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心理科学进展  2019, Vol. 27 Issue (4): 571-586    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00571
  研究构想 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
骏马易见, 伯乐难寻:决策者心智模式影响创意识别的机制及边界条件
白新文1(),齐舒婷1,2,明晓东1,2,周意勇1,2,黄明权1,2
1中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101
2中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049
Pearls are everywhere but not the eyes: The mechanism and boundary conditions of the influences of decision maker's mental models on idea recognition
BAI Xinwen1(),QI Shuting1,2,MING Xiaodong1,2,ZHOU Yiyong1,2,HUANG Mingquan1,2
1 CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2 Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要 

当前组织创造力和创新研究与实践的一大误区, 是重视员工的创意生成而忽视决策者的创意识别。决策者对组织创新的影响更大, 探讨决策者创意识别的影响因素及其作用机制, 是本领域研究的新方向。决策者的心智模式——即个体用以描述、解释和预测事物并指导判断和决策的知识及信念结构, 是影响创意识别准确性的关键因素。然而, 其重要性尚未得到充分认识。本项目以创造力的系统观作为理论框架, 综合采用实验和现场研究方法, 通过4个子研究揭示固着型与成长型两类决策者的心智模式影响创意识别的中介机制, 并探讨决策者、创造者和环境三个子系统影响决策者创意识别的协同作用。本项目从决策者角度探讨其创意识别的过程及结果, 在理论上为组织创造力和创新研究引入了新视角和新议题, 并有望为决策者如何规避创新决策的陷阱提供实践指导。

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白新文
齐舒婷
明晓东
周意勇
黄明权
关键词 组织创造力与创新决策者创意识别心智模式固着型/成长型心智模式    
Abstract

As one of the major limitations in organizational creativity and innovation research, much endeavor has been focused on idea generation rather than on idea recognition. Recognizing creative ideas among many options is the most crucial stage in the long process of organizational innovation, and contributes more to its success than generating ideas does. The critical role of decision maker’s mental model—the knowledge and belief structure that individuals use to describe, interpret, predict outside world, and to make judgment and decisions—on idea recognition has yet been examined. By adopting Csikszentmihalyi’s (1988, 1999) system view of creativity, the current study aims a) to demonstrate the difference in idea recognition accuracy between decision makers holding a fixed mindset or a growth mindset; b) to reveal the mediating effect of decision makers’ uncertainty tolerance decision makers; and c) to investigate the moderating effects of idea features and the pattern of organizational innovation practice. The current study contributes to organizational creativity and innovation literature by introducing a new perspective to this field. Also, decision makers can gain insight on how to avoid costly mistakes by reflecting on and modifying mental models of their own.

Key wordsorganizational creativity & innovation    decision makers    idea recognition    mental models    fixed/growth mindsets
收稿日期: 2018-09-21      出版日期: 2019-02-22
ZTFLH:  B849:C93  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金面上项目(71871214);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0802600)
通讯作者: 白新文     E-mail: baixw@psych.ac.cn
引用本文:   
白新文,齐舒婷,明晓东,周意勇,黄明权. (2019). 骏马易见, 伯乐难寻:决策者心智模式影响创意识别的机制及边界条件. 心理科学进展, 27(4), 571-586.
BAI Xinwen,QI Shuting,MING Xiaodong,ZHOU Yiyong,HUANG Mingquan. (2019). Pearls are everywhere but not the eyes: The mechanism and boundary conditions of the influences of decision maker's mental models on idea recognition. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(4), 571-586.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.00571      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2019/V27/I4/571
  创造力的系统观 资料来源:Csikszentmihalyi, 1999.
固着型心智模式 成长型心智模式
基本假定和信念 人的特质固定不变 人的特质并非固定不变, 而是具有可塑性
特质与行为的关系 行为完全由特质所决定, 外在行为稳定反映人的内在特质, 因而通过观察外显行为可以对特质进行准确的判断 行为受内外部多种因素共同影响, 并随情境不同而变化。需经多方面持续观察一个人在不同时空下的行为表现, 才能对之形成准确判断
认知加工模式 快速的认知加工, 以尽早形成确定的认知和判断 动态的认知加工, 以彻底了解对象为目的
认知需要 低, 追求认知智力活动需要较低, 不追求全面了解事物 高, 积极追求高认知智力活动, 力求全面了解事物
认知闭合需要 强, 即力求达到对事物的确定和封闭的认识, 回避或消除认识上的含糊不确定性和开放状态 弱, 能够忍受事物的不确定性
不确定性容忍 低, 尽量回避任何不确定性, 倾向于维持熟悉的或已知的确定的认识状态 高, 积极探索新鲜事物, 接纳学习过程中的不确定性和未知状态
目标导向 绩效导向, 行动的主要目的是展现能力, 追求积极评价, 回避负性反馈 学习导向, 注重通过参与活动来学习和掌握新的知识或技能
对失败的态度 失败是因为能力差, 自己不可改变的能力导致, 无力克服困难, 倾向于无助性反应 坚持努力、认清导致挫折的具体原因, 以及寻求新的解决问题的策略
  固着型/成长型心智模式的差异
  基于创造力系统观的总体研究框架
  决策者子系统特征影响创意识别的内部机理研究框架(研究1)
  心智模式与角色的交互作用对创意评估的影响(研究1a预期结果)
  心智模式与角色的交互作用对不确定性容忍的影响(研究1a预期结果)
  心智模式与角色的交互作用对创意评估的影响(研究1b预期结果)
  决策者子系统与创造者子系统协同效应的研究框架(研究2)
  决策者、创造者和环境子系统的三阶交互作用示意图(研究4)
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