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心理科学进展  2019, Vol. 27 Issue (4): 623-635    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00623
  研究前沿 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
一图抵千言:多媒体学习中的自我生成绘图策略
王燕青,王福兴(),谢和平,陈佳雪,李文静,胡祥恩()
华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079
A picture is worth a thousand words: Self-generation drawing for multimedia learning
WANG Yanqing,WANG Fuxing(),XIE Heping,CHEN Jiaxue,LI Wenjing,HU Xiangen()
School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
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摘要 

自我生成绘图是指学生使用可视化的学习方法绘制一幅能反映每一段文字中重要观点的图画, 通过图文结合的方式来促进学习的一种策略。综述以往研究发现, 先前研究通过操纵文本、动画等学习材料来考察自我生成绘图在学习中的作用, 发现自我生成绘图的效果并不稳健:一方面它可以通过提高学生的认知和元认知能力、激发积极的情感状态而提高学习效果, 得到了绘图建构生成理论和多媒体学习认知理论的支持; 另一方面也可以通过增加认知负荷而阻碍学习, 得到了认知负荷理论的支持。整体而言, 自我生成绘图策略还是有利于学习的, 已有研究在学习效果上的效应量中值为d保持 = 0.13, d理解 = 0.46, d迁移 = 0.38。未来的研究仍需要关注自我生成绘图策略的材料操纵、效果评定以及潜在变量等等。

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王燕青
王福兴
谢和平
陈佳雪
李文静
胡祥恩
关键词 自我生成绘图绘图建构生成理论多媒体学习认知理论认知负荷理论多媒体学习    
Abstract

Self-generated drawing is a learning strategy in which learners rely on a written text to construct representational drawings that correspond to the main elements and relations described in each portion of the text. Previous studies have examined the role of self-generated drawing in learning by manipulating text, animation and other learning materials. However, it remained various mixed results of the effects of self-generated drawing. From the perspectives of generative theory of drawing construction (GTDC) and cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML), self-generated drawing can improve students' cognitive and metacognitive abilities, stimulate the positive emotional state and result in better retention or comprehension. In addition, cognitive load theory (CLT) might predict the opposite result of learning for the reason that drawing brings about an increase of extraneous cognitive load. In general, the self-generated mapping strategy is conducive to learning, the median effect sizes are dretention = 0.13, dcomprehension = 0.46, dtransfer = 0.38. The inconsistent results may be explained by the existence of potential boundary conditions, such as support, test methods, and prior knowledge, to name a few. Future studies should focus on the moderating effects of material manipulation, effectiveness evaluation, and other variables.

