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心理科学进展  2018, Vol. 26 Issue (8): 1391-1403    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01391
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基于知觉的恐惧泛化的认知神经机制
雷怡1,2,3(),梅颖1,2,3,张文海4,李红1,2,3
1深圳大学心理与社会学院
2深圳市情绪与社会认知科学重点实验室
3深圳市神经科学研究院, 深圳 518000
4江苏省盐城工学院心理健康教育中心, 盐城 224003
The neural mechanism of fear generalization based on perception
Yi LEI1,2,3(),Ying MEI1,2,3,Wenhai ZHANG4,Hong LI1,2,3
1 School of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, China
2 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Emotion and Social Cognition Science, Shenzhen 518000, China
3 Shenzhen Institute of Neuroscience, Shenzhen 518000, China
4 Yancheng Institute of Jiangsu Province Mental Health Education Center, Yancheng 224003, China
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摘要 

恐惧泛化是条件性恐惧反应转移到另一个相似但安全的刺激的现象。适当的恐惧泛化对人类有积极意义, 而过度的恐惧泛化则不利于个体有效地适应环境。基于知觉的恐惧泛化研究揭示了恐惧泛化的规律, 因而被广泛应用。本文首先梳理了对知觉恐惧泛化的相关研究, 介绍恐惧泛化的经典理论基础—巴普洛夫条件反射以及恐惧泛化梯度; 其次简要回顾基于多个感觉通道(即视觉、听觉、情景)的知觉恐惧泛化研究现状; 再次, 分别对海马、杏仁核、脑岛和前额叶等脑区在恐惧泛化中的作用进行回顾, 进一步总结出恐惧泛化的神经环路结构模型。最后, 简要区分了基于知觉的恐惧泛化和正在兴起的基于概念的恐惧泛化, 进而指出未来研究需要结合基于概念的恐惧泛化、区分被试对刺激的辨别力、增加恐惧刺激材料的准确性及多样化、结合激素等个体差异和多模态脑成像数据来展开。

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雷怡
梅颖
张文海
李红
关键词 知觉相似性条件反射恐惧泛化神经机制    
Abstract

Fear generalization is a phenomenon that conditioned fear responses extended to safe stimuli which shares perceptual similarity with threat stimuli. Moderate fear generalization is beneficial for human survival, but excessive fear generalization leads to maladaptation to environment. Rules that underlie fear generalization have been investigated by related researches based on perception, and been widely applied to studies in various domains. This paper reviews the study of the generalization of fear based on perception. Here, we begin with Pavlovian fear conditioning and the gradient of fear generalization, which lays the foundation for theoretical approaches used today. Then we review the research of fear generalization based on perception in multiple sensory channels (i.e., visual, auditory, context). Third, we summarize the neural circuits of fear generalization which involve hippocampus, amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex. Last but not least, we briefly clarify the difference between perception-based and concept-based fear generalization which receive increased interests. Further studies should extend this work in many ways, such as combining concepts-based fear generalization, using Just-Noticeable-Difference Threshold to ensure that the generalization stimuli can actually be discriminated, increasing the explicitness and divisity of stimuli, as well as applping hormonesand multi-modal data analysis methods.

Key wordsperceptual    similarity    conditioning    fear generalization    neural mechanism
收稿日期: 2017-02-23      出版日期: 2018-07-02
ZTFLH:  B845  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金面上项目(31571153);国家自然科学基金面上项目(31470997);广东省普通高校创新团队建设项目(2015KCXTD009);深圳市基础学科布局项目(JCYJ20150729104249783)
通讯作者: 雷怡     E-mail: yutian@szu.edu.cnn
引用本文:   
雷怡,梅颖,张文海,李红. (2018). 基于知觉的恐惧泛化的认知神经机制. 心理科学进展, 26(8), 1391-1403.
Yi LEI,Ying MEI,Wenhai ZHANG,Hong LI. (2018). The neural mechanism of fear generalization based on perception. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(8), 1391-1403.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01391      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2018/V26/I8/1391
  知觉恐惧泛化梯度
注:改编自Struyf等(2015)。横坐标代表刺激特征即GS与CS+的相似程度, 越靠近CS+的刺激和CS+的相似程度越高, 越远则相似程度越低; 纵坐标即代表个体的反应强度。GS到CS+的曲线越平缓代表泛化越广, 辨别学习能力弱(黑线); GS到CS+的曲线越陡峭则代表泛化较小或是辨别学习能力强(灰线)。
  恐惧泛化神经回路
注:如图初级感觉皮层部分, 不同的刺激引发对应的皮层相应。听觉刺激激活初级听觉皮层; 面孔刺激激活梭状回, 简单的图形则激活初级视觉皮层。这些皮层的激活水平和刺激的相似性成正相关。
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