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心理科学进展  2018, Vol. 26 Issue (4): 744-760    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00744
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 如何过上有意义的生活? ——基于生命意义理论模型的整合
 张荣伟1,2;  李 丹1
 (1上海师范大学心理学系, 上海 200234) (2福建信息职业技术学院马克思主义学院, 福州 350003)
 How to experience a meaningful life: Based on the integration of theoretical models on meaning in life
 ZHANG Rongwei1,2; LI Dan1
 (1 Department of Psychology, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China) (2 School of Maxism, Fujian Polytechnic of Information Technology, Fuzhou 350003, China)
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摘要  在整个生命历程中, 个体没有停止过对自身生命意义的探寻。生命意义是个体从其生活经历或经验中萃取的生活的目标和重要性, 它根源于个体对自己、世界以及自己与世界关系的理解。生命意义具有促进身心健康的作用, 具体表现为增进身体健康, 提升幸福感与生活满意度, 引发积极应对方式, 促进人际和谐, 提高学习与工作绩效, 以及修复心理创伤促进心理成长等。生命意义形成的理论模型主要包括寻找意义模型、应对与成长模型、整合模型、双系统模型、五“A”模型和层次模型等6种。这些模型主要包含情境性意义和一般性意义这两种意义形态, 并认为它们之间的不一致性是意义构建的动力。基于此, 本文进一步推论这种不一致性所带来的心理需求未满足感才是意义构建的根本动力。未来研究将更加注重生命意义内涵的整合和作用的挖掘, 验证基本心理需求是否满足与生命意义形成之间的关系, 以及推进生命意义的认知神经机制及跨文化比较研究。
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张荣伟
李丹
关键词 生命意义 意义构建 情境性意义 一般性意义 基本心理需求 自我发展    
Abstract: People never stop exploring their meaning in life throughout one’s lifetime. Meaning in life stems from individuals' understandings of one’s self, the external world, and how one fits within the world. Comprising purpose and significance, meaning in life originates from individuals' daily experiences. It promotes physical health, psychological well-being and life satisfaction, triggers positive coping styles, strengthens interpersonal harmony, enhances study and work performance, helps recovering from trauma and facilitates posttraumatic growth. Six theoretical models regarding the formation of meaning in life are presented in this article, including the meaning-seeking model, the model of meaning-making coping and growth, the integrated model of meaning making, the dual-systems model, the five “A”s of meaning maintenance model and the hierarchic model of meaning. These models mainly include two meaning forms: situational meaning and global meaning, emphasize that the differences between them form the basis for the formation of meaning in life. Accordingly, we propose that it is individuals’ unmet psychological needs arising from such differences that cultivate the meaning formation. Future research on meaning in life should 1) emphasize more on the integration of its multiple facets, 2) further explore its functions, 3) examine whether it is driven by individuals’ psychological needs satisfaction, and 4) explore its neurocognitive mechanisms and implications in cross-cultural settings.
Key wordsmeaning in life    meaning making    situational meaning    global meaning    basic psychological needs    self development
收稿日期: 2017-01-25      出版日期: 2018-02-28
ZTFLH:     
  R395  
  B849:C91  
基金资助:  2016年度教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(16JJD840001)、2016年福建省中青年教师教育科研项目(JAS160900)和福建信息职业技术学院科研项目(Y15303) 的资助。
通讯作者: 李丹, E-mail: lidan501@126.com     E-mail: E-mail: lidan501@126.com
引用本文:   
张荣伟, 李丹.  如何过上有意义的生活? ——基于生命意义理论模型的整合[J]. 心理科学进展, 2018, 26(4): 744-760.
ZHANG Rongwei, LI Dan.  How to experience a meaningful life: Based on the integration of theoretical models on meaning in life. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(4): 744-760.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00744      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2018/V26/I4/744
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