现图像分类。
    结果:利用本方法生成的拓扑特征向量, 在一个公开的人造拓扑图像库上取得了99.55%的分类正确率, 达到了预期效果。
    结论:本论文提出的拓扑特征提取方法可以准确提取图像中物体的拓扑特征。
     Behavioral oscillation in visual attention depends on task difficulty
    Airui Chen, Ming Zhang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 47-47.  
    摘要   ( 118 ) PDF (0KB)( 49 )
     PURPOSE: The spotlight of attention is full of discrete moments and operates periodically. Recently, several psychophysics studies investigate behavioral oscillation in visual attention, but they found different periodicities. Task difficulty might be one of important factors which caused disagreement in attentional periodic patterns. In the present study, behavioral oscillations in visual attention during difficult and easy tasks were examined.
    METHODS: A modified high temporal resolution cue-target paradigm, the cue-target SOA varied from 0.1 s to 1.08 s in steps of 20 ms, was used. In difficult condition, target was detected successfully at 65%. While, 75% in easy condition.
    RESULTS: We found a theta rhythm in difficulty version, consistent with previous studies. While, in the easy version, attention oscillation increased to a higher frequency. Additionally, task difficulty negatively related to power for all bands.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that when task was easy, attention spotlight switched faster. If task was difficult, it switched much slower to get more information. A flexible mechanism for attention spotlight and this could be modulated by task demand.
     Retaining Bindings of Integral Features in Working Memory: The Role of Object-based Attention
    Xueyi Wan, Ying Zhou, Fan Wu, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 48-48.  
    摘要   ( 56 ) PDF (0KB)( 40 )
     PURPOSE: Over the past decade, it has been debated whether retaining bindings in working memory (WM) requires more attention than retaining constituent features, focusing on domain-general attention and space-based attention. Recently we proposed that retaining bindings in WM needs more object-based attention than retaining constituent features (Gao et al., 2017; Shen, Huang, & Gao, 2015). However, the composed features in the tested bindings all belong to separable feature dimensions. It has been suggested that there are two types of feature relations: Separable features (e.g., color and shape in a colored shape) and integral features (e.g., width and height of a rectangle). While our brain encodes separable features independently, it is difficult to encode the integral features separately. Consequently, the object-based attention hypothesis of retaining bindings in WM may be constrained to separable features, and retaining bindings of integral features does not require more object-based attention than the constitute single features.
    METHODS: In the current study we addressed this issue by requiring the participants to memorize both width and height of three rectangles or the binding between the two feature dimensions. In the critical condition, we added a secondary transparent motion task during the delay interval of the change-detection task, such that the secondary task competed for object-based attention with the to-be-memorized stimuli. If more object-based attention is required for retaining bindings than for retaining constituent features, the secondary task should impair the binding performance to a larger degree relative to the performance of constituent features.
    RESULTS: In contrast to the prediction of object-based attention hypothesis, the added secondary task equally impaired the performance of single features and binding.
    CONCLUSION: Retaining bindings of integral features in WM does not require more object-based attention than the constitute single features, providing a key constraint to the object-based attention hypothesis.
     弱视患者的曲线轮廓整合能力
    黄飞云, 张立鹏, 王玲
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 49-49.  
    摘要   ( 40 ) PDF (0KB)( 49 )
     目的:大量研究表明弱视患者的轮廓整合能力比正常人弱。但是他们的研究基本上采用直线段的方式, 很少有人研究曲度对轮廓整合能力的影响。
    方法:有效刺激为由多个小Gabor光栅(个数已设置为预先实验的最优参数)规则排列组成的曲线段隐含在杂乱排列的相同参数Gabor光栅构成的背景中。曲线的曲度从45°到180°, 间隔45°。对比刺激为全部杂乱排列的Gabor光栅, 即不存在合理的曲线段。刺激呈现的时间为100/200/300/400ms。被试需要在该呈现时间内甄别出有无曲线段的存在。
    结果与讨论:1)所有被试的曲线轮廓整合能力都比直线轮廓整合能力差, 弱视患者更是无法从杂乱背景中很好地识别曲线出来。弱视眼甚至只有30-40%的正确率, 反之正常眼有70-80%的正确率。2)弱视患者的健康眼和弱视眼相比正常眼都有更弱的轮廓整合能力, 即使是在呈现时间较长的时候。这一结果说明在视觉的早期阶段(400ms以内), 因弱视导致的双眼抑制大大影响了轮廓的整合能力。3)所有的被试都显示在曲度为180°(此时曲线为半圆形)和45°(此时曲线接近于直线)时比其他曲度具有更好的识别性能, 这种状况对于弱视患者来说更显著, 暗示我们人类大量的视觉经验对弱视患者的早期视觉起到了很大的易化作用, 我们猜测这种视觉经验很可能已经加强了低级与中级视觉神经网络的连接, 并引发了中高级视觉对低级视觉的快速反馈, 进而易化了信息的融合和整合。4)弱视患者的曲线轮廓整合能力与弱视程度密切相关, 且斜视型患者比屈光参差型的患者曲线轮廓整合能力更差。
    结论:弱视患者具有比正常人弱得多的曲线整合能力, 且与弱视程度密切相关, 但是大量的视觉经验可以有所补偿。
     采用颜色编码提高道路水尺的有效性
    杨立状, 张达人
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 50-50.  
    摘要   ( 61 ) PDF (0KB)( 64 )
     目的:极端降雨情况下, 城市低洼路段易积水, 增加机动车溺水风险。目前采用的警示标志是数字道路水尺, 通过刻度线及数字表现当前积水深度。近年来, 各地机动车溺亡事故频发, 数字道路水尺的警示效果存疑。相较于数字, 颜色在注意捕获, 激活安全知识及触发安全行为上的优良效果得到了视觉及工效学研究的支持。我们采用颜色编码设计了水尺, 并系统比较了颜色水尺和数字水尺的有效性。
    方法:本研究包括4个实验, 操纵了水尺类型(颜色或数字), 观察距离(远距离或近距离)、倒影(有倒影或无倒影)以及观察状态(静止或运动)等变量, 模拟道路行驶中的各种观察条件。被试在实验中完成危险判断任务, 口头报告屏幕中水尺图片所提示的危险程度(“安全”、“小心”, “危险”), 反应时间由声音键记录。实验1采用三因素实验设计:水尺类型×观察距离×倒影, 主要比较颜色水尺和北京水尺在各种观察条件下的表现。实验2方法和实验1相同, 只是改用美国数字水尺。实验3为三因素实验设计:水尺×观察状态×倒影。实验4采用实验3的方法, 对熟练驾驶员进行了测试。实验3和实验4均比较了颜色水尺和美国水尺的有效性。
    结果:(1)相比数字水尺, 被试对于颜色水尺的判断更快, 正确率更高, 这一优势体现在所有测试条件中:平均而言, 对颜色水尺的判断正确率提高了至少16%, 反应速度缩短了至少800毫米; (2)颜色水尺优于北京水尺和美国水尺; (3)远距离观察、倒影以及运动中观察对颜色水尺的影响较小, 但对数字水尺的影响较大; (4)不论驾驶经验有无, 颜色编码的优势都很明显; (5)所有被试对颜色水尺的判断成绩优于对数字水尺的判断成绩。
    结论:从危险判断的角度, 本研究表明颜色编码优于数字编码, 增强了道路水尺的有效性。在气候变暖、全球极端降雨增加的大背景下, 颜色道路水尺作为一种廉价的道路积水警示标志, 有重要的研究和应用价值。
     More Features in Bound Representations Does Not Require Extra Object-based Attention in Working Memory
    Ying Zhou, Xueyi Wan, Fan Wu, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 51-51.  
    摘要   ( 48 ) PDF (0KB)( 38 )
     PURPOSE: Feature binding is a core concept in many research fields, including the study of working memory (WM).We recently proposed that binding in WM is not passive, but requires more object-based attention to actively bind distinct single features into a coherent unit (Gao et al., Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 2017; Shen, Huang, & Gao, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2015). However, a hallmark of object-based attention—the amount of attention is not modulated by the number features contained in an object—has not been examined. In the current study, we closed this gap by examining whether this hallmark of object-based attention still holds in WM.
    METHODS: In two experiments, we required the participants to memorize three bound representations, and manipulated the number of features (2 vs. 3 features) contained in each binding. To examine the role of object-based attention in retaining bindings in WM, we also manipulated whether a secondary task consuming object-based attention was interpolated into the maintenance phase of WM (with vs. without secondary task). If more object-based attention was required after an extra feature was added into the bound representation, then the secondary task would result in worse performance for 3-featured binding than 2-featured binding.
    RESULTS: In two experiments, we consistently found that the added secondary task significantly impaired the binding performance. However, the added secondary task impaired the 2-featured and 3-featured bindings to the same extent.
    CONCLUSION: The number of features contained in binding does not modulate the required object-based attention for binding in WM, suggesting that WM and perception share the same hallmark of object-based attention.
     自上而下的目标调节奖赏联结干扰项的注意定向和脱离
    张燕, 曹慧敏, 郑元杰, 任衍具
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 52-52.  
    摘要   ( 115 ) PDF (0KB)( 91 )
     目的:考察价值驱动的注意捕获是完全自动化的还是会受自上而下目标的调节。
    方法:操纵奖赏联结干扰项与目标的相关性, 利用空间线索范式的变式将注意过程划分为注意定向和注意脱离。
    结果:价值驱动的注意捕获会受到自上而下目标的调节; 在学习阶段, 相对于无奖赏联结的项目, 对奖赏联结项目的搜索反应时明显加快, 而在测验阶段, 当奖赏联结干扰项与目标相关时, 对奖赏联结干扰项和无奖赏联结干扰项的定向和脱离均有显著差异; 而当奖赏联结干扰项与目标无关时, 对奖赏联结干扰项和无奖赏联结干扰项的定向和脱离均无显著差异。
    结论:自上而下的目标能够调节奖赏联结干扰项的注意定向和脱离, 支持奖赏联结与自上而下的目标交互引导视觉注意的观点。
     视听整合增强视觉节律的神经振荡
    袁祥勇, 张西磊, 王莹, 蒋毅
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 53-53.  
