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心理科学进展  2009, Vol. 17 Issue (02): 261-267    
  本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
“鸡尾酒会”环境中的知觉线索的去掩蔽作用
徐李娟;黄莹;吴玺宏;吴艳红;李量
北京大学心理学系、智能科学系、言语和听觉研究中心
Effects of Perceptual Cues on Releasing Speech From Informational Masking
XU Li-Juan; HUANG Ying; WU Xi-Hong; WU Yan-Hong; LI Liang
Department of Psychology, Speech and Hearing Research Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
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摘要 在有多人同时说话的嘈杂环境中,为什么具有正常听力的人能在一定的程度上听懂目标语句?研究这个著名的“鸡尾酒会”问题的一个新进展是将干扰言语的作用区分出了能量掩蔽和信息掩蔽两种成分。与发生在外周系统的能量掩蔽不同,信息掩蔽发生在心理层次并受到认知过程的调节。因此,主观空间分离、与目标语句节奏相关的视觉信号以及对目标语句某些特征的熟悉程度等知觉线索都具有去掩蔽作用。考察可减少信息掩蔽的知觉线索的交互作用及其高级认知调节是今后重要的研究内容
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徐李娟
黄莹
吴玺宏
吴艳红
李量
关键词 “鸡尾酒会”问题知觉线索选择性注意能量掩蔽信息掩蔽    
Abstract:In a noisy “cocktail-party” environment, target speech is masked by different sounds. The masking includes at least two different components: energetic masking and informational masking. Energetic masking occurs when peripheral neural activities elicited by the target signal are overwhelmed by those elicited by the mask signal, leading to a substantially degraded neural representation of the target signal. Informational masking occurs when the target and the masker are similar in some dimensions, such as when they are both speech signals. The similarity leads to a competition for the limited central cognitive processing resources between the target and the masker signal. Thus, the amount of informational masking is not only affected by the bottom-up processes but also modulated by the top-down processes. The effects, which occur at the perceptual level, of the perceived spatial separation, the visual cues such as lip reading and speech-synchronized light flash, and the familiarity with the characteristics of the target signal on releasing target speech from informational masking are summarized. Future research will focus on the interactive effects among these cues and the perceptual processing mechanisms of using different cues to release speech from informational masking
Key words“cocktail-party” problem    perceptual cues    selective attention    energetic masking    informational masking
收稿日期: 2008-09-28      出版日期: 2009-03-15
ZTFLH:  B842.2  
  B849  
通讯作者: 李量   
引用本文:   
徐李娟;黄莹;吴玺宏;吴艳红;李量. “鸡尾酒会”环境中的知觉线索的去掩蔽作用[J]. 心理科学进展, 2009, 17(02): 261-267.
XU Li-Juan; HUANG Ying; WU Xi-Hong; WU Yan-Hong; LI Liang. Effects of Perceptual Cues on Releasing Speech From Informational Masking. , 2009, 17(02): 261-267.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2009/V17/I02/261
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