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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Temporal dynamics of eye movements and attentional modulation in perceptual judgements of structure-from-motion (SFM)
    DING Jinhong, WANG Yamin, JIANG Yang
    2021, 53 (4):  337-348.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00337
    Abstract ( 420 )   HTML ( 61 )  
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    By using depth visual cues, the eye movements of 22 participants were recorded during perceiving the 3D SFM (structure from motion) to explore the effect of attention on SFM perception and its time course. The results showed that the judgement of cue stimulus was faster and more certain (higher percentage) than that of an ambiguous stimulus. The directions of eye movement and microsaccade were consistent with that of perceptual judgement, respectively. Microsaccade frequency (rate), peak velocity, and amplitude also showed the facilitating effect of depth cue. The results suggest that SFM can be divided into two stages: velocity calculation and construction of the three-dimensional structure. The modulation of attention to SFM perception mainly occurs in the construction of the three-dimensional structure stage, and attention orients to the selected object from 150 ms. After staying about 200 ms, attention will shift to the perception of global motion direction from local motion vector flow.

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    Progress feedback and its effects on working alliance and treatment outcomes
    SUN Qiwu, WU Caizhi, YU Lixia, WANG Weixin, SHEN Guocheng
    2021, 53 (4):  349-361.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00349
    Abstract ( 218 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    The purpose of progress feedback is to correct the bias of the therapist’s subjective evaluation of the treatment effect and to improve the treatment outcomes. Considering that the standard “face-to-face” progress feedback procedure of therapists and clients does not conform to the social and cultural habits of our country, this paper analyzes the influence of non-face-to-face progress feedback on working alliance and treatment effect in a natural setting using multi-level structural equation model. The results showed that at the between-person level, the quality of working alliance was better in the feedback group, and at the within-person level, the relationship between working alliance and symptom was reciprocal. At the end of the case, the feedback group was better at the helpfulness of therapy rated by clients and decreased more at the depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that progress feedback has a positive influence on working alliance and treatment effect. The study expands the literature on the mechanism of progress feedback from the perspective of working alliance and Chinese Guanxi, providing empirical evidence for the application of progress feedback in natural settings.

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    Mobile phone addiction and depression: Multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and attentional bias to negative emotional information
    HOU Juan, ZHU Yingge, FANG Xiaoyi
    2021, 53 (4):  362-373.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00362
    Abstract ( 573 )   HTML ( 70 )  
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    In order to investigate the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression, the multiple mediating effects of social anxiety and negative emotional information attentional bias on this relationship were discussed by integrating both emotional and cognitive factors. In study 1, 545 college students completed the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. In study 2, 51 college students were selected to use the questionnaire method and the 2(the emotion types of matching facial expression: negative and neutral) × 2(the location of the probe point: the same side as the negative emotion face and the opposite side of the negative emotion face) within-subjects design. The results showed that: (1) there were significant positive correlations between mobile phone addiction, social anxiety and depression, and social anxiety played a completely mediating role between mobile phone addiction and depression; (2) social anxiety and negative emotional information attentional bias played a chain-mediating role in the relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression, while negative emotional information attentional bias had no significant mediating effect between mobile phone addiction and depression. Specifically, mobile phone addiction affects depression in two ways: one is the single mediating effect of social anxiety, the other is the chain mediating effect of social anxiety → attention bias of negative emotional information.

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    Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality) and mental health: The serial mediating roles of self-control and authenticity
    GE Xiaoyu, HOU Yubo
    2021, 53 (4):  374-386.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00374
    Abstract ( 328 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    Based on the proposition of Confucian classics, this paper proposed the hypothesis that Junzi personality had a positive effect on mental health through the serial mediation of self-control and authenticity and used various methods to examine the hypothesis (total sample size is 1169). Results showed that when measured simultaneously, Junzi personality positively predicted mental health (in Study 1). When measured after 6 months, Junzi personality also positively predicted self-esteem, core self-evaluation, and affect balance but negatively predicted mental symptoms (in Study 4). Junzi personality positively predicted the trait of self-control (in Study 1) and decisions involving self-control (in Study 3 and Study 4), whether in situations provided in the experiment or as were recalled by the participants. Manipulated self-control positively affected both mental health and authenticity (in Study 2), while manipulated authenticity positively affected mental health (in Study 3). Results also provided evidence of the serial mediating effect of self-control and authenticity in the positive effect of Junzi personality on mental health through simultaneous measurement and cross-temporal measurement. In addition, results of experimental manipulation also provided indirect evidence for this. People with a higher level of Junzi personality are better at self-control, thus feel more consistent and connected with their true selves, and therefore have a more positive mental state.