    摘要   ( 133 ) PDF (0KB)( 107 )
     目的:节律性的刺激能够在相应的感觉皮层引发同步的神经活动, 表现为神经振荡的增强。本研究旨在探讨视听节律的整合能否增强视觉信号在知觉上的显著性, 并且调节视觉神经振荡的活动。
    方法:我们设计了一个视觉检测任务, 要求被试观察一个由三组不断闪烁的圆点构成的点阵, 其中每组点的大小均以各自的频率在连续变化。三组圆点中有一组在空间上组成了一个兰道环, 作为目标刺激; 另外两组圆点的空间位置随机分布, 作为掩蔽刺激。被试的任务是检测这个兰道环并判断开口的朝向。实验设置了一个无听觉节律的条件和两个有听觉节律的条件。在一致的听觉条件, 听觉的响度与构成兰道环的圆点的大小以相同的频率和相位变化, 在不一致的听觉条件, 听觉的响度与构成兰道环的圆点的大小以相同的频率但相反的相位变化。利用EEG技术, 我们记录了被试在完成这个任务时的脑电活动。
    结果:行为结果显示, 与没有听觉节律或者不一致的听觉节律相比, 一致的听觉节律能够提高对兰道环朝向判断的正确率, 并且增强了枕顶电极记录到的神经振荡的振幅。更重要的是, 尽管在一致与不一致的听觉条件下视觉枕顶区与听觉额中区之间基于相位的联结都有增强, 但只有在一致的听觉条件, 这种联结的增强才与视觉振荡振幅的增强, 以及行为正确率的增益存在显著的正相关。
    结论:本研究的结果表明, 同步的听觉节律既能够增强视觉节律的知觉显著性, 也可能通过增强视听皮层的功能联结增强了视觉节律诱发的神经振荡。
     Irrelevant context facilitates conscious access to averted eye gaze
    Qian Xu, Yi Jiang, Ying Wang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 54-54.  
    摘要   ( 49 ) PDF (0KB)( 35 )
     PURPOSE: Previous evidence demonstrates that faces with direct, relative to averted, eye gaze could gain prioritized access to visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS). However, the nonconscious encoding of the directions of averted eye gaze remains controversial.
    METHODS: Here we adopted breaking-CFS paradigm to explore whether averted eye gaze with different directions could be discriminated unconsciously by presenting suppressed gaze cues adjacent to visible yet task-irrelevant contexts (namely, pictures of neutral objects).
    RESULTS: Results showed that faces looking at the contexts emerged from suppression faster than faces looking at the opposite direction, suggesting that direction-congruent gaze cues facilitate the processing of invisible faces. However, this gaze congruency effect disappeared when the face and the context were separated by the fixation (thus on different sides of the display), indicating that spatial proximity may be necessary for the integration of the invisible gaze and the visible context.
    CONCLUSIONS: To sum up, these results clearly show that averted gaze directions could be unconsciously decoded. Invisible gaze toward nearby contexts may boost the suppressed faces into visual awareness.
     无意识的条件化恐惧延长时间知觉
    张西磊, 袁祥勇, 王莹, 蒋毅
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 55-55.  
    摘要   ( 281 ) PDF (0KB)( 220 )
     目的:个体的时间知觉与其情绪体验密切相关。尽管研究者一致发现负性情绪刺激的时距知觉显著更长, 但尚不知道该时距延长效应是否必须依赖于对负性情绪线索的外显觉知。
    方法:我们设计了两组相互正交的黑白光栅, 通过恐惧性条件反射, 将负性电击刺激与其中一组朝向的光栅建立恐惧情绪的条件化联结。然后, 使用红绿相间但相位相反的一对彩色光栅, 使它们以高于闪光融合(critical flicker fusion, CFF)阈限的频率交替闪烁以形成稳定、融合的知觉, 从而使与恐惧情绪建立了条件化(CS+)和非条件化(CS-)的朝向信息完全不可见。采用时距分辨任务比较CS+和CS-刺激的时距知觉。
    结果:尽管被试无法知觉到彩色光栅的朝向, 但在物理呈现时间相同的条件下, 对CS+的时距知觉显著长于CS-。我们在三个独立的样本中重复了该时距延长效应。另外, 与静止的黄色圆盘相比, 尽管高速闪烁的彩色光栅在知觉上与之完全匹配, 但撤除恐惧情绪的条件化联结后, 它所引发的时距延长效应也随之消失。
    结论:上述发现有力地证明无意识的条件化恐惧信息可特异性地延长时间知觉, 并暗示参与加工无意识的条件化恐惧信息的神经环路可能也参与了计时功能, 或与负责计时功能的核心网络之间存在重要的信息交互。
     Orexin-B modulates synaptic transmission of rod bipolar cells in rat retina
    Gong Zhang, Xiao-Hua Wu, Guo-Zhong Xu, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 56-56.  
    摘要   ( 55 ) PDF (0KB)( 34 )
     PURPOSE: Orexin-A, -B play a crucial role in arousal and feeding by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors: OX1R and OX2R. Orexins and orexin receptors are expressed in retinal neurons. Indeed, orexins have been found to modulate the activity of amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner retina. However, the function of these peptides in the outer retina remains unknown. In this work, we investigated whether and how orexin-B modulates synaptic transmission of rod-dominant ON type bipolar cells (RBCs) in the outer retina of rat.
    METHODS: The in vivo scotopic flash electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were conducted to monitor the effect of orexin-B on RBC activity. Whole cell patch-clamp recording techniques in both retinal slices and dissociated RBCs were used to investigate the effect of orexin-B on synaptic transmission of RBCs.
    RESULTS: Intravitreal injection of orexin-B increased the amplitudes of the scotopic ERG b-wave, a reflection of RBC activity. Consistently, patch clamp recordings in rat retinal slices further showed that orexin-B potentiated the responses of RBCs to simulated light flashes, which could avoid presynaptic and lateral interference from photoreceptors and horizontal cells. Effects of orexin-B on GABAergic synaptic transmission were then examined. Presynaptically, orexin-B suppressed GABA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) of RBCs in retinal slices. Postsynaptically, as whole-cell recordings and calcium imaging from isolated RBCs showed, orexin-B suppressed GABAC receptor-, but not GABAA receptor-, mediated currents, which was blocked by the OX1R and OX2R antagonists. The orexin-B-induced inhibition of GABAC currents was likely mediated by a Gi/o/PC-PLC/Ca2+-independent PKC signaling pathway, as such inhibition was absent when each step of the above-pathway was blocked with GDP-β-S/pertussis toxin (for Gi/o), D609 (for PLC), bisindolylmaleimide IV (for PKC)/rottlerin (for PKCδ), respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: The orexin-B-induced potentiation of RBC activity may improve visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the animal during the dark period (wake phase).
     Laminar dependent orientation selectivity and its dynamics in macaque V1
    Tian Wang, Guanzhong Yang, Yi Yang, Yang Li, Weifeng Dai, Dajun Xing
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 57-57.  
    摘要   ( 45 ) PDF (0KB)( 29 )
     PURPOSE: Orientation selective is an emergent property of primary visual cortex (V1). Previous studies have proposed that broadly-tuned suppression or response nonlinearity (power law) may play important roles for sharpening of cortical selectivity. We ask how the two mechanisms collaborate to sharpen the orientation selectivity in V1.
    METHODS: we used a linear array electrode to record neural response simultaneously from multiple cortical depths in V1 of awake macaque monkeys. Stimuli with different orientations flashed 20ms each frame. Dynamic responses was calculated with the reverse correlation method.
    RESULTS &CONCLUSIONS: We found that dynamic responses to stimulus orientations are different cross cortical layers. Based on the response dynamics, we estimate the broadly-tuned suppression and response nonlinearity at different layers, we found that suppression is stronger in input layers, while output layers have largest nonlinearity and highest selectivity. Our results suggest that orientation selectivity is sharpened through multiple stages in V1.
     Near- and far-surround suppression in human motion discrimination
    Huan Wang , Yifeng Zhou, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 58-58.  
    摘要   ( 55 ) PDF (0KB)( 31 )
     PURPOSE: Neurons in middle temporal area (MT) have spatial antagonistic center-surround receptive fields. Surround activation globally inhibits responses to center stimuli is selective to their relative directions. These physiological observations are used to explain the center-surround motion repulsion effect. Furthermore, increasing the surround size above some radius does not suppress further neuronal responses, thus indicating a surround-to-center limit of interactions. In parallel, previous researches indicated that orientation tuning in V1 was modulated by near- and far-surrounds differently based on different anatomical circuits (intra-V1 horizontal connections and feedback connection from extrastriate cortex). Here, we want to investigate influences of near- and far-surround on center-surround motion repulsion effects and we used a simple physiological model of the repulsion effect to extract changes in surround inhibition strength and tuning widths with spatial distance.
    METHODS: Human subjects performed motion discrimination tasks under near- and far-surround conditions, then, the model was fit to the data in order to understand the putative neuronal changes in center-surround effects with surround distance. Three major parameters were extracted: motion direction tuning width of the central neuronal population responding to the target motion ( ), surround-to-center inhibition strength of the maximum response rate of the center neurons (), and surround tuning width change with distance to the center.
    RESULTS: All 11 subjects showed clear motion repulsion effects in near-surround condition while only 10 for the far-surround condition. The model predicted human performance well. in near-surround was significantly smaller than far-surround and the surround inhibition was stronger for near-surround condition.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that the increase of distance between surround and center not only decline the inhibitory effect of surround onto center, but importantly also increases the surround to center tuning width of inhibition.
     Information tuning of neurons in middle temporal area of rhesus monkeys
    Bingzhang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 59-59.  
    摘要   ( 38 ) PDF (0KB)( 34 )
     PURPOSE: Neurons in macaque middle temporal visual area (MT) show a diversity of direction tuning properties, exhibiting a broad distribution of tuning width, baseline activity, peak response, and circular variance (CV). Previous studies of the direction discrimination power of neurons in V1 focused on resolving two nearby orientations close to the psychophysical threshold of direction discrimination.
    METHODS: Here, we developed the information tuning curve, that measures the discrimination power of cells as a function of the direction difference, , of the two stimuli, to study how the tuning features affect the discrimination of neurons. This tuning curve also represents the mutual information between the neuronal responses and the stimulus direction.
