ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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自闭症谱系障碍个体的共情干预:扬长还是补短?

霍超,李祚山,孟景   

  1. 重庆师范大学教育科学学院
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-15 修回日期:2020-09-24 出版日期:2021-01-11 发布日期:2021-01-11
  • 通讯作者: 孟景
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社科项目

Empathic intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: strengthening or mending?

  • Received:2020-06-15 Revised:2020-09-24 Online:2021-01-11 Published:2021-01-11

摘要: 自闭症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorders, ASD)个体的共情能力缺陷可能导致了他们的社会交往障碍,因此有必要对ASD的共情能力进行干预。有研究者主张应该对ASD个体的共情缺陷进行直接干预,由此衍生了共情“补短”法,主要包括心理理论的干预、观点采择的干预、面部表情认知的干预等几种方法。另有一些研究者认为虽然ASD个体存在共情缺陷,但他们同时也具备系统化能力优势,应该通过ASD个体的优势能力来改善其共情能力,由此衍生了共情“扬长”法,主要包括乐高治疗、严肃游戏干预、基于系统化理论的孤岛能力辅助干预等几种方法。每种方法都存在其优点和不足。最后就目前ASD个体的共情干预领域存在的问题进行了反思与展望。

关键词: 自闭症谱系障碍, 共情, 干预

Abstract: As empathic deficits in individuals with autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may cause their social interaction impairments, it is necessary to intervene the empathy ability of ASD individuals. Some researchers advocated that direct intervention should be carried out on the empathic deficits of ASD individuals, thus derived the method of "mending" of empathy, which mainly includes several methods such as TOM Intervention, The intervention of perspective-taking, Facial mimicry instructions. Otherwise some researchers think that although ASD individual defects empathy, they also have the ability of systematically advantages and should be through the advantage of ASD individual ability to improve their ability of empathy, leading to the empathy "strengthening" method, mainly including LEGO Therapy, serious games intervention, Island-based intervention based on Systemizing Theory. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the problems existing in the field of empathy intervention for ASD individuals are reflected and prospected.

Key words: ASD, Empathy, intervention