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    The impact of gender orientation of names on individuals’ evaluation of impressions and interpersonal interaction
    ZUO Bin, LIU Chen, WEN Fangfang, TAN Xiao, XIE Zhijie
    2021, 53 (4):  387-399.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00387
    Abstract ( 321 )   HTML ( 43 )  
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    Personal names have potential consequences for the way in which an individual is viewed and treated by others. This study examined the ratings of warmth and competence of gender-oriented names and explored the effects of individuals’ gender and name-gender orientation on impression formation and interpersonal interaction. The results showed that: (1) Feminine names were rated higher on warmth than masculine names, and masculine names were rated higher on competence than feminine names; (2) Individuals with gender-consistent names were considered to have the typical characteristics of their gender, and individuals with gender-inconsistent names were considered to have the characteristics of the opposite sex; (3) Participants intended to make friends with women whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of warmth completely mediated the effect of name-gender orientation on willingness to interact; (4) Participants preferred to finish difficult tasks with men whose names were consistent with their gender, and the perception of competence completely mediated the effect of name gender orientation on willingness to cooperate. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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    Does conformity lead to gains? The effect of workplace ostracism on performance evaluation from a self-presentational view
    JIANG Ping, ZHANG Lihua
    2021, 53 (4):  400-412.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00400
    Abstract ( 300 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    There are some inconsistent conclusions about the effect of workplace ostracism on employee performance, which indicates that there are potential mechanisms in this field to be explored. Therefore, based on the self-presentation theory, this research built and tested a conditional indirect effect model to explore how and when individuals who suffered from workplace ostracism might obtain higher performance evaluation. Based on an experimental study and a field sample of supervisor-employee dyads, the results supported our theoretical hypotheses that workplace ostracism was positively related to facades of conformity. Besides, the relationship between workplace ostracism and facades of conformity was stronger when employees were high in collectivism values. However, when supervisors themselves also hold high collectivism values, employees’ facades of conformity are positively related to supervisors’ evaluations of job performance. Moreover, workplace ostracism has a conditional, positive indirect effect on supervisor’s evaluations of employee performance via employee facades of conformity, such that the indirect effect is positive when both employee and supervisors’ collectivism values are high.

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    “More” is less: Why multiple payment mechanism impairs individual donation
    RAN Yaxuan, NIU Yixin, CHEN Siyun
    2021, 53 (4):  413-430.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00413
    Abstract ( 155 )   HTML ( 16 )  
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    Payment mechanism is usually an essential element of the donation information. Based on metacognitive inference theory, the current research explores how and why the number of payment mechanisms (multiple vs. single) influences individual donation. Using six studies and a single-paper meta-analysis, we show that compared to single payment mechanism, multiple payment mechanism can impair the amount and willingness of individual donation, with the sequential mediation of perceived commercialization and moral skepticism. This is because individuals hold a “multiple payment mechanism = commercialization” lay belief due to the prevailing co-occurance of multiple payment mechanism and commercialization activities. When individuals notice the information of payment mechanism, they draw on an underlying lay belief that multiple payment mechanism implies commercialization to make metacognitive inference that the donatee has commercialized characteristics, which further leads to greater moral skepticism and less donations. In addition, the diagnosticity of the lay belief plays a moderating role. Specifically, low diagnosticity of the “multiple payment mechanism = commercialization” lay belief could attenuate the metacognitive inference process of perceived commercialization, thus weakening the negative effect of multiple (vs. single) payment mechanism on individual donation.

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    Theory and History of Psychology
    Unfinished instinct: Zing-yang Kuo and the anti-instinct movement in China
    CHEN Wei, WANG Yong, GUO Benyu
    2021, 53 (4):  431-444.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00431
    Abstract ( 188 )   HTML ( 16 )  
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    Under the influence of Darwin’s theory of biological evolution, instinct gradually became a core issue in the fields of human and animal psychology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, soon to be relegated to the realm of “magic.” At the height of its popularity, theorists interpreted almost all human behavior in relation to instinct. A young Chinese developmental psychobiologist, Zing-yang Kuo, adopted John B. Watson’s approach to behaviorism, strongly advocating for the complete removal of instinct from the interpretation of human and animal behaviors—an approach that started a massive anti-instinct movement in the field of psychology in the United States. After returning to China, Kuo continued to spread his knowledge of radical behaviorism among the intellectual elite, promoting the debate on instinct, “one of the three biggest debates in the history of modern Chinese psychology.”
    Kuo’s suggestion that the origin of behavioral development could be traced in a laboratory setting was scorned by conservative US researchers. Convinced that he could resolve the controversy surrounding instinct in the laboratory, and following critical reflection on the matter, Kuo performed a range of experiments in China to verify his anti-instinct claims. Ultimately viewed as the most important development in the Chinese anti-instinct movement, Kuo’s work bridged the gaps in global debates on instinct. Psychologists such as Wei Joseph Ai, Shuh Pan, and JuefuGao all joined the movement, and it also attracted the interests of other public intellectuals, including Jianren Zhou and Shicen Li.
    Centered on topics such as the existence of instinct, its definition, whether instincts are inherited, and the relationship between instincts, heredity, and environment, the heated discussion in China’s intellectual community produced positive, negative, and mixed reactions. While the Chinese anti-instinct movement did not develop extensive theories, there is no doubt that, as a natural extension of the international anti-instinct movement, it responded to the main contentions of the debate. While the Chinese movement expedited the methodological transmission of the psychological study of instinct from armchair to laboratory, it also confused the interpretation of development with that of evolution.
    While Kuo and the anti-instinct movement failed to “complete” their study of the psychology of instinct, their work revealed the epistemological value of semantics and the scientific method. Moreover, as a bridge between the global and Chinese anti-instinct movements, Kuo’s academic thought and scientific work reflect his uncompromising spirit of individualism and skepticism, which finally secured him a unique position in the history of behavioral science, exposed him to the wider fields of ethology, embryology, and development science, and provided the impetus for the positioning of “instinct” as an “unfinished” and open scientific issue.

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