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心理科学进展  2017, Vol. 25 Issue (9): 1441-1455    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01441
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 利他仅仅利他吗?——进化视角的双路径模型
 谢晓非; 王逸璐;  顾思义; 李 蔚
 (北京大学心理与认知科学学院、行为与心理健康北京市重点实验室, 北京 100080)
 Is altruism just other-benefiting? A dual pathway model from an evolutionary perspective
 XIE Xiaofei; WANG Yilu; GU Siyi; LI Wei
 (School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100080, China)
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摘要  利他对受助者及社会有弥足珍贵的价值, 能提高群体的功能性, 增加危机中的生存概率从而保持种群延续; 但利他会降低助人者自身的适应性, 使其生存与繁殖的可能性较其他个体, 尤其是自利者, 处于不利地位。利他行为是如何得到进化的这一难题吸引了各领域学者的关注。本文回顾了具有代表性的多水平选择理论与竞争性利他理论, 结合利他研究的最新实证证据, 提出利他增加助人者适应性的双路径模型。内部路径指利他行为可以通过自激励的内在过程, 促进助人者身心的正性互动, 带来内部效用增益, 从而在某些时刻提高其适应性。外部路径为利他传递展现助人者品质的信号, 有助于提升其群体内地位并增加合作、择偶机会。进而, 利他行为能够在个体与群体层面的进化选择中得到保存。未来研究可以从身心关系的角度继续探讨利他问题, 促成利他的正性循环。
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谢晓非
王逸璐
顾思义
李蔚
关键词  利他 自激励效应 身心关系 适应性    
Abstract: Altruism is beneficial to its recipients and the whole society. By performing altruistic behaviors, individuals altogether enhance their group function and increase the group’s chance of survival in the face of crisis, which further enable the maintenance and development of the human species. However, altruistic behaviors are costly to the actors per se. It seems that altruists are often put at a disadvantage in survival and reproduction, relative to other individuals, especially to those selfish counterparts. A fundamental problem is, if altruistic behaviors inevitably reduce the fitness of altruists, how come these behaviors were spreading from generation to generation? Scholars, from a range of fields, have built intense interests in this problem, and delivered sustained efforts to solve this puzzle over a lengthy period of time. We proposed a dual pathway model based on the review of representative evolutionary explanations for altruism (i.e. multilevel selection theory and competitive altruism) and recent empirical evidence. From the internal side of an individual, altruism evokes a self-incentive process, facilitating a positive interaction between the actors’ psychological reactions and physiological experiences. Such internal benefits are critical to the altruist’s survival under certain circumstances. From the external side, altruism serves as a signal in interpersonal interactions, conveying information about the actors’ positive quality. Altruistic individuals get an easier access to cooperation opportunities, higher status, and more mate choices in the group, and thus can be benefitted from the long term. Taken together, altruists also reap potential fitness gains from their behaviors through internal and external pathways, beyond delivering direct and tangible benefits to others. Consequently, altruism will not disappear in the process of natural selection but will prevail in human beings. Future researchers could devote themselves to examining altruistic behaviors in a broader framework of mind-body relationships. Altruistic behaviors in the public should also be encouraged in order to create a positive spiral circle of altruism on both intra-personal and interpersonal levels.
Key words altruism    self-incentive effect    mind-body relationship    fitness
收稿日期: 2017-06-05      出版日期: 2017-07-14
ZTFLH:     
  B849: C91  
基金资助:  国家自然科学基金重大研究计划重点支持项目“危机情境中个体与群体的身心互动效能模型”(91224002)。
通讯作者: 谢晓非, E-mail: xiaofei@pku.edu.cn      E-mail: E-mail: xiaofei@pku.edu.cn
引用本文:   
谢晓非, 王逸璐, 顾思义, 李蔚.  利他仅仅利他吗?——进化视角的双路径模型[J]. 心理科学进展, 2017, 25(9): 1441-1455.
XIE Xiaofei, WANG Yilu, GU Siyi, LI Wei.  Is altruism just other-benefiting? A dual pathway model from an evolutionary perspective. Advances in Psychological Science, 2017, 25(9): 1441-1455.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01441      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2017/V25/I9/1441
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