Please wait a minute...
心理科学进展  2018, Vol. 26 Issue (6): 975-983    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00975
     研究前沿 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
“前”、“后”轴上的内隐时空映射及其影响因素
李恒()
英国诺森比亚大学人文系, 纽卡斯尔NE1 8ST
Implicit space-time mappings on the front and back axis and their influencing factors
Heng LI()
Department of Humanities, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE18ST, UK
全文: PDF(394 KB)   HTML
输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)       背景资料
文章导读  
摘要 

利用空间方位“前”、“后”来理解和表征时间概念是人类语言和认知的一个基本特点。然而, 人们心智中的内隐时空映射方向并不总与语言中的外显时空隐喻表达一致。近年来提出的“时间焦点假设”认为, 人们内隐思维中的前后时空隐喻映射主要取决于时间焦点, 即认知主体对于过去、现在和未来等时间事件的注意力。大量研究表明, 与时间注意焦点相关的诸多因素, 如文化态度、个体差异以及生活经验等都有可能影响内隐时空映射, 为“时间焦点假设”提供了支持证据, 同时也反映出人类时间认知系统的灵活性与可塑性。

服务
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章
李恒
关键词 时空隐喻时间焦点假设认知灵活性具身认知内隐时空映射    
Abstract

One of the prominent characteristics of human language and cognition is to use the spatial concepts such as “front” and “back” to understand and represent temporal concepts such as the “past” and “future”. However, people’s implicit space-time mappings are not always consistent with explicit space-time mappings in their speech. In recent years, the “Temporal Focus Hypothesis” proposes that sagittal space-time mappings in people’s minds are shaped by their attentional focus, namely, the conceptualizers’ attentions to past, present and future events. A large body of research has shown that many factors related to temporal focus such as cultural attitudes, individual differences and life experiences may influence people’s implicit space-time mappings. These studies not only provide supporting evidence for the “Temporal Focus Hypothesis”, but also reflect the flexibility and malleability of human time cognition system.

Key wordsspatial metaphors for time    “Temporal Focus Hypothesis”    cognitive flexibility    embodied cognition    implicit space-time mappings
收稿日期: 2017-09-26      出版日期: 2018-04-28
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助:* 江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(江苏师范大学中国语言文学);国家973计划课题(2014CB340502)
通讯作者: 李恒     E-mail: leehem168@163.com
引用本文:   
李恒. “前”、“后”轴上的内隐时空映射及其影响因素[J]. 心理科学进展, 2018, 26(6): 975-983.
Heng LI. Implicit space-time mappings on the front and back axis and their influencing factors. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(6): 975-983.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00975      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2018/V26/I6/975
  时间图表任务
[1] 江桂英, 李恒 . ( 2011). 概念隐喻研究在神经科学中的新进展——以心理现实性问题为例. 外语教学与研究, 43( 6), 934-941.
[2] 李爱梅, 彭元, 熊冠星 . ( 2015). 孕妇更长计远虑?——怀孕对女性跨期决策偏好的影响. 心理学报, 47( 11), 1360-1370.
[3] 李恒 . ( 2015). 压力感对汉语使用者时间隐喻理解的影响. 现代外语, 38( 6), 770-778.
[4] 李恒 . ( 2016). 时空隐喻的心理现实性:手势和手语的视角. 心理科学, 39( 5), 1080-1085.
[5] 李恒, 张积家 . ( 2016). 听觉任务下汉语母语者对不同类型时间句的加工. 心理学报, 48( 6), 617-624.
[6] 刘馨元, 张志杰 . ( 2016). 不同时间关注点下的空间-时间联合编码效应. 心理科学, 39( 2), 279-284.
[7] 叶浩生 . ( 2010). 具身认知: 认知心理学的新取向. 心理科学进展, 18( 5), 705-710.
[8] Barsalou, L. W . ( 1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22( 4), 577-609.
[9] Barsalou, L. W . ( 2016). On staying grounded and avoiding quixotic dead ends. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23( 4), 1122-1142.
pmid: 27112560
[10] Bender, A., & Beller, S. (2014). Mapping spatial frames of reference onto time: A review of theoretical accounts and empirical findings. Cognition, 132, 342-382.
pmid: 24873738
[11] Boroditsky, L. (2000). Metaphoric structuring: Understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition, 75, 1-28.
pmid: 10815775
[12] Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought?: Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43( 1), 1-22.
pmid: 11487292
[13] Boroditsky, L., & Ramscar, M. (2002). The roles of body and mind in abstract thought. Psychological Science, 13( 2), 185-189.
pmid: 11934006
[14] Casasanto, D. (2016). Temporal language and temporal thinking may not go hand in hand. In B. Lewandowska- Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Conceptualizations of time( pp. 169- 186). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
[15] Casasanto, D., & Bottini, R. (2014). Mirror reading can reverse the flow of time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143( 2), 473-479.
pmid: 23773158
[16] Casasanto, D., & Jasmin, K. (2012). The hands of time: Temporal gestures in English speakers. Cognitive Linguistics, 23( 4), 643-674.Chen, J. Y., 427-436.
