ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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  1. 1. 中国科学院大学
    2. 中国科学院心理研究所
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-03 修回日期:2020-11-11 出版日期:2021-01-11 发布日期:2021-01-11
  • 通讯作者: 蔡华俭
  • 基金资助:

Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Personal Names in Real World: Evidence and Theories

  • Received:2020-09-03 Revised:2020-11-11 Online:2021-01-11 Published:2021-01-11

摘要: 姓名不仅会影响他人的印象与评价,还可能会影响个体实际的心理与行为。近几十年来,心理学家在决策、成就、健康、人格四个领域开展了大量实证研究来考察姓氏或名字对个体的实际影响。姓名的多个维度(如独特性、性别倾向、含义效价、温暖–能力维度等)在不同程度上可以预测这些领域的心理与行为(包括职业决策/生活决策/经济决策、职业成就/学业成就、生理健康/心理健康/犯罪行为、人格特质/心理需要/面孔特征等)。但是,现有研究证据比较混杂,理论解释有待完善。未来研究应全面考虑姓名维度,重点解决可重复性、因果关系、心理机制、跨文化普遍性等问题,努力构建更系统、更包容的理论来解释姓名的心理与行为效应。

关键词: 姓氏, 名字, 行为决策, 个体差异, 跨文化心理学

Abstract: Personal names not only can influence others’ impression and evaluation, but also may affect individuals’ own psychology and behavior in real world. Over the past century, psychologists have conducted numerous empirical studies in the domains of decision making, achievement, health, and personality to examine the actual impacts of a surname or given name on an individual. Various dimensions of names (e.g., name uniqueness, name gender, name valence, and name warmth–competence) could, more or less, predict human psychology and behavior (e.g., career/life/economic decisions, career/academic achievement, physical/mental health, criminal behavior, personality traits, psychological needs, and facial characteristics). However, existing evidence is mixed and current theories are far from adequate. Future studies should comprehensively examine multiple dimensions of names, focus on solving methodological problems (such as replicability, cross-cultural generalizability, causality, and psychological mechanisms), and try best to develop more systematic and inclusive theories to explain the psychological and behavioral effects of names.

Key words: surname, given name, behavioral decision-making, individual difference, cross-cultural psychology