    RESULTS: The shape of information tuning curve is similar to the direction-selective (DS) tuning curve with one peak. It also enables us to compare the discrimination capability of neurons quantitatively. Studies of discrimination performance of neurons in MT indicates that Chernoff distance ( ) decreases monotonically as relative baseline increases and has a maximum as the tuning width ( ) increases.
    CONCLUSIONS: The information tuning curve measures the discrimination power of cells as a function of the direction difference. , of the two stimuli. And most of the neuronal population exhibits favorable tuning properties for relatively large .
     时间规律促进对动态信息的视觉意识
    胡瑞晨, 蒋毅, 王莹
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 60-60.  
    摘要   ( 126 ) PDF (0KB)( 115 )
     目的:身处动态的环境中, 人们善于利用时间规律来组织感觉信息并引导自己的行为。然而时间规律是否影响人对外界信息的意识仍是未知的问题。
    方法:为研究上述问题, 我们采用了双眼竞争范式。通过向被试的双眼分别呈现包含及不包含时间规律的刺激序列, 考察规律性对二者主导意识的时间比例的潜在影响。
    结果:我们发现, 相比于随机变化的视觉信息, 包含时间规律的信息占据意识的时间更长。有趣的是, 这种现象不但适用于由刺激物理属性(亮度、形状)节律性变化所产生的时间规律, 还可以推广至语义水平的时间规律, 表现为序列呈现的四字成语刺激主导了它和随机汉字序列的竞争。控制实验进一步发现:成语序列的优势在将成语刺激倒序呈现时消失, 但不受随机打乱每个字呈现时间的影响, 从而排除了基于汉字共同出现的频率或基于时间的预测性在成语优势效应中的作用, 而支持了语义结构才是上述效应的关键。
    结论:我们的研究揭示了人对动态信息的意识受信息时间结构的调控, 包含规律时间结构的信息更容易主导意识。对规律信息的高度敏感和优先加工可能是视觉系统为了快速提取及编码外界信息结构而发展出的一般性机制。
     彝族尚黑文化背景下道德词汇的黑白隐喻表征
    赵亚军, 丁可, 吉木哈学, 蒋柯
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 61-61.  
    摘要   ( 170 ) PDF (0KB)( 151 )
     目的:黑暗-光明的亮度知觉与不道德-道德的抽象概念之间存在隐喻联结, 例如“白色象征着纯洁, 黑色则代表罪恶”。然而, 仍不清楚这种道德概念的黑白隐喻表征是否受到文化的调节。彝族具有“以黑为贵”、“以黑为美”的尚黑文化, 那么, 彝族尚黑文化背景下道德词汇的黑白隐喻表征是否存在特殊的形式呢?
    方法:本研究采用词-色Stroop范式对这一问题加以了探讨。
    结果:研究发现(1)实验一选用汉族大学生被试, 重复出了以往关于道德词汇的黑白隐喻表征的结果, 即发现汉族被试存在“白好黑坏”的隐喻联结; (2)实验二选用彝族大学生被试, 发现彝族被试对黑色词汇加工较快, 并且存在“白好但黑也好”的隐喻联结。
    结论:这说明, 彝族被试存在黑色-道德的隐喻联结, 但也受到汉族文化中“白好”的影响。本研究结果提示, 除了黑暗-光明的亮度知觉, 语言、文化等因素也影响着道德概念的黑白隐喻表征。
     工作记忆保持阶段记忆项目在人类大脑中倒序重演
    黄巧莉, 贾建荣, 罗欢
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 62-62.  
    摘要   ( 183 ) PDF (0KB)( 306 )
     目的:工作记忆是同时表征还是序列表征的是这一领域争论已久的问题。近期的脑磁图研究发现在工作记忆编码阶段不同序列位置上的记忆项目诱发的Gamma活动锁定于Theta振荡的不同相位上, 从而支持了工作记忆的序列表征。然而, 在保持阶段记忆项目如何表征仍然有待研究。本研究通过记录被试大脑的EEG信号以及运用时间响应函数方法提取对单个项目的反应来探究顺序记忆的项目在工作记忆的保持阶段如何进行表征。
    方法:在三个实验中, 分别让被试记忆一个, 两个或者三个项目并保持5秒。在每个试次中, 呈现给被试多个不同朝向和颜色的矩形条, 要求被试按顺序记住被提示过的矩形条的朝向(编码阶段)。接着, 被试被要求完成一个中央注视点探测任务, 与此同时呈现给被试与记忆项目和不被记忆的项目颜色一致的圆形刺激(保存阶段)。最后, 呈现给被试其他朝向的矩形条让被试回忆该矩形条的朝向与记忆的第几个矩形条的朝向最接近(回忆阶段)。实验使用时间响应函数的方法从EEG信号中分离每个项目在保持阶段各自的反应, 从而考察记忆项目的激活模式。
    结果:首先, 记忆的项目比不被记忆的项目在Alpha频段诱发了更大的响应。其次, 顺序记忆的项目诱发的Alpha振荡能量表现出倒序的激活模式, 具体来说, 在编码阶段先被记忆的项目在保持阶段诱发了靠后的Alpha振荡。最后, 这种序列反应模式随着记忆项目的增加变快。
    结论:本研究在人类被试上发现了直接的神经证据支持在工作记忆的保存阶段存在着序列编码, 并且这种序列编码是与记忆顺序相反的倒序编码。同时, 随着记忆的项目的增多序列编码的速度加快。
     恐惧条件学习特异性地改变猕猴V1细胞的反应特性
    Zhihan Li, An Yan, Kun Guo, Wu Li
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 63-63.  
    摘要   ( 47 ) PDF (0KB)( 40 )
     PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of fear conditioning on V1 neuronal responses.
    METHODS: Adult macaque monkeys were used as subjects. Air puff to the face was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US), which was paired with gratings tilted clockwise (or counterclockwise) relative to the vertical (the conditioned stimulus, CS). Gratings tilted to the opposite direction served as the neutral stimuli (NS). The frequencies and durations of eye blinks were used as a behavioral assessment of fear responses. Neuronal activities in V1 were recorded with implanted microelectrode arrays. After establishment of the conditioned behavioral responses, we switched the CS and NS. Neuronal and behavior responses were recorded over the course of fear conditioning and reverse conditioning.
    RESULTS: Fear conditioning markedly enhanced V1 neuronal responses at the conditioned grating orientations, whereas the response enhancement at the neutral orientations was much smaller. The learning effect was seen only in the early component of V1 responses, and was independent of neurons’ orientation preferences. We also observed a general increase of neurons’ spontaneously activity. When the CS and NS were switched, the learning effect in V1 reversed accordingly, showing a significant and transient enhancement at the new CS orientations. This reversal effect in V1 reached a plateau after only several hundred trials. However, the behavioral learning effect, that is, the establishment of specific blinking behavior to the newly conditioned orientations, remarkably lagged behind V1 changes, reaching a plateau after several days.
    CONCLUSIONS: Fear conditioning results in formation of fear memory in the earliest stage of visual processing by altering the basic response properties of neurons. This might be a consequence of interactions between the amygdala and visual cortex over the course of conditioning.
     The Influence of Two Figures for Figure–Ground Segmentation in the Thalamus
    Ian Max Andolina, Wei Wang, Stewart S. Shipp
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 64-64.  
    摘要   ( 89 ) PDF (0KB)( 36 )
     PURPOSE: A core function for any visual system (biological and artificial) is recognising objects by grouping and filling-in image elements as a figure and segregating them from the background. Neural mechanisms of Figure–Ground (F–G) segmentation have been linked to processes operating across several cortical areas including primary visual cortex (V1), and depend heavily on re-entrant feedback connections. F–G is thought to be a cortical phenomenon, however we recently observed strong F–G modulation in the earliest visual area in the brain, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN). Our previous study assumed that F–G segmentation observed in the LGN was mostly stimulus, and not task driven. By adding a second figure target, we wished to test whether this was the case.
    METHODS: We performed tetrode recordings of spiking and local field potentials (LFP) in behaving macaque dLGN. We used speeded reaction–time where the subject had to find, and then saccade to either of two moving-dot defined visual figural objects against a moving background. The choice depended on a simple distance metric.
    RESULTS: When we divide attentional demand across two figural objects, we find that LGN cells are differentially driven by both the visual component and the saccaded to location of the task. LFP signal analysis suggests this task activity is driven predominantly within the α–band.
    CONCLUSIONS: We find that relay cells in the LGN respond not only to the visual cues alone, but also exhibit differential activity whether the figural object was going to be chosen for a subsequent saccade or not. The α–band dominated LFP suggests feedback as the most parsimonious route of this task driven modulation. Future experiments aim to orthogonally control spatial and feature attention while causally manipulating the feedback using optogenetic approaches.
     Doxorubicin accelerates and enhances AAV-based transgene expression in the cat and rat brain
    Gong Hongliang, Lu Yiliang, Qian Liling, I.Andolina, Liu Rui, Zhang Shenghai, Zilong Qiu, Wu Jihong, Wang Wei,
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 65-65.  
    摘要   ( 47 ) PDF (0KB)( 35 )
     PURPOSE: Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are widely used vectors for gene transfer into the central nervous system (CNS). However, Low transduction efficiency and the delay in transgene expression have hampered it from wide application in such as early embryonic development and the brain of higher mammals for both basic and clinic researches. This study is designed to establish a new means to improve both the efficiency and timing of AAV transduction in transgene expression.
    METHODS: By co-administration of doxorubicin with AAV8 vector into the cortex of cat, we firstly evaluated the effect of doxorubicin on enhancing vector transfection and transgene expression at different time points after infection. Then, we characterized the dose dependence of doxorubicin on AAV-mediated gene expression by varying the concentration of doxorubicin. The toxicity of doxorubicin was also examined by cell apoptosis assay.
    RESULTS: Local administration of 10 μg/mL doxorubicin remarkably facilitated AAV8-based gene transfer to neurons, increasing both cell numbers and expression level of GFP. The doxorubicin accelerated GFP expression is observed to appear as earlier as the third day after infection, and increased GFP intensity is persistent through the following multiple weeks in time. Doxorubicin was found to increase the neural expression of GFP at doses between 0.1 ~ 10 μg/mL with little toxicity, but induced neuron loss at a dose higher than 30 μg/mL.
