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心理科学进展  2018, Vol. 26 Issue (8): 1404-1416    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01404
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注意引导和认知加工:眼动榜样样例的教学作用
谢和平,彭霁,周宗奎()
华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079
Attention guidance and cognitive processing: The educational effects of eye movement modeling examples
Heping XIE,Ji PENG,Zongkui ZHOU()
Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
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摘要 

认知如何影响眼动一直以来得到研究者高度重视, 而近年来研究者开始通过眼动榜样样例反过来直接考察眼动如何影响认知。作为一种新颖的教学样例, 眼动榜样样例能够有效引导注意, 即促进信息的选择、组织和整合加工, 并提高眼动轨迹一致性, 但并没有稳定地促进教学效果。研究者从信息缩减假说、多媒体学习认知理论、认知学徒制理论等视角进行了积极的理论预期和解释。未来研究需从边界条件、作用机制、眼动轨迹预训练、专长发展、合作学习及神经基础等角度进一步考察眼动榜样样例的教学作用。

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谢和平
彭霁
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关键词 眼动榜样样例注意引导认知加工教学    
Abstract

For the past decades, researchers have paid much attention to exploring how cognitive processes influence eye movements. Recently, they have begun to directly look into the reciprocal relationship and test how eye movements might influence cognitive processes by using eye movement modeling examples (EMME). As a new kind of teaching examples, EMME proved to be effective to guide visual attention. It could facilitate the selection, organization, and integration of information, as well as improve the scanpath similarity. However, research examining the effects of EMME on learning performance reported mixed results. The information-reduction hypothesis, cognitive theory of multimedia learning, and cognitive apprenticeship have been used as theoretical foundations for predicting or explaining the positive effects of EMME. Future studies are highly needed to explore the effects of EMME from the perspectives of boundary conditions, functional mechanism, eye-movement pre-training, expertise development, cooperative learning, and the neural basis.

Key wordseye movement modeling examples    attention guidance    cognitive processing    education
收稿日期: 2017-09-15      出版日期: 2018-07-02
ZTFLH:  B849:G44  
基金资助:国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD151);华中师范大学中央高校基本科研业务费重大培育项目(CCNU14Z02004)
通讯作者: 周宗奎     E-mail: zhouzk@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
引用本文:   
谢和平,彭霁,周宗奎. 注意引导和认知加工:眼动榜样样例的教学作用[J]. 心理科学进展, 2018, 26(8): 1404-1416.
Heping XIE,Ji PENG,Zongkui ZHOU. Attention guidance and cognitive processing: The educational effects of eye movement modeling examples. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(8): 1404-1416.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01404      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2018/V26/I8/1404
  青蛙过河任务眼动榜样样例模拟示意图
注:白色圆点及线条代表专家眼动轨迹(其中白色圆点为注视点位置, 圆点可随注视时间的增长而变大, 白色线条为扫视路径), 左下角声音图标代表专家的言语解释(仅供示例, 原文无此图标)。
(资料来源:van Gog et al., 2009)
研究 榜样 样例 眼动仪 注意引导指标 教学效果指标
Gegenfurtner, Lehtinen, et al., 2017 医学专家 人体解剖及功能 Tobii T60XL 任务相关区域注视次数*
任务非相关区域注视次数#
任务相关区域注视时间*
任务非相关区域注视时间#
正确率*
敏感性*
特异性
Jarodzka et al., 2012 儿科专家 婴儿癫痫
发作
SMI High Speed 榜样与被试注视点间的欧氏距离#
测验过程中首次到达任务相关区域所需时间#
测验过程中任务相关区域停留时间#
解释绩效#
Jarodzka et al., 2010 海洋动物学教授 鱼类运动
模式
Tobii 1750 首次到达任务相关区域所需时间*
任务相关区域停留时间*
正确报告与运动有关的身体部分的数量
正确描述运动方式的数量*
Jarodzka et al., 2013 海洋动物学教授 鱼类运动
模式
Tobii 1750 学习过程中的扫视路径一致性*
测验过程中首次到达任务相关区域所需时间*
测验过程中任务相关区域总停留时间*
测验过程中的扫视路径一致性
解释身体哪部分产生动力*
解释产生动力的身体部分如何运动
Litchfield et al., 2010,
实验1
放射科医师 胸部X光片 Tobii X50 / 诊断绩效*
总决策时间
Litchfield et al., 2010,
实验2
放射科医师 胸部X光片 Tobii X50 / 诊断绩效*
总决策时间
Litchfield et al., 2010,
实验3
放射科医师 胸部X光片 Tobii X50 / 诊断绩效*
总决策时间
Mason et al., 2015 研究生 水循环 Tobii T120 首次和再次阅读时分别对文本和图片的注视时间
从文转换到图以及从图转换到文之后的注视时间#
从文转换到图以及从图转换到文之后的平均注视时间
文字回忆*
图片回忆*
知识迁移*
事实性知识
Mason et al., 2016 研究生 水循环 Tobii T120 再次阅读时从文到图的转换次数*
再次阅读时从图到文的转换次数*
从文转换到图之后的注视时间*
从图转换到文之后的注视时间*
文字回忆
知识迁移*
事实性知识
Mason et al., 2017 研究生 水循环 Tobii T120 首次和再次阅读时对文本的注视时间
首次和再次阅读时对图片的注视时间#
再次阅读时从文到图和从图到文的转换次数#
从文转换到图以及从图转换到文之后的注视时间#
文字回忆*
知识迁移#
事实性知识#
Nalanagula et al., 2006 专家检查员 印刷
电路板
ISCAN / 正确检测到的故障比例*
Sadasivan et al., 2005 专家检查员 飞机货舱虚拟现实模型 Virtual Research和ISCAN 注视次数*
注视点簇数*
平均注视时间*
检测到的故障数量*
任务时间
Scheiter et al., 2018 经培训的研究助手 细胞有丝
分裂
SMI RED 250 文本注视时间
图片注视时间*
图文转化次数*
自由回忆任务
多项选择任务
强迫选择任务#
研究 榜样 样例 眼动仪 注意引导指标 教学效果指标
Seppänen & Gegenfurtner, 2012 教师 计算机断
层扫描
/ 任务相关区域注视次数*
任务无关区域注视次数*
正确率*
敏感性*
Stein & Brennan, 2004 专业程序员 Java程序 ISCAN RK-726PCI / 找到故障的时间*
van Gog et al., 2009 大量练习青蛙过河任务的专家 青蛙过河 Tobii 1750 / 绩效测验
van Marlen et al., 2016,
实验1
/ 简单几何
问题
SMI RED250 / 同构问题
迁移问题
同构问题反应时间
迁移问题反应时间*
van Marlen et al., 2016,
实验2
/ 复杂几何
问题
SMI RED250 注视次数比例
注视时间*
首次到达时间*
同构问题
迁移问题
同构问题反应时间
迁移问题反应时间
van Noord, 2016 教师 电路问题 SMI RED250 注视比例*
注视时间*
首次到达时间*
基本问题
迁移问题
赵欢欢, 2013, 研究2 研究一中
某条件下
得分最高
的学习者
风的形成
原理
Tobii T120 图片区总注视时间及总注视点个数*
文字区总注视时间及总注视点个数
图片区平均注视时间
文字区平均注视时间*
保持测验#
迁移测验*
  眼动榜样样例研究
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