ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    30 March 2007, Volume 39 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Effect of Discriminability on Interference Between Facial Expression and Facial Identity Recognition
    2007, 39 (02):  191-200. 
    Abstract ( 2555 )  
    Since a functional independence was set in the functional model for face recognition (Bruce & Young, 1986), many studies have been conducted to explore the relations between facial expression and facial identity recognition. Some studies supported the opinion of independent processing between facial expression and identity recognition, but the others provided evidences for the opinion of interdependent processing between them. One of the most important pieces of evidence that supported interdependent processing came from the behavior studies, which revealed the interconnection between recognition of facial identity and facial expression. However, in these studies the influence of facial expression on facial identity recognition is hard to be found compared to the influence of identity on expression recognition, especially in unfamiliar face recognition. Recently, Ganel et al. demonstrated the influence of expression on identity by reducing the discriminability of facial identity, and then explained the failure of finding this kind of influence in the past studies. The present study was conducted to challenge the argument that the discriminability of facial expression is lower than that of facial identity. The past studies all neglected the intensity variation information of facial expression although it should be very important to facial expression recognition. We addressed this issue in the present study. We hypothesize that when facial expressions were displayed with intensity varying, the influence of facial expression on identity recognition might disappear.
    To test the hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, participants were instructed to judge identity or expression of randomly displayed morphing pictures, and the influence between facial identity and expression recognition was examined with reaction time and boundaries as dependent variation. In experiment 2, participants were asked to make judgment along morphing continua, and the influence between facial identity and expression recognition was measured with boundaries as indicator.
    The results of experiment 1 indicated that identity influenced expression recognition but expression did not affect identity judgment, which replicated the results of the previous studies. In experiment 2, the influence of identity on expression recognition disappeared. These results were consistent with our predictions: when facial expressions were displayed with intensity varying, the influence of facial expression on identity recognition would disappear.
    Facial expression intensity cue enhanced the discriminability of facial expression but not that of identity, and then the influence of identity on expression recognition disappeared. Based on these results, we could draw a conclusion that the low discriminability of facial expression could cause the influence of identity on expression recognition. Therefore, the influence of identity on expression recognition must not necessarily support the opinion of independent processing. In addition, the results of present study also provided a possible way to dissociate information of facial identity and expression
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    The effect of visual angle on visual image scanning
    2007, 39 (02):  201-208. 
    Abstract ( 811 )  

    It was revealed that visual angle existed in visual image, and mental image influenced image operation. Kosslyn mentioned size effect in his image calculation theory, but didn’t think about how external factors might act on the internal visual image processing. Most research on mental image didn’t regard visual angle as a factor. Whether actual visual angles of objects influence image operation was explored in the present research.

    Two experiments were used to investigate the effects of visual angle on visual image scanning with the task of scanning the Euclidean distance on mental image. In Experiment 1, 3(visual angle: 2.7°, 5.5°and 8.2°)×3(scanning distance: 0.0cm, 0.4cm and 0.8cm) within-subject factorial design was taken to examine whether visual angle influence image scanning. Experiment 2 investigated how visual angle influence image scanning process with a 8 (visual angle: 2.7°, 4.1°, 5.5°,6.9°, 8.2°, 9.6°, 12.3°and 17.1°)×2 ( scanning distance: 0.4cm and 0.8 cm ) within-subject factorial design.

    The findings indicated that: (1) visual angle of stimulus did influence the scanning time of visual image, even though the scanning Euclidean distances were the same; (2) When the visual angle was in the range from 4°to 10°, scanning time was significantly shorter than that of visual angle outside this range, the shortest scanning time was found on 6.5°.

    The present research dispelled the interferences of the category distance, and verified the distance effect in visual image. The size effect of visual angle was different from size effect of mental scan and distance effect. The present findings have significant theoretical values. They add to Kosslyn’s image calculation theory. The findings have important practical implications as well. For it can be applied to the design of panel, illustration, game, interface, screen, and other instruments both in work and daily life

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    Factors influencing Visual Search on Orientation Dimension
    Ma Yanyun
    2007, 39 (02):  209-214. 