    CONCLUSIONS: Co-infusion of doxorubicin accelerates AAV-based transgene expression in the cortex of higher mammals. This improved efficiency and timing of AAV transduction might have great potentials in the application for early embryonic development and other neurophysiological research for CNS diseases in higher mammals.
     视觉经验在触觉识别二维线条图中的作用
    Wenyuan Yu , Jiangtao Gong , Ye Liu, Xiaolan Fu, Yingqing Xu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 66-66.  
    摘要   ( 46 ) PDF (0KB)( 39 )
     PURPOSE: How we recognize a three-dimension real object by touching two-dimension tangible images of the object is still an open question. It is unclear whether visual experience plays a role in haptic recognition of two-dimension images based on visual depth information. Previous research showed that sighted people did not perform better than blind people, which indicated that visual experience was not helpful in haptic recognition(Heller, 2002). However, the results might be a ceiling effect caused by the easy task in which subjects were asked to selected a target from three object pictures. The present study addressed the role of prior visual experience in haptic recognition of raised-line pictures of real objects by a naming task.
    METHODS: In the present study, 10 blindfold sighted and 10 blind participants were asked to name 242 raised-lined object pictures by touching them, or to categorize the pictures that they failed to name within 30 seconds for each picture. The raised-lined pictures were printed by a Braille printer based on normalized line-drawing pictures of three-dimension real objects.
    RESULTS: The results showed that the naming accuracy of blind subjects was significant higher than that of sighted subjects. Moreover, superior performance of blind subjects was only found in the pictures with high recognition rate. Besides, categorization accuracy of blind subjects was also significant higher than that of sighted subjects, regardless of the recognition difficulty. The results suggested that the ability of haptic recognition of blind people was better than sighted people. In addition, sighted people’s visual experience of objects do not improve, even impair the haptic recognition of tangible raised-line pictures, and the tactile mechanism of two-dimension object picture recognition may be different from visual modality, which should be taken account when designing haptic products for blind people.
    CONCLUSIONS: Prior visual experience do not facilitate, but impair the haptic recognition of two-dimension raised-line pictures.
     Time perception is modulated by perceptual present as well as contextual past: A repetition suppression effect
    Li Shen, Xiaorong Cheng, Xianfeng Ding, Zhao Fana
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 67-67.  
    摘要   ( 72 ) PDF (0KB)( 42 )
     PURPOSE: The current study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of how perceived duration of a visual target is modulated by perceptual as well as contextual magnitude induced by Arabic numbers.
    METHODS: The current study combined context manipulation with duration judgement. In the learning phase, participants were trained to categorize 340, 400, and 460ms intervals as short, medium, and long durations, respectively. The subsequent testing phase included small magnitude context (10, 20, 30, 10, 20, 30), large magnitude context (70, 80, 90, 70, 80, 90) and mixed magnitude context (10, 20, 30, 70, 80, 90). The participants first rated whether each of the six numbers in the contextual sequence was ‘‘smaller’’ or ‘‘larger’’ than 50. Then, a small (10 or 20) or large (80 or 90) target number was presented visually with a varying duration (340~460ms). Participants were required to categorize each target as a short, medium, or long duration.
    RESULTS: The perceived durations increased with physical durations significantly. The NTA effects, i.e., the over-/under- estimation of the durations of perceptual large/small numbers, were observed only during small, but not large or mixed magnitude context. More critically, the interaction of numerical context and target magnitude was significant. Large targets preceded by small magnitude context were rated as lasting longer, relative to large magnitude context. Whereas, small targets preceded by large magnitude context were rated as lasting longer, relative to small magnitude context.
    CONCLUSIONS: The current results extend our understanding to the mechanism of NTA. The magnitude information existing in perceptual as well as contextual space can modulate perceived duration of a visual target and lead to a repetition suppression effect, suggesting inseparability of a hypothetic magnitude continuum across the border between physical present and contextual past. The repetition suppression effect is likely due to a reduction of neural activity of numerical representation, consistent with the neural amplitude hypothesis.
     (形状知觉是近似数量系统和数学流畅性加工的认知机制)
    Yiyun Zhang, Xinlin Zhou
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 68-68.  
    摘要   ( 83 ) PDF (0KB)( 48 )
     PURPOSE: Studies have demonstrated an association between the acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and mathematical performance. A recent novel explanation of this association is the visual form perception hypothesis (Zhou, Wei, Zhang, Cui, & Chen [2015]. Visual perception can account for the relation between ANS acuity and computational fluency. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1364). The current study aimed to replicate the previous findings with a new sample and, more importantly, to investigate whether other visuospatial processing (i.e., visual short-term memory, spatial short-term memory and mental rotation) could also account for the association.
    METHODS: 271 children with average ages of 9.9 years were recruited from three primary schools in Beijing, China. They were administered eight tasks to assess visuospatial processing and mathematical fluency as well as processing speed and nonverbal intelligence as cognitive covariates.
    RESULTS: Results replicated the previous finding that ANS acuity measured with numerosity comparison test was correlated with mathematical fluency, and the relation was interpreted by visual form perception measured with figure matching test. Moreover, the current investigation found that visual short-term memory rather than the other two visuospatial processing including spatial short-term memory and mental rotation also can explain the association between ANS acuity and mathematical fluency.
    CONCLUSIONS: Visual form perception is the shared mechanism of ANS acuity and mathematical fluency. Other visuospatial processing which involved much visual form perception could also account for the association between ANS acuity and mathematical fluency

     Attention priority map of face images in human early visual cortex
    Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 69-69.  
    摘要   ( 85 ) PDF (0KB)( 53 )
     PURPOSE: Attention priority maps are topographic representations that is utilized for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, while investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of multi-dimensional stimulus information, the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing priority maps of natural stimuli and the possible influence of spatial structure of natural stimuli on priority maps.
    METHODS: Here, we overcame these challenges by reconstructing the topographic representations of face stimuli from fMRI BOLD signals in early visual areas V1-V3 based on voxel-wise population receptive field models and behaviorally characterizing the priority maps as the first saccadic eye movement patterns when subjects performed an image matching task. We used face stimuli because the spatial structure of face components is consistent, which allows effective reconstruction of topographic representation and easy examination of the possible influence of image configuration on priority maps.
    RESULTS: We found that the first saccadic eye movement patterns could be well predicted from the reconstructed topographic representations in early visual areas. Moreover, face inversion modulated the coupling between the first saccadic target pattern and the reconstructed representations in V2/3 but not in V1.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings thus provide novel evidence for priority maps of natural stimuli in early visual areas and extend the traditional attention priority map theory by revealing another critical factor that affects priority maps in extrastriate cortex in addition to physical salience and task goal relevance, namely the configuration of stimulus image.
     连续经颅直流电刺激对游标任务学习的影响
    龚曦紫, 方方
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 70-70.  
    摘要   ( 151 ) PDF (0KB)( 81 )
     目的:人的视知觉能力可以通过一段时间的训练得到持续的显著提升。这种稳定的提升需要经历数天乃至几个月的训练。近来, 许多研究都验证了施加单次的经颅直流电刺激(transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS)能提高被试的视知觉能力。然而这种能力的提高仅出现在刺激的同时和其后的一小段时间内。本研究将tDCS刺激与视觉训练结合, 试图探究该训练方式能否提高被试在视知觉上的学习效果。
    方法:刺激组在被试半球的视觉皮层接受持续的正性tDCS刺激, 同时在对应视野进行游标任务的训练。对照组在接受Sham刺激的同时进行训练。每天刺激20分钟, 连续训练4天。
    结果:无论是对照组还是刺激组, 游标任务的阈值都显著降低。两组被试阈值进步的百分比没有显著差异。刺激组在训练时阈值均高于对照组, 但差异并不显著。
    结论:结果表示连续多天的tDCS刺激不能显著影响被试在游标任务上的学习效果。这可能意味着tDCS对训练的影响与具体的任务有关, 因此对施加多次tDCS的刺激方式需要进一步的研究。
     The Effects of Feedback and Cue Modalities on Deception Detection: Type of Stimulus Matters
    He Li, Xiaolan Fu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 71-71.  
    摘要   ( 37 ) PDF (0KB)( 37 )
     PURPOSE:: Deception detection studies had established that the detection accuracy was only slightly better than chance. The present study investigated whether deception detection could benefit from feedback treatment, and whether the effect would be modulated by cue modalities. Signal detection theory was applied to get deeper insights into the performance of deception detection.
    METHODS: Typical lie detection tests were conducted. In the control condition, the participants passively observed totally 96 video clips of 6 models who were sometimes lying and sometimes telling the truth. The observers were asked to make judgement of whether the models were lying or telling the truth. In the feedback condition, after response, a right or wrong outcome feedback was given. In both conditions, participants completed lie detection tests via either visual modality cues or audiovisual modality cues separately in two successive weeks. The order was counterbalanced between participants.
    Results: The overall accuracy results showed that the main effects of feedback and cue modalities were significant, but there’s no interaction between feedback and cue modalities. Separating performance into deceptive and truthful targets, one intriguing finding was the significant feedback × cue modalities × type of stimulus (deceptive vs. truthful) interaction effect. Signal detection theory analysis revealed that feedback treatment enhanced perceptual sensitivity, and led to a more liberal response criterion in both the visual cues based and the audiovisual cues based lie detection tests.
    Conclusions: The results suggested that feedback treatment benefited the overall accuracy of deception detection. The feedback effects performed differently on the visual and audiovisual modalities depending on the type of stimulus. Furthermore, signal detection theory analysis suggested that the feedback effects on the overall accuracy might result from the enhanced perceptual sensitivity and the more liberal criterion.
     Fearful faces shorten the perceived blank duration
    Qian Cui, Ke Zhao, Yi Jiang, Xiaolan Fu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 72-72.  
