ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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老年人的智慧

陈浩彬1,汪凤炎2   

  1. 1. 江西科技师范大学
    2. 南京师范大学心理学院
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-09 修回日期:2020-07-12 出版日期:2020-11-18 发布日期:2020-11-18
  • 通讯作者: 汪凤炎
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金;江西省高校人文社会科学重点研究基地项目

Measurements, antecedents and effects of wisdom in old age

chen hao-bin1,Fengyan Wang   

  • Received:2020-06-09 Revised:2020-07-12 Online:2020-11-18 Published:2020-11-18
  • Contact: Fengyan Wang

摘要: 智慧是个体在其人生经历中习得的德才一体的综合素质,是老年人的重要属性和成功老龄化的预测指标。研究发现,三维智慧量表、自我评估智慧量表、成人自我超越问卷等自陈式测量和柏林智慧范式、智慧推理等表现式测量对老年人智慧评估具有良好性能;老年人智慧发展受到开放性、自我反思、情绪调节、人格成长等内在因素以及受教育程度、关键生活经历、社会环境等外在因素的交互影响;毕生发展的智慧为老年人带来更高主观幸福感、生活满意度以及更少社会疏离感、孤独感和抑郁。未来应该开发多测度、整合的老年人智慧测评工具;深入揭示老年人智慧的预测因素、影响后效及其内部作用机制;进一步探索社区养老服务中老年人智慧的干预与培育策略。

关键词: 智慧, 老年人, 测量, 反思, 幸福感

Abstract: Wisdom is an integrated quality of morality and intelligence that individual learns from the life course, as well as an important attribute of the old and an predictor of successful aging. The researches have shown that self-reported measurements such as the three-dimensional wisdom scale, self-assessed wisdom scale, and the adult self-transcendence inventory, and performance measures such as the Berlin wisdom paradigm and wisdom reasoning have shown good property in the assessment of older adults’ wisdom; the development of wisdom in old age is influenced by the internal factors such as openness, self-reflection, emotional regulation and personality growth, as well as external factors such as educational level, critical life experiences, social environment; wisdom learned from life experience can bring higher subjective well-being, life satisfaction and less social alienation, loneliness and depression for older adult. Future researches are suggested to develop multi-faceted, multi-measured and integrated tools for the evaluation of older adults’ wisdom; further reveal the predictive factors, the effects and internal mechanism of wisdom in old age; further explore the intervention and cultivating strategies of older adults’ wisdom in the community care services.

Key words: wisdom, older adults, measurement, reflection, well-being