Key wordsself-generated drawing    generation theory of drawing construction    cognitive theory of multimedia learning    cognitive load theory    multimedia learning
收稿日期: 2018-06-19      出版日期: 2019-02-22
ZTFLH:  B849:G44  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金面上项目(#31771236);贵州省教育改革发展研究重大课题(#2017ZD005);中央高校基本科研业务费资助(2018YBZZ093)
通讯作者: 王福兴,胡祥恩     E-mail: fxwang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn;xiangenhu@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
引用本文:   
王燕青,王福兴,谢和平,陈佳雪,李文静,胡祥恩. (2019). 一图抵千言:多媒体学习中的自我生成绘图策略. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 623-635.
WANG Yanqing,WANG Fuxing,XIE Heping,CHEN Jiaxue,LI Wenjing,HU Xiangen. (2019). A picture is worth a thousand words: Self-generation drawing for multimedia learning. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 623-635.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00623      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2019/V27/I4/623
  基于绘图建构生成理论、多媒体学习认知理论、认知负荷理论的自我生成绘图的学习加工过程
研究 样本量 实验操纵 实验材料 内在感知 学习效果d
Alesandrini, 1981 383 绘图vs释义 电池中电化学的概念 / U*=0.279
Balemans et al., 2016 762 绘图vs阅读 人体组织结构 / R*(#)
Bock et al., 1998, Exp. 2 222 绘图vs提供图画vs阅读 数学单词问题 / R*(#)
Csíkos et al., 2011 244 绘图vs阅读 算术 B*(-) R (-0.049)
Dean & Kulhavey,
1981
, Exp. 1
40 绘图vs阅读 想象的非洲部落 / R*(1.08) T*(1.097)
Edens & Potter, 2003 184 绘图vs复制提供的图vs写作 能量守恒定律 / R (-) C*(-)
Gobert & Clement, 1999 58 绘图vs总结vs阅读 板块构造论 / R*(0.738)T*(0.714)
Hall et al., 1997 92 绘图vs提供图画vs阅读 手动气泵的工作 / C*(0.464)
Lin et al., 2017 60 绘图vs想象vs阅读 人类心血管系统 CL (-) C*(0.461)
Lee, 2017 339 阅读vs列关键词vs绘图vs (列关键词+绘图) 人体骨骼肌系统 / R*(0.066)
Leopold et al., 2013 71 绘图vs总结vs提供图画vs提供总结 水分子及其化学键 / C*(0.245) T(0.053)
Leopold & Leutner,
2012
, Exp. 1
90 绘图vs观点选择vs (绘图+观点选择)vs阅读 水分子 / C*(0.61) T*(0.808)
Leopold & Leutner,
2012
, Exp. 2
71 绘图vs总结vs (绘图+总结)vs阅读 水分子 / C (0.277) T*(0.817)
Lesgold et al., 1975,
Exp. 1
24 绘图vs阅读 散文 / R&(-0.98)
Lesgold et al., 1975,
Exp. 2
72 绘图(提供支持)vs阅读 同上 / R*(0.129)
Lesgold, De Good,
& Levin, 1977
32 绘图vs阅读 故事 / R*(#)
Leutner et al., 2009 111 绘图vs想象vs (绘图+想象)vs阅读 水分子的双极特性 CL*(0.72) C&(-0.37)
Mason et al., 2013 199 绘图vs复制图画vs观看 五球摆动的动画 / R*(0.418)
Ploetzner & Fillisch,
2017
52 绘图vs想象 四冲程引擎动画 / R&(-0.164)
Scheiter et al., 2017 74 绘图vs解释 介绍化学导论的
说明文
/ R (0.414) T(0.211)
Schleinschok et al.,
2017
, Exp. 1
73 绘图vs阅读 关于极光的天文
现象
CL (-0.35) JOL*(-) R (0.063)
Schleinschok et al.,
2017
, Exp. 2
69 绘图vs阅读 同上 CL (-0.066)
JOL*(-)
R (-0.143)
Schmeck et al., 2014,
Exp. 1
48 绘图vs阅读 流感的生物知识 ME*(0.766), PD
(-0.124)
C*(0.85)
Schmeck et al., 2014,
Exp. 2
168 绘图vs提供图画vs (绘图+提供图画)vs阅读 同上 ME (-0.584), PD
(-0.779)
C*(0.5)
Schwamborn et al.,
2011
102 绘图vs提供图画vs (绘图+提供图画)vs阅读 肥皂和水的化学反应 ME*(0.333) R&(-0.169) T&(0)
Schwamborn et al.,
2010
196 绘图vs (绘图+选择)vs(绘图+组织/整合)vs(绘图+选择+组织/整合)vs阅读 肥皂和水的化学反应 / R*(0.87) T*(0.91)
Schmidgall et al., in
press, Exp. 1
121 绘图vs总结vs提供图画vs阅读 人类游泳行为的生物力学研究 / R (0.002) T*(0.174)
研究 样本量 实验操纵 实验材料 内在感知 学习效果d
Schmidgall et al., in
press, Exp. 2
223 绘图vs想象vs观看 同上 PD*(0.643) R& (-0.458)
T (-0.081)
Snowman &
Cunningham, 1975
63 绘图vs问题vs (问题+绘图)vs阅读 描述一个虚构的部落 / R (-)
Stagg & Verde, 2018 41 绘图vs总结 植物物种 L* R (0.009)
van Essen & Hamaker,
1990
, Exp.1
53 绘图vs阅读 算术词问题 / R (-0.047)
T(-0.439)
van Essen & Hamaker,
1990
, Exp.2
50 绘图vs阅读 算术词问题 / R*(0.774) T*(0.67)
van Meter et al., 2006 135 绘图vs提供图画vs提供问题vs阅读 关于鸟的翅膀的文章 / R (0.043) T*(0.234)
van Meter, 2001 100 绘图vs提供图画vs提供问题vs阅读 中枢神经 S-M*(-) R*(0.337)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 1
55 绘图(仔细)vs写作(重复) 单词 / R*(1.23)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 2
49 绘图(重复)vs写作(仔细) 同上 / R*(1.3)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 3
47 绘图vs关键词vs写作 同上 / R*(0.86)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 4
28 绘图vs想象vs写作 同上 / R*(0.87)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 5
37 绘图vs提供图画vs写作 同上 / R*(0.67)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 6
28 绘图vs写作(更长的学习列表, 更短的编码时间) 同上 / R*(2.27)
Wammes et al.,
2016
, Exp. 7
47 纯绘图vs纯写作 同上 / R*(1.63)
Zhang & Linn,
2013
, Exp. 1
110 绘图vs简单选择 化学反应 S-M*(-) R (-0.139)
T*(0.668)
Zhang & Linn,
2013
, Exp. 2
172 绘图vs复杂选择 化学反应 S-M (-) R (-0.107)
T(-0.256)
Zhang & Linn, 2011 133 绘图vs观看 电池汽车氢气燃烧的过程 / T*(0.516)
Zhang, 2010 73 绘图vs评论 氢气燃烧过程中分子的相互作用 / T(-)
  自我生成绘图对学习效果和内在感知的影响(效应量Cohen’s d值)
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