    摘要   ( 51 ) PDF (0KB)( 35 )
     PURPOSE: Numerous studies had generally found that the perceived durations of fear-relevant stimuli were judged longer than those of the neutral ones. However, in our previous study, we found the blank durations presented before the fearful IAPS images were judged shorter than those of the neutral ones. Different from the emotional scenes, emotional faces contain more social information. In this study, we tried to investigate that whether the blank durations followed by fearful faces were perceived shorter than the neutral ones as the fearful scenes did.
    METHODS: The fearful and neutral faces were selected from the Nimstim Face Stimulus Set. Twenty participants were allowed to judge the longer one in a pair of durations of the blank which were followed by a fearful face or a neutral face. One of the durations before faces (fearful or neutral) was randomly selected as the standard duration and presented for 1000 ms, and the other could be displayed for 400,600,800,1000,1200,1400,1600 ms. The results from the two-alternative forced-choice were fit with a function for each observer, and mean PSE (point of subjective equality) were calculated as the indicator of temporal compression or dilatation.
    RESULTS: One sample t tests revealed a significant positive PSE [t(19) = 2.49, p < .05], suggesting that the blank durations followed by fearful faces were perceived shorter compared to neutral ones.
    CONCLUSIONS: According to the SET model, the present study may reflect that the memory stage of timing was disturbed by fearful faces, and the pulses in working memory could not get access to comparator, leading to an underestimation of the blank durations relative to neutral faces.
     Selectively Maintaining Object Features within Visual Working Memory: An ERP Study
    Xiaowei Ding, Kaifeng He, Zaifeng Gao, Mowei Shen
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 73-73.  
    摘要   ( 52 ) PDF (0KB)( 42 )
     PURPOSE: The manipulation of visual working memory (VWM) has received increasing interest, by focusing on the underlying mechanisms of manipulation for objects presented at distinct locations. However, no study has explored the manipulation mechanisms for the content of a stored multi-featured object (e.g., retaining color while discarding polygon for a colored-polygon). The current study examined whether participants can selectively retain task-relevant information of a dual-featured object after a retro-cue was presented at the maintenance interval. We hypothesized that the processing nature of a feature at the perceptual stage affected its manipulation in VWM, and tested this hypothesis by adopting two types of dual-featured objects. One is objects composed of highly-discriminable features (colored-oriented-bars) which can be processed via spread attention; the other type is objects containing fine-grained information (colored-polygons) which is processed via focal attention. We predicted that selective maintenance could not occur for the former type but occurred for the latter.
    METHODS: Contralateral delay activity (CDA) was adopted as a neural marker during a change detection task, in which two features of an object was initnally memorized. During the maintenance phase, we presented a retro-cue to inform participants to selectively retain color, polygon/orientation, or both.
    RESULTS: In line with our prediction, CDA amplitude was significantly lower for retain-color and retain-polygon conditions than for retain-both when colored-polygons were presented as stimuli; however, there was no significant difference between retain-color, retain-orientation, and retain-both conditions when colored-oriented-bars were used as stimuli (Experiment 1). Moreover, the findings cannot be explained by operations over independent objects (Experiment 2).
    CONCLUSIONS: we found that the selective maintenance manipulation was modulated by the nature of the constituent elements. In particular, for dual-featured representations containing fine-grained information which needs to be processed via focal attention, the constituent single features can be selectively retained according to the task requirement (e.g., colored polygon). In contrast, for dual-featured representations composed of highly-discriminable information which is processed via spread attention, the stable unit could not be broken to selectively maintain the individual elements (e.g., colored bar).
     The Role of Mnemonic Cues Properties on Motor Sequence Learning
    Zhiqiang Tian, Cong Yu , Melvyn A. Goodale
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 74-74.  
    摘要   ( 50 ) PDF (0KB)( 40 )
     PURPOSE:: Motor sequence learning is everywhere, such as playing the piano, keyboard input. What are preferentially learned about the sequence in our mind, spatial structure or sequence element properties? Will the learned motor sequence be influenced after rotating the spatial structure? These problems are still ambiguous in previous researches. This study aims to address the role of mnemonic cues properties on motor sequence learning.
    METHODS: The study employed a modified paradigm of the serial reaction time (SRT) task in which participants were instructed to tap icons displayed on a touch screen, the popping sequence of these icons overlapped with an unseen two-dimensional geometric figure. The familiarity and presenting mode of mnemonic cues were changed according to different testing conditions, the locations of icons were shifted in testing period, but the motor sequence was identical throughout the study. A total of 120 naive human subjects were separated randomly in five different conditions. After training, their ability to transfer the motor sequence knowledge they had learned in training period was tested.
    Results: The structured motor sequence learning can be split into implicit memory and explicit memory. Geometric-figure-structure and the sequence all could be memorized finally in explicit memory group but not implicit memory group. Structure outlined by the motor sequence is egocentric, the performance is influenced strongly if the topological structure was rotated. Nonetheless other mnemonic cues overlapped can compensate the loss of spatial information. More properties within the sequence have better mnemonic effects, simultaneously, more distinct properties overlapped on geometric-figure-structure has bigger negative priming effects if the learned sequence is changed unexpectedly.
    Conclusions: Topology structure running under the sequence obviously plays a dominant role at motor sequence learning rather than overlapped cues properties. An economic processing principle of cognitive resources is used involuntarily in motor sequence learning.
     Visual Working Memory Biases the Perception of Ambiguous SFM (Structure-From-Motion) by Affecting the Representation in MT+ Cortex Delay Period
    Jingjie Li , Hao Wu, Badong Chen
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 75-75.  
    摘要   ( 73 ) PDF (0KB)( 33 )
     PURPOSE: To understand how similar VWM content affects encoding and representation of coming up visual stimulus and why an unambiguous prior stimulus can cause an ambiguous stimulus to be perceived in the same way.
    METHODS: We hypothesize that the prior unambiguous SFM can evoke a pre-activation representation in MT+ and affect the representation of the coming up ambiguous SFM, and holding it into visual working memory could enhance such effect. To test this hypothesis, we carry out two behavioral experiments. In the first experiment, subjects are asked to watch a serial of unambiguous SFM-delay-ambiguous SFM with two tasks, one for attending only and another for holding the rotation speed of the unambiguous SFM into the working memory. The second experiment is performed toimpair the pre-activation representation in MT+. We present distractors to reduce the pre-activation representations in MT+ during the delay period. We use visual stimulus in MT+ localizer run to maximize the active MT+ activity and also, impair the pre-activation representation.
    RESULTS: In the experiment 1, results show that the visual working memory tasks could strengthen the perceptual bias of unambiguous SFM significantly (p< 0.01). In the experiment 2, results show that with distractors presented, the perceptual bias level will be greatly impaired (p< 0.001), but at the same time, the VWM accuracy is little affected (p= 0.58). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the perceptual bias phenomenon is closely related to the persist pattern representations in MT+ evoked by VWM.
     外源性注意的重映射导致知觉学习的相对位置特异性
    张恩 吕姣姣 李武
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 76-76.  
    摘要   ( 98 ) PDF (0KB)( 97 )
     目的:大脑基于映射到视网膜上的像来获取视觉信息, 因此视觉系统首先是以视网膜为参考坐标表征视觉信息。然而, 目标刺激通常与其他刺激和观察者之间存在复杂且动态的时空关系, 因而基于视网膜坐标以外(也即非视网膜坐标)的视觉表征对于个体的感知和运动控制也起到重要作用。之前的一些研究提示, 眼动前后注意在视网膜坐标中的重映射(remapping)对于一些非视网膜视觉过程至关重要。本研究在保持眼注视不变的情况下, 通过控制短暂呈现的提示刺激与目标刺激之间的相对位置, 考察外源性空间注意在知觉训练后能够发生重映射, 以及这种注意重映射在特定时空关系下对视觉信息加工的作用。
    方法:在让被试保持注视的情况下, 先在六个预设的位置中随机选其一短暂呈现一个白色圆100毫秒, 作为提示刺激和空间参考, 吸引被试的注意。提示刺激消失后100毫秒在另一个位置呈现一个低对比度的目标光栅, 其相对于提示刺激的位置固定, 被试需要判断光栅的朝向是45°还是135°。被试在这一固定的相对位置条件下训练7天后, 我们保持目标刺激的视网膜位置不变, 通过改变每次trial中光栅相对于提示刺激的位置, 考察了学习效应对刺激相对位置的特异性; 并通过同时改变目标刺激与光栅刺激的视网膜位置, 测试了这种相对位置特异性对视网膜位置的依赖性。
    结果:低对比度光栅检测能力的提高特异于目标光栅相对于提示刺激的位置, 即使目标刺激的视网膜位置与训练时一致; 这种相对位置的学习效应在未训练的视网膜位置依然存在, 但比训练过的视网膜位置弱, 也即相对位置特异性对视网膜位置具有一定的依赖性。
    结论:在特定的刺激位置关系下进行知觉训练, 能够导致外源性空间注意的重映射, 从而易化该时空关系下的刺激加工; 这种依赖于经验的注意重映射, 在较大程度上独立于视网膜坐标的视觉表征, 两者可能共同在非视网膜视觉表征中发挥作用。
     Memory-based attentional guidance facilitates visual search through distractor suppression
    Wen Wen (文雯), Sheng Li (李晟)
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 77-77.  
    摘要   ( 46 ) PDF (0KB)( 33 )
     Information stored in the memory system can affect visual search process. Foreknowing features of distractors could facilitate target selection. Previous studies found that after sufficient practice, participants learned to ignore fixed feature representations in working memory (WM) when they reappeared as distractors. However, varied WM representations would automatically capture attention, suggesting that we could not voluntarily inhibit varied WM representations. Current studies investigated whether active-maintained varied representations could be suppressed as those fixed representations. In study 1, participants were requested to find a specific shape (target) in the search array and indicate the location of a dot inside the target. The fixed color-cue in each trial indicated that target would not be among shapes in the cued color. Meanwhile, there was a constant color, which would never be the target (and never appeared as cue color) during the entire experiment. In negative-cue condition, distractor color in search array was the cue color, while the target color was randomly selected. In constant color condition, distractor color was the constant color which was a long-term memory (LTM) representation. In neutral condition, both target color and distractor color were randomly selected with the restriction that they would never be the cue color nor the constant color. We found that, compared to neutral conditions, both fixed WM representations and LTM representations could facilitate visual search. In study 2, we varied the cue in each trial. Results showed that reaction time (RT) of negative-cue condition was significantly shorter than neutral condition when reaction speed was slow. Importantly, even in fast RT condition, there was no capture effect. In all, our results indicated that participants could voluntarily suppress both fixed and varied WM representations when they reappeared as distractors. However, facilitation of varied representation only happened when cognitive control process had sufficient time to execute.