[17] Chen, J. Y., & O’Seaghdha, P. G . ( 2013). Do Mandarin and English speakers think about time differently? Review of existing evidence and some new data. Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 41, 338-358.
[18] Cienki, A. J . ( 1998). Metaphoric gestures and some of their relations to verbal metaphoric expressions. In J.-P. Koenig (Ed.), Discourse and cognition: Bridging the gap( pp. 189-204). Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
[19] Clark H. H. ( 1973). Space, time, semantics and the child. In T. E. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and acquisition of language (pp. 27-63). New York, NY: Academic Press.
[20] de la Fuente J., Santiago J., Román, A, Dumitrache C., & Casasanto D . ( 2014). When you think about it, your past is in front of you: How culture shapes spatial conceptions of time. Psychological Science, 25, 1682-1690.
[21] Duffy, S. E., & Feist, M. I . ( 2014). Individual differences in the interpretation of ambiguous statements about time. Cognitive Linguistics, 25( 1), 29-54.
[22] Eikmeier V., Alex-Ruf S., Maienborn C., & Ulrich R . ( 2015). How strongly linked are mental time and space along the left-right axis? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 1878-1883.
pmid: 25961360
[23] Evans, V. (2004). The structure of time: Language, meaning, and temporal cognition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
[24] Fuhrman O., McCormick K., Chen E., Jiang H. D., Shu D. F., Mao S. M., & Boroditsky L . ( 2011). How linguistic and cultural forces shape conceptions of time: English and Mandarin time in 3D. Cognitive Science, 35, 1305-1328.
pmid: 21884222
[25] Gibbs R. W.,Jr.( 2017). Metaphor Wars: Conceptual metaphors in human life Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Conceptual metaphors in human life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[26] Gu Y., Zheng Y. Q., & Swerts M . ( 2016). Which is in front of Chinese people: Past or Future? A study on Chinese people’s space-time mapping. In A. Papafragou, D. Grodner, D. Mirman, & J. C. Trueswell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th annual conference of the cognitive science society(pp. 2603-2608). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
[27] Haser, V. (2005). Metaphor, metonymy, and experientialist philosophy: Challenging cognitive semantics. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
[28] Hendricks, R. K., & Boroditsky, L. (2017). New space-time metaphors foster new nonlinguistic representations. Topics in Cognitive Science, 9, 800-818.
pmid: 28635107
[29] January, D., & Kako, E. (2007). Re-evaluating evidence for linguistic relativity: Reply to Boroditsky (2001). Cognition, 104, 417-426.
pmid: 16914131
[30] Ji L. J., Guo T. Y., Zhang Z. Y., & Messervey D . ( 2009). Looking into the past: Cultural differences in perception and representation of past information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 761-769.
pmid: 19309200
[31] Lakoff G. , & Johnson, M.( 1980) . Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[32] Laudau, M. J . ( 2016). Conceptual metaphor in social psychology: The poetics of everyday life. New York, NY: Routledge.
[33] Li, H. (2017). Barbara Lewandowska-tomaszczyk: Conceptualizations of time. Cognitive Linguistics, 28( 2), 361-370.
[34] Li, H., & Cao, Y. (2017). Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58( 3), 193-198.
pmid: 28266035
[35] Li, H., & Cao, Y. (2018). The hope of the future: The experience of pregnancy influences women’s implicit space-time mappings. The Journal of Social Psychology, 158, 152-156.
pmid: 28375781
[36] McGlone, M. S . ( 2007). What is the explanatory value of a conceptual metaphor?. Language and Communication, 27( 2), 109-126.
[37] McNeill, D. ( 1992). Hand and mind: What gestures reveal about thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[38] Meier B. P., Schnall S., Schwarz N., & Bargh J. A . ( 2012). Embodiment in social psychology. Topics in Cognitive Science, 4( 4), 705-716.
[39] Miles L. K., Nind L. K., & Macrae C. N . ( 2010). Moving through time. Psychological Science, 21( 2), 222-223.
[40] Moore K. E. ( 2014). The spatial language of time. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Press.
[41] Murphy, G. L . ( 1996). On metaphoric representation. Cognition, 60( 2), 173-204.
[42] Nú?ez, R., & Cooperrider, K. (2013). The tangle of space and time in human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17( 5), 220-229.
pmid: 23608363
[43] Nú?ez, R. E., & Sweetser, E. (2006). With the future behind them: Convergent evidence from Aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time. Cognitive Science, 30( 3), 401-450.
pmid: 21702821
[44] Rinaldi L., Locati F., Parolin L., Bernardi N. F., & Girelli L . ( 2016). Walking on a mental time line: Temporal processing affects step movements along the sagittal space. Cortex, 78, 170-173.
pmid: 27049003
[45] Sell, A. J., & Kaschak, M. P . ( 2011). Processing time shifts affects the execution of motor responses. Brain and Language, 117( 1), 39-44.
pmid: 20696469
[46] Shipp A. J., Edwards J. R., & Lambert L. S . ( 2009). Conceptualization and measurement of temporal focus: The subjective experience of the past, present, and future. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110( 1), 1-22.