    Abstract ( 963 )  
    Objective Treisman and Gelade put forward A Feature-Integration Theory of Attention in 1980. The theory included concepts such as visual search and illusory conjunction, among others. Visual search contained feature and conjunction searches. They suggested that search for the target defined by single features should be in parallel processing without attention limits in feature search. In conjunction search, they assumed that search for the target defined by more than one features’ conjunction should be serial processing with focal attention. The crucial factor of slopes (the functions of reaction time ´ set size) in visual search was an important research question. Duncan and Humphreys found that search was faster when differences between the target and distractors were larger and when differences among distractors were smaller. Their results provided qualitatively crucial factors for the slopes. This paper further quantified these crucial factors for the slopes in orientation dimension.
    Methods The crucial factor (g (T, D, n)) was hypothesized. 12 adult subjects (6 female and 6 male) with normal or corrected-to-normal vision took part in the experiment. The experiment included a control and three experimental conditions. Stimuli in the control condition were randomly selected. Stimuli of the three experimental conditions were selected according to their experimental purposes. The g (T, D, n) values of all conditions were computed. All stimuli were lines for orientation dimension. Four conditions were feature searches of heterogeneous distractors. Set sizes (the number of target and distractors) of four conditions were 5 and 13. Whether g (T, D, n) values decided the slopes of visual searches was examined by comparing the control condition with three experimental conditions. The experiment adopted a within-subjects design.
    Results The statistical results showed that difference between the control and first experimental condition in reaction times was insignificant, when their g (T, D, n) values were same. When the g(T, D, n) value of the second experimental condition was larger than that of the control condition, its reaction times were significantly short (F (4, 19) = 7.89, p < 0.01). Its slope was small. It shows that the degree of the difficulty in visual search in the second experimental condition was lower than that of the control condition. When the g (T, D, n) value of the third experimental condition was smaller than that of the control condition, the difference (F (4, 19) = 5.74, p < 0.01) between them in reaction time was also statistically significant, suggesting that the degree of the difficulty in visual search of the third experimental condition was higher than that of the control condition. The slope of the third experimental condition was large.
    Conclusion When the g (T, D, n) values of the two conditions was same, their slopes was almost equal. The slope of the larger g (T, D, n) values was smaller. The slopes of the smaller g (T, D, n) values were larger. Therefore, the g (T, D, n) values might decide the slopes of visual search
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    The Speech Plan Deficit of People who stutter: Evidence from Word Length Effect
    Ning Ning,Lu Chunming,Peng Danling,Ding Guosheng
    2007, 39 (02):  215-224. 
    Abstract ( 2387 )  
    Substantial evidence has suggested that the processes of speech plan of people who stutter (PWS) may be impaired. Recently, discussions focused mainly on the exact process in which PWS have deficit. The difference of word length effect between PWS and people who do not stutter (PWNS) provided important support for the phonological encoding deficit hypothesis of stuttering. By reviewing the literatures on word length effect, three alternative explanations for this difference were put forward. First, frequencies of short words are usually lower than those of long words. The word length effect difference between PWS and PWNS may be due to frequency effect. Second, stuttering may easily occur when phases or sentences are longer and more complex, but none of the two factors can singly account for stuttering. So, syntax may be another explanation for their difference. Third, in block design, pronunciation length would influence reaction strategies, and may also contribute to the difference. Thus, 3 picture naming experiments were used to test these hypotheses respectively.
    Method and Results
    In experiment 1, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was set, with word length and word frequency as within subject factors. Ten PWS and ten PWNS participated in this experiment. The result indicated that stable differences of word length effect were obtained between PWS and PWNS, which were not influenced by word frequency. So, deficit of PWS may not exist in phoneme retrieval process.
    In experiment 2, A 2 x 2 factorial design was set, with word class (noun phase vs. verb phase) as within subject factors. In both conditions, names of pictures consisted of 3 Chinese characters. Ten PWS and ten PWNS participated in this experiment. The differences between two word class conditions were not significant in PWNS, but prominent in PWS. This result suggested PWS were sensitive to syntactical complexity after controlling the word length.
    In experiment 3, three conditions (1 character picture naming, 3 character picture naming and 1 character picture naming 3 times) were designed. The first two conditions were used to obtain the word length effect, and the third condition was used to control the length of pronunciation. Contrary to our prediction, the increase of pronouncing length did not prolong naming latency of PWS, and word length effect was still prominent after controlling pronouncing length.
    The results showed that both the syntactical and phonological encoding processes may be impaired in PWS. And a slots-and-filler was applied to illustrate how these two processes contributed to the difference of word length effect between PWS and PWNS. Meanwhile, it was suggested that stuttering therapists should pay more attention on speech training with long and complex sentences
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    The Integrative Factors of Anaphoric Inference During Reading Process
    Zhao Dongmei,Mo Lei
    2007, 39 (02):  225-234. 
    Abstract ( 2125 )  
    This paper explores the influence that three text factors: the referential distance between anaphor and antecedent, the elaboration of distractor and the typicality of distractor to anaphor. O’Brien et al (1997) used a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm at a rate of 250 ms/word and found that there is no facilitation when there was a substantial distance between anaphor and its referent. Levine et al (2000) found that it was the elaboration of distractor led to the failure of anaphoric inference, not the anaphoric distance. however, they didn’t separate the elaboration and the typicality of the distractor. Basing on Minimal hypothesis, the semantic interference would influence the accessibility of the antecedent: the match between the cue and target. Our hypothesis is that the typicality of the distractor is the main influence factor to anaphoric inference . By manipulating the elaboration of distractor and the typicality of distractor, we studied their effects on the anaphoric inference. Two experiments were administered.

    Ss were 164 university students. The on-line window display technique was used. The time of responding to the probe words in different conditions was analyzed. There were respectively 15,12,14 and 16 passage in experiment 1a,1b,2a and 2b. All experiments were within-subject design. In experiment 1, by using a line-by-line reading paradigm and recognition probe measures, the study explored the effect of distractor’s elaboration on anaphoric inference. In experiment 2, by using the same test measures as experiment 1’s, and adopting an 16 category typicality assessing method the study explored the effect of the relative change of the distractor’s typicality and the antecedent’s typicality to anaphoric inference . Statistical analysis was done by SPSS.

    Experiment 1 shows that antecedents (eg. “cake”) were fastly accessed when an anaphor (eg. “dessert”) was read on the background of the extensive elaboration of same-category low distractor (eg. “bread”). Low distractor’s elaboration didn’t hinder the accessibility of antecedent thus consequently led to failure of anaphor resolution. Meanwhile, the effect of referential distance was tested independently and we found that inference distance was not sufficient to eliminate anaphor resolution. This results support the finding of Levine et al (2000). Experiment 1 also showed that elaboration of distractor was not a main influence factor to anaphor resolution.
    Experiment 2a shows that anaphor was not resolved on the condition of high-typicality of the distractor. High-typicality in long-distance condition and in short-distance condition was not significantly different to the anaphor resolution. Experiment 2b also shows that high-typicality was the main factor to the anaphoric inference. the results of Experiment 2 is the change of antecedent typicality led to the effect of anaphor resolution.
    Basing on experiment 1 and 2, we found that the main factor was the typicality of distractor— the semantic overlap between the anaphor and antecedent.
    The study results suggest that increasing the typicality of same-category distractor will cause anaphoric inference resolution failure. This findings can’t be explained by O’Brien’s(1998) Resonance Model. According to Resonance Model, all concepts currently in short-term memory serve as cue can be activated when anaphor is read. To explain the findings above, one reason is the anaphor needn’t be resolved. For example, it can either be used anaphorically or to introduce a new concept. Another reason is Mckoon and Ratcliff’s(1997) Minimalist hypothesis. It appears that readers didn’t draw anaphoric inference because the antecedent was not easily available and the inference was not necessary from comprehension
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    Group-Reference Effect on Memory
    Yang hongsheng,Huang Xiting
    2007, 39 (02):  235-241. 
    Abstract ( 1981 )  
    Self creates and influences memory; memory also creates and influences self. The first part of this reciprocal relation has been repeatedly confirmed by studies on self-reference effect. These studies have showed that when material is processed in reference to the self, the corresponding memory performance is usually better than that for material processed in reference to others. Theoretically, however, what these previous studies have explored is the effect of just one part of the self (i.e. individual self) on memory in that the reference object employed in the self-referential processing task is the subjects themselves. How the other parts of the self (e.g. collective self) may influence memory has not been explored, so the present study was designed to examine whether there is a collective self-reference effect, namely, group-reference memory superiority effect.
    Two experiments were administered to explore whether processing information in reference to a self-identified group would facilitate memory performances. According to the definition of collective self, it was hypothesized that this kind of task can activate some elements of the collective self (mental representation for the group one identifies him/herself with). Seventy three Chinese college students were recruited as participants (40 and 33 college students in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively). Chinese and Americans were chosen as the self-identified group and the comparison group. Experiment 1 consisted of two parts. In part one, four orienting tasks were arranged: self-referential processing, Chinese-referential processing, American-referential processing and other (Luxun)-referential processing. During each task, participants were asked to make judgment in a scale of 5 points on the current reference object using the trait adjective words displayed on computer screen one by one in a rate of 1word/4 seconds. In part 2, a surprise recognition test with Remember/Know judgment (Conway & Dewhurst, 1995; Tulving, 1985) was administered. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with a minor modification on the specific judgment content.
    Results from the two experiments consistently showed that recognition rates were significantly higher when trait words were encoded in reference to Chinese than that for trait words processed in reference to American, thus confirming the group-reference memory superiority. That is, the collective self was shown to be able to facilitate memory as the individual self does. The two processing tasks did not differ in “remember” or “know” index. Additionally, recognition rates and “remember” judgment rates were significantly lower in Chinese-referential processing task than those in self-referential processing task. According to the taxonomy of individual self, relative self and collective self, self-reference effect was considered to reflect the effect of individual self on memory, while group-reference effect reflected the effect of collective self on memory with a relatively smaller magnitude.
    This study confirmed the group-reference superiority effect, which shows that materials processed in reference to collective self (one’s in-group) can be better remembered than those encoded in reference to an out-group. In addition, the group-referential processing was shown to be an effective task for studying the cognitive implications of collective self
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    Development of Subliminal Emotional STROOP Effect
    Jiang Chongqing,Yang Lizhu,Liu Ying
    2007, 39 (02):  242-248. 
    Abstract ( 2542 )  
    Cognition is often affected by emotion. Since their respective neural mechanisms are independent to some extent and they mature unevenly, the relationship between cognition and emotion changes over the life course. The connection between cognition and emotion is an important issue in developmental psychology. The present study used subliminal emotional STROOP paradigm to explore the developmental character of this connection.
    One hundred and sixty three subjects were recruited, including 5, 6, 7 year-old children and adults. The task was to name the color of a square following an emotional picture presented subliminally (with positive, negative, and neutral facial expression). Response time and error rates were collected. The differences in participants’ response time and error rates between the emotional and neutral condition were regarded as the emotional STROOP effects. The data was analyzed with repeated-measure two-factorial ANOVAs, in which emotional picture was used as a within subject factor and subject gender as between subject factor.
    With increasing age, the emotional STROOP effects decreased. The 5-year-olds spent significantly longer time to identify colors after they were exposed to crying facial expression pictures. The 6- and 7-year-old made more mistakes in identifying the colors when they were shown smiling facial expression pictures. However, the adults did not show any STROOP effect. Neither main effect of gender, nor interaction of emotional picture and gender was found.