     Effects of 10Hz and 40Hz Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) on Visual Search
    Yao Li , Fang Fang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 78-78.  
    摘要   ( 52 ) PDF (0KB)( 26 )
     PURPOSE: Previous researches have identified parietal regions involved in the visuospatial orienting and revealed the important roles of alpha- and gamma-band neural oscillations in spatial attention. Here we investigated how modulation of neural oscillations in alpha and gamma bands on right inferior parietal cortex may bias spatial attention.
    METHODS: 24 participants were randomly divided into 3 tACS stimulation groups (10 Hz, 40 Hz, or sham). The experiment consisted of four sessions, each taking approximately 12 min. Reaction time was recorded while they performed a modified version of the additional singleton task in the four sessions. Upon completion of session 1, 15 min tACS (or sham stimulation) started. The stimulation was applied to the right inferior parietal lobe (P6 & Cz) while participants went through session 2. There was no tACS in sessions 3 and 4.
    RESULTS: Distractor effect (DE = RT_distractor – RT_non-distractor) was calculated as an index of attention captured by a colored singleton, and then submitted to a repeated-measures ANOVA with within-participants factors of time (sessions 1 to 4), side (target in the left vs. right hemifield), and a between-participant factor of treatment (10Hz vs. 40Hz vs. sham). There was a side × treatment interaction. For the sham group, the DE in the left visual field was significantly larger than that in the right one, exhibiting a spatial attention bias towards the right hemifield. However, such a bias was not observed in both the 10Hz and 40Hz stimulation groups. Furthermore, for both the stimulation groups, the DEs in sessions 2 and 3 were smaller than that in session 1, suggesting an enhanced inhibition of salient task-irrelevant distractors. This effect was found in the online (2nd) session and even continued in the offline (3rd) session. It could persist in session 4 in the 40 Hz group, but not in the 10 Hz group.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new evidence for the roles of gamma and alpha oscillations in altering spatial attention bias and enhancing the inhibition function of attention. We also reveal the possibility of affecting visual search performance by tACS at alpha and gamma bands.
     基于Gabor的双重N-back工作记忆训练显著提高大学生视觉对比敏感度和流体智力
    师海宁, 王丽萍, 陈宏
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 79-79.  
    摘要   ( 152 ) PDF (0KB)( 107 )
     目的:探究基于Gabor的双重N-back工作记忆训练对大学生视觉对比敏感度和流体智力的影响。
    方法:58名大学生被随机分为标准工作记忆组12人(女生5人, 平均18.83岁), 基于Gabor视标的工作记忆训练组13人(其中女生6人, 平均18.85岁)、单纯Gabor朝向训练组12人(其中女生 6人, 平均18.42岁)和控制组17 人(女生10 人, 平均18.65岁)。经过检测四组被试的视力和智力指标在实验前差异均无统计学意义 (p>0.05)。控制组不训练, 其余三组进行为期3周, 每周5d, 每天30 min工作记忆训练或Gabor训练。其中, Gabor视标固定空间频率和对比敏感度。训练前和训练后, 采用Optec 6500对58名大学生进行对比敏感度测试, 采用瑞文高级推理测验(APM)对其进行流体智力测试。
    结果:Gabor工作记忆训练组, 训练后对比敏感度[26.4%, from 1.48 to 1.87, P<0.001]和流体智力[20.7%, from 11.15 to 13.46, P<0.001]明显高于训练前; 标准工作记忆组, 训练后对比敏感度[0.017%, from 1.72 to 1.75, p>0.05]提高不显著、流体智力[15.6%, from 11.25 to 13, P<0.001]提高显著; Gabor朝向训练组和控制组训练前后对比敏感度和流体智力提高均不显著 (p>0.05)。
    结论:XXX研究证实基于Gabor视标的工作记忆训练可以增强视觉刺激物的学习效果, 有效改善视觉对比敏感度。这种学习效果不仅和工作记忆训练机制相关, 和视觉刺激物的形式亦有很大关系, 但刺激物形式不影响工作记忆训练对流体智力的迁移效果。和视知觉学习改善感知能力的单一功效相比, 工作记忆训练可以得到比视知觉学习更加丰富的训练效果, 获得对比敏感度和流体智力的双重提高。
     The Role of Edge-based and Surface-based Information in Incidental Category Learning: Evidence from Behavior and Event-related Potentials
    Xiaoyan Zhou, Qiufang Fu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 80-80.  
    摘要   ( 48 ) PDF (0KB)( 35 )
     PURPOSE: It has been demonstrated that edge-based information is more important than surface-based information in object recognition. However, few studies have investigated the role of the two types of information in incidental category learning. To address this issue, the present study adopted the ERP technique and defined the categories either by four edge-based features or four surface-based features.
    METHODS: The stimuli were cartoon animals that varied along 10 binary dimensions, with five in contour and five in surface. On each trial, a visual stimulus and an auditory sound was presented simultaneously and participants were asked to rate how likeable the animal and sound were in the training phase. Then, they were told that the animals can be divided into two categories according to the sounds and were instructed to classify the novel stimuli in the test phase.
    RESULTS: The behavioral results showed that people could learn both categories simultaneously, and the accuracy was higher for the edge-based category than for the surface-based category. The ERP results revealed that the anterior N1 peak amplitude was more negative for the surface-based category than for the edge-based category, while the posterior N1 peak amplitude was larger for correct trials than for incorrect trials. Importantly, for correct trials, stimuli in the edge-based category elicited large anterior P2 and posterior P3 than that in surface-based category.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although surface-based information might attract more attention during the feature detection, edge-based information plays more important roles in the evaluation of the relevance of the information in making a decision in incidental category learning.
     Perceptual Sequence Learning Without Awareness
    Yuqi Sun , Qiufang Fu , Ying Sun
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 81-81.  
    摘要   ( 55 ) PDF (0KB)( 52 )
     PURPOSE: The serial reaction time (SRT) task has been widely used to investigate whether sequence learning can occur without awareness. However, in most of the SRT tasks, the stimuli can be perceived consciously, and the question is whether people can acquire perceptual or motor sequence knowledge at the unconscious level. It remains unclear whether people can acquire perceptual knowledge when the stimuli in a sequence are invisible or subliminal.
    METHODS: In this study, we used continuous flash suppression (CFS) method to explore whether people can learn the serial order of subliminal stimuli. During the familiarization phase, distinct flash patterns were presented to the dominant eye and novel symbols of four triplets were presented to the other eye in the subliminal condition, while the flash patterns and symbols were presented simultaneously in both eyes in the visible control condition. During the test phase, a continuous stream of 12 visible symbols was presented to the same eye as in the familiarization phase in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, and participants were asked to press a key when a target symbol was presented.
    RESULTS: The results showed that the detection latency was faster when the target was the third symbol of the triplets than it was the first symbol of the triplets in the CFS condition, but there was no such location effect in the control condition.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that perceptual sequence learning can occur even when the stimuli are invisible, although people do not express sequence learning effects when the stimuli are visible.
     Does Prototype Category Learning Include Declarative Memory?
    Jie Wu , Qiufang Fu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 82-82.  
    摘要   ( 36 ) PDF (0KB)( 31 )
     PURPOSE: The present study aims to investigate whether both A/B and A/not A tasks of prototype category learning include declarative memory.
    METHODS: To address this issue, cartoon animals varied along 10 binary dimensions were adopted as stimuli, and participants were asked to complete either an A/B task or an A/not A task in either the single condition or the dual condition. For the A/B task, participants were asked to indicate which category the stimulus belonged to, and then the feedback of the correctness was provided during training. The test phase was the same as training except there was no feedback. For the A/not A task, participants were asked to indicate how likable the stimulus was, and then the feedback of the likeability rated by others was provided during training. In the test phase, participants were asked to indicate whether the stimulus belonged to the category they saw before. In the dual condition, participants were asked to complete the categorization task and the additional Sternberg memory scanning task. On each trial, they were asked to memorize 4 digits before categorization, and then recognized them after categorization.
    RESULTS: The results showed that the accuracy was significantly higher than chance for both tasks in either the single or the dual condition and the accuracy was significantly higher in the single condition than in the dual condition for both tasks. That is, although the secondary working memory task reduced performance in the two tasks of prototype category learning, but it could not eliminate category leaning in both tasks.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that declarative memory might be involved in prototype category learning, but it does not play a crucial role in prototype category learning.
     Optogenetic manipulation of amacrine cells reveals extensive non-glutamatergic excitatory inputs to retinal ganglion cells
    Guo-Zhong Xu, Ling-Jie Cui, Ai-Lin Liu, Wei Zhou, Xue Gong, Yong-Mei Zhong, Xiong-Li Yang, Shi-Jun Weng
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 83-83.  
    摘要   ( 40 ) PDF (0KB)( 28 )
     PURPOSE: Convergent evidence suggest that amacrine cells (ACs) might provide excitatory inputs to retinal ganglion cells (GCs), and such inputs might be non-glutamatergic. Here, we sought to optogenetically characterize these non-glutamatergic inputs in the VGAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse, in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) are expressed in inhibitory CNS neurons.
    METHODS: Double-staining immunohistochemical assays were used to characterize the retinal expression profile of the transgene with various specific markers for retinal neurons. In a whole-mount preparation, when ACs were optogenetically activated, whole-cell recordings were applied on GCs and postsynaptic responses were examined. Excitatory and inhibitory inputs were separated by holding the membrane potential at -70 mV and 0 mV, respectively.