[47] Sinha C., Sinha V. D. S., & Zinken J . ( 2016). When time is not space: The social and linguistic construction of time intervals and temporal event relations in an Amazonian culture. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Conceptualizations of time( pp. 151-186). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
[48] Sinha C., Sinha V. D. S., Zinken J., & Sampaio W . ( 2011). When time is not space: The social and linguistic construction of time intervals and temporal event relations in an Amazonian culture. Language and Cognition, 3( 1), 137-169.
[49] Stocker K., Hartmann M., Martarelli C. S., & Mast F. W . ( 2016). Eye movements reveal mental looking through time. Cognitive Science, 40( 7), 1648-1670.
[50] Sullivan, K., & Bui, L. T . ( 2016). With the future coming up behind them: Evidence that time approaches from behind in Vietnamese. Cognitive Linguistics, 27( 2), 205-233.
[51] Torralbo A., Santiago J., & Lupiá?ez J . ( 2006). Flexible conceptual projection of time onto spatial frames of reference. Cognitive Science, 30, 745-757.
pmid: 21702834
[52] Tse, C. S., & Altarriba, J. (2008). Evidence against linguistic relativity in Chinese and English: A case study of spatial and temporal metaphors. Journal of Cognition & Culture, 8( 3), 335-357.
[53] Walker, E., & Cooperrider, K. (2016). The Continuity of metaphor: Evidence from temporal gestures. Cognitive Science, 40, 481-495.
pmid: 26059310
[54] Walker, E. J., & Nú?ez, R. (2017). Speaking, gesturing, reasoning: Methods and issues in the study. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Conceptualization of time(pp. 67-84). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
[55] Waliński, J. T . ( 2016). Reflection of temporal horizon in linguistic performance. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Ed.), Conceptualization of time(pp. 273-293). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
[56] Walker E. J., Bergen B. K., & Nú?ez R . ( 2017). The spatial alignment of time: Differences in alignment of deictic and sequence time along the sagittal and lateral axes. Acta Psychologica, 175, 13-20.
pmid: 28259726
[57] Whorf B. L. (2000). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language. In J. B. Carroll (Ed.), Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (pp. 134-159). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[1] 魏华, 段海岑, 周宗奎.  具身认知视角下的消费者行为[J]. 心理科学进展, 2018, 26(7): 1294-1306.
[2] 路红, 张心园, 韦文琦, 刘毅.  空间物理秩序对心理和行为的影响[J]. 心理科学进展, 2018, 26(3): 560-570.
[3] 陈杰, 刘雷, 王蓉, 沈海洲. 音乐训练对执行功能的影响[J]. 心理科学进展, 2017, 25(11): 1854-1864.
[4] 孙炳丽;田雨;孙海洋;王文忠. 从心理咨询与治疗的角度看自我[J]. 心理科学进展, 2016, 24(1): 83-90.
[5] 叶红燕;张凤华. 从具身视角看道德判断[J]. 心理科学进展, 2015, 23(8): 1480-1488.
[6] 郑玮琦;刘烨;傅小兰. 影响时空隐喻理解中时间运动视角选择的因素[J]. 心理科学进展, 2015, 23(10): 1711-1722.
[7] 李慧敏;王若萌;王权红;邱江. 计算机时代的书写心理学[J]. 心理科学进展, 2015, 23(10): 1843-1851.
[8] 李金星;王振宏. 空间-时间联合编码效应:表现、影响因素及其理论[J]. 心理科学进展, 2015, 23(1): 30-40.
[9] 韩冬;叶浩生. 重中之“重”——具身视角下重的体验与表征[J]. 心理科学进展, 2014, 22(6): 918-925.
[10] 陈昭蓉;李晔. 关系模式框架下的具身社会关系[J]. 心理科学进展, 2014, 22(4): 702-710.
[11] 陈亚萍;李晓东. 婴儿动作理解的研究回顾与展望[J]. 心理科学进展, 2013, 21(4): 671-678.
[12] 张恩涛;方杰;林文毅;罗俊龙. 抽象概念表征的具身认知观[J]. 心理科学进展, 2013, 21(3): 429-436.
[13] 殷融;苏得权;叶浩生. 具身认知视角下的概念隐喻理论[J]. 心理科学进展, 2013, 21(2): 220-234.
[14] 金泓;黄希庭. 时空隐喻研究的新问题:时间表征的左右方向性[J]. 心理科学进展, 2012, 20(9): 1364-1371.
[15] 殷融;曲方炳;叶浩生. 具身概念表征的研究及理论述评[J]. 心理科学进展, 2012, 20(9): 1372-1381.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
版权所有 © 《心理科学进展》编辑部
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发  技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn