ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 1468-1477.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01468

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于直觉的亲社会性:来自社会启发式假设的思考

石荣, 刘昌()   

  1. 南京师范大学心理学院, 南京 210097
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-08 出版日期:2019-07-26 发布日期:2019-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘昌 E-mail:liuchang@njnu.edu.cn

Intuition-based prosociality: Thinking based on social heuristics hypothesis

SHI Rong, LIU Chang()   

  1. School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China.
  • Received:2018-10-08 Online:2019-07-26 Published:2019-06-25
  • Contact: Chang LIU E-mail:liuchang@njnu.edu.cn

摘要:

亲社会属性是人类的一个重要特征, 也是研究者一直关注的重点问题。大多数关于亲社会性的理论模型都有一个共同的假设:人类本能地自私, 亲社会行为是对自私进行反思控制的结果。亲社会性直觉模型却提出了相反的假设, 认为在许多情况下, 亲社会行为不需要主动控制自私冲动, 它本身就可以以直觉的(或冲动的)方式出现。亲社会性自动化的行为特征、奖赏寻求的神经特征, 以及儿童亲社会性的早期发展都为亲社会性直觉模型提供了支持性证据。社会启发式假设可以对个体的直觉亲社会性进行解释, 并从情境和个体两个方面对影响直觉亲社会性的因素进行了预测。这不仅为研究者重新思考亲社会行为的根源提供了一个新的视角, 也为未来研究提出了一些可供参考的方向。

关键词: 直觉, 亲社会行为, 亲社会性直觉模型, 社会启发式假设

Abstract:

Prosociality is a central feature of human beings and a major focus of research across the natural and social sciences. Most theoretical models of prosociality share a common assumption: Humans are instinctively selfish, and prosocial behaviors require exerting reflective control over these basic instincts. However, the intuitive model of prosociality has recently contradicted this view. This model assumes that the understanding of prosociality should be revised to include the possibility that, in many cases, prosocial behavior -- instead of requiring active control over our impulses -- represents an impulse of its own. The intuitive model of prosociality is supported by at least three markers: (1) behavioral signs of automaticity, (2) neural signatures of reward seeking, and (3) early development. Furthermore, based on social heuristics hypothesis, we explained human’s intuitive prosociality and analyzed the context and the individual factors which affect human’s intuitive prosocial behavior. These observations provided a new perspective for researchers and challenged them to reconsider the roots of prosociality.

Key words: Intuition, prosocial behavior, intuitive model of prosociality, social heuristics hypothesis

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