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心理科学进展  2018, Vol. 26 Issue (7): 1284-1293    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01284
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社会规范的动态过程
陈维扬,谢天()
武汉大学哲学学院心理学系, 武汉 430072
The dynamic process of social norm development
Weiyang CHEN,Tian XIE()
Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
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摘要 

社会心理学的经典研究将社会规范区分为描述性规范与指令性规范。近年来, 研究者从以往对社会规范的静态区分, 开始深入研究社会规范“如何发展变化”的动态过程, 即探究社会规范的习得、传播与转变过程, 以及社会规范发挥作用的影响因素。社会规范的习得可以追溯至童年早期的社会互动, 描述性规范的形成是个体在社会网络中学习社会范畴典型范例的过程, 对现状的合理化催生了描述性规范向指令性规范的转化。社会规范发挥作用也呈现动态性, 不仅与社会规范的心理功能相关, 即遵守或违反社会规范能满足个体的安全感、归属感、独特感需要等, 还与外部环境如权力位置、惩罚机制相关。未来研究可对社会规范形成过程、作用过程做进一步分析; 结合社会规范强度研究, 深入探讨规范性影响的作用过程; 开展文化情境下的社会规范研究等。

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关键词 社会规范动态过程社会网络心理需要    
Abstract

Classic studies distinguish social norms from descriptive and injunctive norms. In contrast to this static division, research has recently begun to focus on the dynamic process of social norm development, including the acquisition, transmission, and transformation of social norms as well as their influencing factors. The acquisition of social norms can be traced back to early childhood social interaction. The formation of descriptive norms can be considered a result of the learning of exemplars of a social category. The rationalization of the status quo has led to the transformation of descriptive norms into injunctive norms. The influencing factors of social norms are not only related to their psychological functions - to meet individuals’ needs for security, belonging, and uniqueness - but also to external environment, which involves power positions and punishment mechanisms. To probe the process of normative influence, future studies could further analyze the formation and action processes of social norms, take account of studies of social norm strength, and analyze social norms in their cultural context.

Key wordssocial norms    dynamic process    social networks    psychological needs
收稿日期: 2017-07-29      出版日期: 2018-05-29
ZTFLH:  B849:C91  
基金资助:国家社会科学基金教育学青年课题的资助(课题名称:物质主义的成因分析及其教育对策)(CBA150154)
通讯作者: 谢天     E-mail: thanksky520@126.com
引用本文:   
陈维扬,谢天. 社会规范的动态过程[J]. 心理科学进展, 2018, 26(7): 1284-1293.
Weiyang CHEN,Tian XIE. The dynamic process of social norm development. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(7): 1284-1293.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01284      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2018/V26/I7/1284
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