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心理科学进展  2019, Vol. 27 Issue (4): 587-599    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00587
  研究方法 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
共同方法变异是“致命瘟疫”吗?——论争、新知与应对
朱海腾1,2(),李川云1
1国防大学政治学院, 上海 200433
2陆军炮兵防空兵学院军政基础系, 合肥 230031
Is common method variance a “deadly plague”? Unsolved contention, fresh insights, and practical recommendations
ZHU Haiteng1,2(),LI Chuanyun1
1 College of Politics, National Defence University, PLA, Shanghai 200433, China
2 Department of Military and Political Basic Education, Army Academy of Artillery and Air Defense, PLA, Hefei 230031, China
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摘要 

共同方法变异是由构念间相似的测量方法特征引起的系统变异, 可歪曲构念间的关系, 造成共同方法偏差。60年来, 这一问题在社会科学研究中被反复提及, 但它是否严重威胁研究效度尚无定论。虽然实证证据表明, 共同方法变异普遍存在, 数据来源、测量时间、问卷设计等因素可导致共同方法偏差, 使自我报告的横断式调查研究饱受质疑, 但部分学者从测量误差和非共同方法变异的制约作用等角度做出了回应和辩护, 认为无需过度担忧。以测量为中心的新视角强调共同方法变异是测量方法和被测构念交互作用的产物, 应从方法和构念两个维度评估共同方法变异风险。建议研究者树立均衡无偏的态度, 接纳共同方法变异的存在, 纠正对自我报告的偏见, 着重通过改进研究设计做好预先应对。

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朱海腾
李川云
关键词 共同方法变异共同方法偏差自我报告研究设计效度    
Abstract

Common method variance (CMV) is a form of systematic variance attributed to similarities of measurement method facets between constructs. It has potential to distort observational correlations and thus elicits common method bias (CMB). Although it has been noted repeatedly in social science research for almost 60 years, its threat to research validity hasn’t been overwhelmingly acknowledged and remains to be scrutinized. Extant empirical evidence has demonstrated the ubiquity of CMV and identified distinct factors triggering CMB, including data source, time interval, and questionnaire design. As a result, cross-sectional self-reporting surveys are particularly subjected to extensive criticism. Nonetheless, some researchers contend that measurement error and uncommon method variance can offset or alleviate the underlying detriment so that pervasive anxiety regarding CMV is exaggerated and unjustified. The measure-centric approach underlines that CMV originates from the interplay between methods and constructs, and the two-dimensional CMV risk evaluation procedure should be conducted with simultaneous consideration of method and construct. From our view, it is preferable to cultivate a balanced and impartial attitude towards CMV, embrace its existence, discard the prejudice against self-reporting, and, above all, take proactive countermeasures based on the optimization of research design.

Key wordscommon method variance    common method bias    self-reporting    research design    validity
收稿日期: 2018-06-04      出版日期: 2019-02-22
ZTFLH:  B841  
基金资助:* 国防大学政治学院2017年度院级科研项目(17ZY03-12);原陆军军官学院2016年度第二批自主立项资助(2016-02-ZZLX-40)
通讯作者: 朱海腾     E-mail: prettypig1990@sina.com
引用本文:   
朱海腾,李川云. (2019). 共同方法变异是“致命瘟疫”吗?——论争、新知与应对. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 587-599.
ZHU Haiteng,LI Chuanyun. (2019). Is common method variance a “deadly plague”? Unsolved contention, fresh insights, and practical recommendations. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 587-599.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00587      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2019/V27/I4/587
  构念总变异的分解 注:A-实质性共变, B-独特无关变异, C-测量误差变异, D-共同方法变异, E-非共同方法变异; D和E之和为方法变异, A和D之和决定了两个构念的观测相关系数大小
  共同方法变异风险评估坐标系
风险源 评分范围 说明
方法维度
数据来源 -4~4 完全自我报告计4分, 数据来源不同计-4分
测量时间 -3~3 一次性完成计3分; 时间间隔越长, 评分越低, 如间隔2天可计-1分, 间隔1周可计-2分
量表格式和选项 -2~2 两个变量采用完全相同的格式和选项, 计2分; 差异越大, 评分越低
变量维度
是否属于感知类 -2~2 两个变量均为感知类变量, 计2分; 至少一个不属于感知类变量, 计-2分
抽象性 -2~2 两个变量都非常抽象或模糊, 计2分; 至少一个比较具体, 计-2分
社会赞许性 -2~2 两个变量都有明显的社会赞许性, 计2分; 至少一个社会赞许性较低, 计-2分
  共同方法变异风险评估计分规则
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