    RESULTS: EYFP signals were detected in the vast majority of horizontal cells and ACs, but not in photoreceptors, bipolar cells and GCs, suggesting a confined ChR2 expression in retinal inhibitory interneurons. When glutamatergic transmission was blocked pharmacologically and ACs were stimulated optogenetically, an EPSC (named as non-glutamatergic light-evoked EPSC, or nG-L-EPSC) was elicited in most GCs (percentage: ON-type GCs, 82%; OFF-type GCs, 79%; ON-OFF-type GCs, 92%). Furthermore, in a population (~87%) of GCs, their nG-L-EPSCs survived superimposed cholinergic blockade (the residual responses further named as nGnC-L-EPSCs). The nGnC-L-EPSCs remained in the presence of inhibitory transmitter antagonists and MFA, a gap junction blocker, but was completely abolished by Co2+, indicating that it is not mediated by inhibitory signals, or by electrical coupling with neighboring ChR2-expressing ACs, but is indeed a postsynaptic response due to optogenetic activation of ACs. Finally, quantitative analysis showed that all three GC subclasses are driven by such nGnC excitatory inputs, but likely with moderate difference in input strength.
    CONCLUSIONS: Most mouse GCs possess non-glutamatergic excitatory synaptic inputs, which are mediated by chemical synapses via acetylcholine and other unknown excitatory transmitters. ACs might play a more intricate role in inner retinal signal processing than ever thought.
     新异线索对空间冲突加工的易化与抑制机制
    Di Fu, Xun Liu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 84-84.  
    摘要   ( 54 ) PDF (0KB)( 51 )
     PURPOSE: In the current study, we modified classic Stroop and Flanker paradigms by introducing a singleton cue to explore whether the singleton would facilitate or impair participants' performance in conflict processing. When people switch attention resources from singleton cue to the task target, they experience two phases called attention capture (bottom-up) and attention disengagement (top-down). The results of these experiments would elucidate psychological mechanism underling the effect of singleton cue on the two phases of attentional switch.
    MEHODS: In the Stroop task, 5 segments consisted of a vertical line with/without a color singleton in the cue phase. Next, participants were required to response to the orientation (up/down) of an arrow presented at the top/bottom of the vertical array during the target phase (Fig. 1). Hence, attention needs to be disengaged from the singleton quickly and switch to the target. In the Flanker task, after the same cue phase as the Stroop task, participants were required to response to the orientation (up/down) of the center arrow in the array of five vertical arrows (congruent/incongruent direction) (Fig. 2). Participants' accuracy and reaction times were recorded.
    RESULTS: In both Stroop and Flanker tasks, the singleton cue showed significant effect such that the presence of the singleton affected the task performance. The interaction between singleton location and congruency was also significant. Interestingly, singletons closer to the target facilitated the conflict processing, while singletons farther away from the target impaired the conflict processing.
    CONCLUSIONS: The singleton cue attracts attention due to its salience. This bottom-up capture may facilitate the conflict processing if it coincides with the target location, but hinder the conflict processing if attention needs to be disengaged from the singleton to the target location. This suggests that bottom-up attention capture and top-down executive control interact with each other to direct attention and resolve conflict.
     Two, but not one, sessions’ anodal tDCS improved contrast sensitivity
    Qing He, Bo-Rong Lin, Chang-Bing Huang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 85-85.  
    摘要   ( 46 ) PDF (0KB)( 35 )
     Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a well-established noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been widely applied to modulate cortical excitability in the human brain. Previous tDCS studies on modulating contrast sensitivity, one of the most fundamental visual function, were mixed. In the current study, we designed a single blind, sham-controlled with-subject study to investigate the effects of tDCS on contrast sensitivity functions (CSF), assessed with a quick procedure that accurately estimated CSF within minutes (Lesmes et al., 2010). Twenty-seven healthy adult subjects received three sets of 15-min tDCS (two 2-mA anodal and one sham), with CSF measured before and after tDCS stimulation. The tDCS were delivered at Oz and separated by at least twenty-four hours. The results indicated that one-session anodal tDCS didn’t alter the CSF’s significantly; an extra session of tDCS led to improved CSF, most around mid-frequency. These results were discussed within the measurement precision. Our findings also suggested that the cortical excitation elicited by external electrical stimulation might be cumulative.
     Bio-inspired Nanowire Arrays as Artificial Photoreceptors for Retinal Prosthesis
    Jing Tang, Nan Qin, Yan Chong, Yian Huang, Yupu Diao, Biao Kong, Yun Wang, Tian Xue, Dongyuan Zhao, Min Jiang, Jiayi Zhang, Gengfeng Zheng
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 86-86.  
    摘要   ( 104 ) PDF (0KB)( 45 )
     PURPOSE: The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. The state-of-art retinal prosthesis utilizes photodiode arrays fabricated on solid substrates, which does not have a complete tiling of the retinal tissue. Polymer based optoelectronic interface to retinal tissue, despite being compatible with flexible substrates, has limited spatial resolution for vision. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we developed bio-inspired artificial photoreceptors, i.e. gold nanoparticle-decorated titania (Au-TiO2) nanowire arrays, for restoration of multi-color visual responses in the retina of blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. METHODS: single-cell intracellular measurements by patch-clamps, functional calcium imaging, in vivo electrophysiological recording, Pupillary light reflex.
    RESULTS: When Au-TiO2 nanowire arrays were in direct contact with blind mice retina, single-cell intracellular measurements by patch-clamps in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) revealed that green, blue and UV light responses were restored with a spatial resolution approaching or exceeding 100 µm. Light responses in RGCs can be blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, indicating that nanowire array-interfaced retinas were capable of processing visual information through innate retinal circuits. Moreover, cellular-level population responses using functional calcium imaging in the Au-TiO2 nanowire array-interfaced blind retinas indicated that the receptive field is within the range of 200 µm. Neurons in the primary visual cortex responded to light in vivo after subretinal implant of the nanowire arrays into the blind mice. The blind mice had lost a part of ability of the pupillary light reflex. But after subretinal implant of NW array, the blind mice regained the ability of pupillary light reflex.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to show bio-inspired artificial photoreceptors and will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for photo-coded subretinal implants and prosthetic devices.
     视听Stroop任务揭示认知控制机制的通道特异性
    Zhenghan Li , Guochun Yang, Xun Liu
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 87-87.  
    摘要   ( 110 ) PDF (0KB)( 134 )
     PURPOSE: Conflict adaptation (CA) has been used to study the transfer of cognitive control across consecutive trials, in which the conflict effect is reduced when the previous trial also contains conflict with regards to stimulus-responses compatibility (SRC). Previous studies have found that cognitive control is modality-specific, such that the CA effect appears only when adjacent trials contain conflicts from the same modality, but is absent when the conflicts are from different modalities. However, the modality-specific effect may have been confounded by factors such as negative priming, feature integration and contingency learning. Therefore we investigated whether or not cognitive control could transfer across auditory and visual conflicts when the other factors were controlled.
    METHODS: A modified audio-visual color-word Stroop task (Figure.1) was conducted, in which participants were asked to respond to a visual stimulus, with conflict coming from either the same or a different modality. The experimental sequences were pseudo-random, so that the task- relevant and irrelevant stimuli were never repeated in adjacent trials.
    RESULTS: We conducted three-way repeated measures analyses of variance of Switch (same or different modalities) × Previous Congruency × Current Congruency and found marginal 3-way interaction. Further analyses revealed that the 2-way interaction between Previous Congruency and Current Congruency (CA effect) was only significant in the modality-repetition condition, but not in the modality-alternation condition.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results supported that cognitive control served in a modality-specific fashion to resolve conflicts across visual and auditory modalities. Moreover, the modality-specific effect of cognitive control should be taken into account in theories of cognitive control.
     基于谱分析的脑部双光子图像动静脉分离
    李福全, 李明, 胡德文
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 88-88.  
    摘要   ( 40 ) PDF (0KB)( 45 )
     目的:脑血管动静脉分离(Artery-vein separation)是理解脑血管血氧动力学的基础, 也是理解脑功能与脑结构联系的基础, 双光子显微镜具有高的成像率和成像深度, 非常适合应用于该类问题。本文使用谱分析技术, 分析不同种类血管采集到的成像信号的谱分布差异, 并将该差异应用于动静脉分离。
    方法:将处理后的小白鼠转移到实验台上, 并使用双光子显微镜采集不同血管的图像, 采集完成后, 对图像进行滑动平均滤波, 滤波完成后, 使用k均值聚类方法提取出血管后, 再使用边缘检测方法提取出血管边界, 然后将各个血管段边界的信号取均值, 代表该段血管的信号。最后应用多窗口谱估计方法从各个血管段的代表信号提取谱值特征。
    结果:血管信号功率谱有两个明显峰值, 通过比对小白鼠生理数据, 可以发现这两个信号是呼吸信号和心跳信号。同时在动脉上心跳频率谱值强于呼吸频率谱值, 在静脉上呼吸频率谱值高于动脉频率谱值。
    结论:血管上心跳频率和呼吸频率谱值的差异可以用来区分动静脉血管, 且区分效果良好, 动静脉分离成功率较高。
     The amblyopic eye is still “lazy” in clinically treated amblyopia
    Wuxiao Zhao, Wuli Jia, Ge Chen, Yan Luo, Borong Lin, Qing He, Zhong-Lin Lu, Min Li, Chang-Bing Huang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 89-89.  
    摘要   ( 44 ) PDF (0KB)( 31 )
     PURPOSE: The gold standard of a successful amblyopia treatment is full recovery of visual acuity (VA) in the amblyopic eye, but there has been no systematic study on how the previously amblyopic eye (pAE) behaves in binocular viewing conditions. In this research, we aimed to quantify sensory dominance of the pAE in a variety of perceptual tasks in subjects with treated amblyopia.
    METHODS: Sixteen treated amblyopes with similar visual acuity in two eyes participated in this study. Stereoacuity, monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity functions (CSF), binocular phase combination, and pAE dominance in binocular rivalry were measured. Three indices were derived to quantify sensory eye dominance: (1) binocular contrast summation ratio, (2) interocular balance point in binocular phase combination, and (3) percentage of pAE dominance in rivalry. RESULTS: Stereoacuity and pAE dominance in binocular rivalry in "treated" amblyopia were largely comparable to those of normal subjects. CSF of the pAE remained deficient in high spatial frequencies. The binocular contrast summation ratio is significantly lower than normal standard. The interocular balance point is 34%, indicating that contrast in pAE is only 34% as effective as the same contrast in pFE in binocular phase combination.
