ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (01): 97-105.

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恐惧管理研究:新热点、质疑与争论

刘亚楠; 许燕; 于生凯   

  1. 北京师范大学心理学院, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2009-06-01 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2010-01-15 发布日期:2010-01-15
  • 通讯作者: 许燕

Research on Terror Management: New development, Criticism and Controversy

LIU Ya-Nan; XU Yan; YU Sheng-Kai   

  1. School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China
  • Received:2009-06-01 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2010-01-15 Published:2010-01-15
  • Contact: XU Yan

摘要: 恐惧管理理论(Terror Management Theory, 简称TMT)认为, 死亡恐惧为人类发展提出了新的适应性问题, 多重机制因此进化而来以维护心理平衡。大量的实证研究验证了TMT的基本假设, 但在解释死亡突显效应背后的动机上还存在争议。该文首先介绍了由文化世界观、自尊及亲密关系组成的三重防御系统, 之后重点评述了批评者从认知闭合、意义维持、联结动机以及控制等视角对死亡突显效应背后真实动机做出的新的阐释, 最后指出未来研究应当尝试将死亡觉知的必然性与不确定性所引发的不同效应分离开来。

关键词: 恐惧管理, 认知闭合, 意义维持, 联结动机, 控制动机

Abstract: Terror management theory regards worldview, self-esteem and close relationship as the basic three defensive mechanisms of terror management. The author introduces some researches on these mechanisms first and then reviews several new interpretations on mortality salience effect from perspective of cognitive closure, meaning pursuit, offensive defense, coalitional and control motivation. After that, the author presents his own idea, which differentiates terror management strategy into two categories: approach and avoidance. The approach strategy aims to control the uncertain death and transcendent the inevitable demise, the avoidance strategy indicates that individuals react to the potential reminder of death negatively. Meanwhile, the author points that TMT probably misinterprets the function of the cultural worldview. Additionally, some recommendations on terror management research in china are proposed.

Key words: terror management, cognitive closure, meaning maintenance, coalitional motivation, control motivation