ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 284-293.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00284

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇

冥想对注意能力的影响

贺淇, 王海英()   

  1. 东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-09 出版日期:2020-02-15 发布日期:2019-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 王海英 E-mail:wanghy178@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目资助(17YJA190012)

The effects of meditation on attention

HE Qi, WANG Haiying()   

  1. School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2019-04-09 Online:2020-02-15 Published:2019-12-25
  • Contact: Haiying WANG E-mail:wanghy178@nenu.edu.cn

摘要:

所有冥想方法都要对注意进行管理, 注意是冥想的核心机制。近期研究发现, 冥想显著提高了持续性注意、执行注意和选择性注意分配等多种注意能力。认知神经科学研究发现, 冥想使注意资源分配更有效; 长期冥想者表现出更高的失匹配负波波幅和更低的β波幅; 冥想增强了中央执行网络有关脑区的功能联结, 提高了突出网络有关脑区的活动; 注意聚焦冥想降低了默认网络有关脑区的活动。另外, 作为一种提高注意能力的方法, 冥想不仅适用于注意缺陷多动障碍患者和已康复的抑郁症患者等有注意相关障碍的临床群体, 也适用于儿童和老年人等多种年龄阶段的健康群体。未来应通过追踪研究探讨冥想的长期效果; 探索冥想中注意与情绪的交互作用; 根据群体特征设计出更有针对性的冥想。

关键词: 冥想, 注意, 聚焦注意冥想, 开放监测冥想, 正念

Abstract:

Regulation of attention is a commonality across the many divergent meditation methods, with attention being the main mechanism of meditation. Recent research has found that meditation can improve sustained attention, executive attention and selective attentional allocation. Cognitive neuroscientific research findings showed that meditation enabled more efficient use of attentional resources, and long-term meditators showed higher mismatch negativity amplitude and lower β power. Meditation enhanced the functional connection of the central executive network and strengthened the activation in the salience network. Focused attention meditation weakened activation of the default-mode network. In addition, the positive effects of meditation on attention were applicable to clinical groups with attention-related disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and formerly depressed patients, as well as health groups of varying ages, such as children and older adults. Further follow-up studies need to be conducted to determine the lasting effects of meditation, as well as studies exploring the interaction between attention and emotion in meditation. Moreover, it is important to design more targeted meditation programs according to the characteristics of the group.

Key words: meditation, attention, focus attention, open monitoring, mindfulness

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