    CONCLUSIONS: Although VA, stereoacuity, CSF and binocular rivalry at low spatial frequency in treated amblyopes were normal or nearly normal, the pAE remained "lazy" in high frequency domain, binocular contrast summation, and interocular phase combination. Our results suggest that structured monocular and binocular training are necessary to fully recover deficient functions in amblyopia.
     清醒猴初级视觉皮层的黑白亮度编码机制
    杨祎, 邢大军
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 90-90.  
    摘要   ( 47 ) PDF (0KB)( 64 )
     目的:人类对于黑色视觉刺激的敏感性普遍强于对白色视觉刺激的敏感性, 这样黑白不对称的视觉现象对于理解视觉信息的编码机制是一个很好的入手点。之前有研究者在麻醉的猕猴和猫的初级视觉皮层中发现了明显的黑色优势的细胞反应特性, 我们想知道清醒猴的初级视觉皮层的中是否存在同样的黑色优势现象, 并阐释黑白亮度的在初级视皮层中的编码机制。
    方法:使用线性电极阵列记录清醒猴v1皮层对黑白亮度视觉刺激的反应, 对皮层的电生理信号进行分层分析, 计算v1同一个column不同层的黑白亮度反应差异以及变化趋势。
    结果:V1整体都对黑色刺激反应更强。输入层的平均黑白不对称强度弱于输出层和深层的平均值。输入层中4cα的黑白不对称强度弱于4cβ, 输出层中的黑白不对称强度变异比较大, 一部分column中从下到上逐渐增强, 一部分从下到上逐渐减弱。深层的黑白不对称的强度较一致。
    结论: 清醒猴的初级视皮层对黑白亮度的处理不对称, 对黑色信息成优势编码。输出层对于输入层的黑白信息并不是等比例的放大或者减小, 而是部分加强了对黑色信息的反应, 部分加强了对白色信息的反应, 说明黑白信息在初级视皮层中是被分开编码的。
     PERCEPTUAL LEARNING INCREASES THE SENSORY GAIN OF THE EARLY AND LATE ERP COMPONENT
    Xi Jie, Wu-li Jia, Pan Zhang, Chang-bing Huang
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 91-91.  
    摘要   ( 37 ) PDF (0KB)( 30 )
     PURPOSE: Despite training makes perfect improvement in most perceptual tasks, the neural and functional mechanisms of perceptual learning are still under debate. Here we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link learning-induced behavioral improvements with changes in neural activities.
    METHODS: Twenty subjects underwent ten sessions of training to identify the orientation of a peripherally presented sinewave grating. A set of psychophysics and ERP measurements at different retinal locations, contrast levels, and eyes were conducted before and after training.
    RESULTS: We found that training substantially improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity functions, increased the amplitude, and decreased the latency of the ERP components at the trained location. The learning effect was particularly pronounced around the trained condition, consistent with previous findings. Modeling analysis revealed that training led to changes in both contrast, slope and response gains for different ERP component, and learning induced changes encompassed different sensory gain from the early to the late ERP components. Moreover, the learning effects and improvements in latency at the trained location were largely retained over a three-month period.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a model of PL in which neuronal plasticity occurs at both early and late ERP components, but with different mechanisms. The results of the late ERP components may reflect top-down effects such as attention involved in the processing of the stimuli which amplify the increase of the amplitude or decrease the latency of the late ERP components.
     视觉学习与注意力对心理影响
    徐艳
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 92-92.  
    摘要   ( 504 ) PDF (0KB)( 423 )
     目的:通过类似机器深度学习方法提高学生学习能力降低焦虑心理
    方法:从图片记忆试验发现学生群体对视觉学习的注意力持续时间, 时间维度对心理的影响, 视觉学习难度对心理的影响。个体焦虑程度对视觉学习的影响, 图片记忆的效果分析。主要运用抽样调查法对学生群体设置对照组, 设定目标学习法, 对图片注视, 与自由联想思维记忆特点对比。
    结果:人脑的思考模式与人工智能机器深度学习模式交互学习, 卷积神经网络系统思维特点, 对人类认知学习图式受情绪影响的状况得到相应的改善, 以目标为主导, 设定学习方法, 计时, 效率提高。增加图片难度, 对照分析。得出结论学习方法改进提高学习效率, 同时个体焦虑情绪降低, 分值相对提高。对照不同学生群体实验结果有一致性。 结论:人类可以向智能机器交互学习, 视觉识别、与记忆内容提高有正相关性, 同时提高人类对未来人工智能发展捕捉分析思维方式有效应对策略, 准确阻滞入侵人工智能视觉网络思维体系, 对国防科技发展有重要意义。
     Congruent and opposite neurons in multisensory or multi-modality cortical areas arise from efficient coding of sensory inputs
    Li Zhaoping
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 93-93.  
    摘要   ( 67 ) PDF (0KB)( 40 )
     Many medial superior temporal (MST) neurons are tuned to heading direction of self-motion based on optic flow or vestibular inputs. The preferred directions from different senses within a single neuron can be congruent (matched) or opposite from each other (Gu, Angelaki, DeAngelis 2008). Similarly, neurons in middle temporal (MT) cortex are tuned to depth based on binocular disparity or motion parallax, and the preferred depths from different modalites can also be congruent or opposite (Nadler et al 2013). These are examples of neuron in the brain that respond to inputs from multiple sensory modalities, e.g., vision, audition, and touch, or from multiple unisensory cues. While the congruently tuned neurons appear natural for the functional role of cue integration, the oppositely tuned neurons appear somewhat puzzling. I propose that, together, congruent and opposite cells in a neural population achieve efficient coding given incomplete redundancy in the input sources (Barlow, 1961). Efficiency requires creating representations (also called bases) in which the inputs are decorrelated. For two sources, this implies two bases in which inputs that sample the features from the two sources are either (weighted and) added or (weighted and) subtracted; these are the genesis respectively of congruently and oppositely tuned cells. The opposite cells are needed because the two sources are typically only incompletely redundant, and their activities can encode input information not encoded by the congruent cells. The exact forms (i.e., relative weighting of the sources) of, and neural sensitivities to, individual bases should depend on, and adapt to, the statistical properties of the inputs (e.g., the correlation between the sources and the signal to noise ratios). Coding of visual-vestibular heading direction and stereoscopic-motion-parallax depth both become analogous to efficient stereo coding (Li & Atick 1994). Generalization to more than two senses or modalities is straightforward. For example, coding of inputs from three sources can be analogous to efficient color coding of inputs from three cone types (Atick, Li, Redlich 1992).
     喂食动作:视觉信息与触觉信息的竞争
    宋爱霞, 张竹, 唐日新
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 94-94.  
    摘要   ( 209 ) PDF (0KB)( 93 )
     目的:前人研究表明, 工具是手的延伸, 能够修改躯体感觉内在属性与知觉, 通常在手的抓握过程中, 视觉通道的信息占主导地位, 但在喂食动作中, 视觉信息与触觉信息的利用程度可能存在不同。 筷子是十分具有中国特色的饮食工具, 本研究研究中国人在分别使用筷子、夹子和手进行喂食时视觉和触觉信息的利用策略。
    方法:采用实验法, 南京大学被试36名, 利用液晶护目镜PLATO goggles与光学跟踪测量仪OptoTRAK来捕捉运动数据, SPSS17.0进行重复测量方差检验。
    结果:结果发现(1)实验一:中国人使用筷子与手时, 嘴的最大张合孔径在开闭环间无显著差异, 使用夹子时嘴的最大张合孔径在开闭环间差异显著, (2)实验二:嘴的最大张合孔径的开闭环主效应显著, 工具的主效应不显著。
    结论:(1)熟悉的工具与手使用相似信息策略; (2)触觉信息在喂食动作中发挥重要作用; (3)工具的熟悉程度能够改变信息的利用策略。
     缺损视野的自然评估与恢复
    赵金, 何勍, 邱怀雨, 黄昌兵
    心理科学进展. 2017, 25 (suppl.): 95-95.  
    摘要   ( 99 ) PDF (0KB)( 59 )
     目的:视野缺损是一种常见的眼科疾病, 眼部炎症、外伤以及视觉通路病变等均会造成不同类型的视野缺损。目前临床上对视野受损的视觉能力评估主要依赖于视野计, 但有不少研究表明视野计可能大大低估了患者的视觉能力。然而, 临床上并无用于对已缺损视野功能进行客观而有效地评估和干预的技术和方法。本研究利用视觉心理物理学研究中已被研究得相对比较清晰的记忆视觉掩蔽技术(memory masking)去定量评估受损视野的残留功能水平。同时, 对于受损视野仍有残留功能的病人, 采用知觉学习方法来尝试对其缺损的视野进行恢复。
    方法:实验一采用记忆掩蔽范式对偏盲患者缺损视野的功能进行评估。通过对比掩蔽刺激在受损视野和完整视野两种情况下掩蔽效应的差异去推断受损视野的残留功能状态。 实验二采用知觉学习训练方法, 利用光栅朝向辨别任务来对偏盲病人进行训练。在训练中, 首先每一试次会同时呈现两个对比度相同且位置相对固定的光栅, 让被试判断这两个光栅的朝向是否一致, 通过阶梯法控制光栅的对比度。当在初始位置上朝向辨别任务的对比度下降到某一水平, 则改变刺激呈现位置, 逐步由中央向外周扩展。被试每天训练1-2次, 每名被试训练3-6个月。
    结果:实验一的结果发现, 被诊断为偏盲的患者, 其缺损视野仍观测到稳定的掩蔽效应, 表明传统测量视野的方法低估了患者的视觉功能, 受损视野仍存在着功能完整的细胞, 受损视野有变好的可能。实验二的结果发现, 经过3-6个月的训练, 4名偏盲被试双眼平均提高1.87dB, 其中左眼平均提高2.38dB, 右眼平均提高1.36dB。
    结论:结果提示, 视野缺损病人的偏盲侧依然具有残余的视功能, 仅用视野计评估视野会严重低估患者的视觉功能。利用知觉学习的训练方法可以改善视野缺损病人的受损状况。
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