ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (12): 2084-2096.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.02084

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇

群际偏差的进化:人类对暴力与疾病威胁的适应

周晴, 吴奇()   

  1. 湖南师范大学教育科学学院心理学系, 认知与人类行为湖南省重点实验室, 长沙 410006
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-17 出版日期:2019-12-15 发布日期:2019-10-21
  • 通讯作者: 吴奇 E-mail:sandwich624@yeah.net
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目(31300870);湖南师范大学青年科学基金项目(13XQN01);湖南师范大学青年优秀人才培养计划项目的资助(社科类, 2015yx08)

Evolution of intergroup bias: Adaptation to the threats of violence and disease

ZHOU Qing, WU Qi()   

  1. Cognition and Human Behavior Key Laboratory of Hunan Province, Department of Psychology, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410006, China
  • Received:2019-04-17 Online:2019-12-15 Published:2019-10-21
  • Contact: Qi WU E-mail:sandwich624@yeah.net

摘要:

内群体偏好与内群体贬低现象普遍存在于社会生活中, 但为何会存在这两种群际偏差的心理机制以及这两种群际偏差是否具有进化基础的问题一直没有得到解答。通过系统整理在暴力威胁和疾病威胁构成的生存压力下, 两种群际偏差遵循烟雾探测原则和功能弹性原则处理威胁线索的研究报告, 研究说明了两者虽然方向完全相反, 但却是同一威胁管理机制对特定的内外群体关系产生的不同反应, 具有进化的适应性, 支持其进化假说。

关键词: 内群体偏好, 内群体贬低, 威胁, 烟雾探测, 功能弹性

Abstract:

Ingroup favoritism and ingroup derogation are very common our social lives, but the researchers still don’t know why these two kinds of intergroup biases can exist and whether these two kinds of biases have evolutionary functions. By systematically reviewing the research reports about the evidence that these two kinds of intergroup biases follow the principles of smoke detection and functional flexibility to deal with the threats of violence and disease incurred by ingroups and outgroups, the literature review showed that although the directions of ingroup favoritism and ingroup derogation are completely opposite to each other, both of these two biases are adaptive responses of the same threat management mechanism which is designed to deal with specific ingroup and outgroup threats. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests that the intergroup bias has adaptive functions and thus it supports the evolutionary hypothesis of intergroup bias.

Key words: ingroup favoritism, ingroup derogation, threat, smoke detection, functional flexibility

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