    The emotional STROOP effects were inversely related to age. This result suggests that people’s emotion control ability and its neural mechanism are based on frontal lobe maturity . The STROOP effects caused by positive or negative emotion have different behavioral forms and psychological mechanisms. Positive emotion would cause the increase of participants’ errors, while negative emotion would delay participants’ response. Participants’ focus on speed or accuracy moderated what kind of STROOP effect to appear
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    Metamemory Monitoring and Control Development of Children with Learning Disabilities
    Zhang Yaming,YU Guoliang
    2007, 39 (02):  249-256. 
    Abstract ( 2318 )  
    Metamemory refers to a system concerns with person’s knowledge and regulating about memory. This research explored the specific process of metamemory monitoring and control development characterized by Chinese learning disabled children in 4~6th grades of primary schools.
    Using 2×3×2 mixed design, this experiment examined metamemory monitoring and study-time allocation strategies of 4th to 6th grade learning disabled children under self-paced time and item-by-item judgment conditions. The subjects were 58 learning disabled children and 60 average children.
    The result showed no significant difference between learning disabled children and average children in differentiating difficulties of the study material. Both average and learning disabled children from 5th and 6th grades were able to distinguish among the different degrees of learning material difficulty. However, 4th grade children could not do make the difficulty differentiation. For 5th and 6th graders, statistically significant differences were found between learning disabled children and average children in judgment of learning (JOL). Ratings by learning disabled children were lower than those provided by the average-ability children. There was no significant difference on JOL rating between the two groups of 4th graders. The 5th and 6th grade average ability children were able to allocate different time according to the difficulty of the learning material. The correlation between judgment of learning material easiness and corresponding time allocation was negative and significant. The 5th and 6th grade learning disabled children were able to allocate time according to learning material difficulty. However, there was no significant correlation between easiness judgment and time allocation.
    These findings suggest that the relation between metamemory monitoring and time control was not well established for children with learning disabilities in the period of 4th~6th grade. It’s an important difference between learning disabled children and average children from the perspective of metacognitional development
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    The Pupils’ Worked-Example Learning About the Algebraic Operation Rules
    Lin Hongxin,zhang Qi
    2007, 39 (02):  257-266. 
    Abstract ( 2368 )  

    It is a primary way for students to learn mathematical rules by worked-examples. But there was inconsistent agreement on the effects of non-complete worked-example learning. Pass(1992) found that there were not significant different effects between non-complete worked-example learning and complete worked-example learning, while Stark(1999)got that the effects of complete worked-example learning were better than non-complete worked-example learning. Therefore, the present study focused on the pupils’ worked-example learning effects of the algebraic operation rules, and compared the effects of non-complete worked-example learning with complete worked-example leaning in different conditions.
    180 sixth Grade pupils were chosen with a pre-test from one primary school. During the experiment, the experimenters presented worked-examples of three different algebraic operation rules to every subject, and recorded their learning results on the post-test. The subjects’ learning rate was analyzed with Nonparametric Tests at last.
    Most of the subjects had difficulty to learn the arithmetic operation rules of square error by worked-example learning, and some subjects could learn the arithmetic operation rules of perfect square by worked-example learning; Feedback had positive effects on non-complete worked-example learning, and the effects were related with the number of the deleted operation steps of the worked-examples. Feedback had significant positive effects on the algebraic operation rule learning by worked-examples deleted one operation step, and hadn’t significant positive effects on the algebraic operation rule learning by worked-examples deleted two operation steps; Different difficult arithmetic operation rules had different learning effects by the non-complete worked-example learning. The non-complete worked-example learning effects of the more difficulty algebraic operation rules were poor, and the non-complete worked-example learning effects of the easier algebraic operation rules were well; The complete worked-example learning effects were all better than the non-complete worked-example learning effects when there wasn’t feedback, and the learning effects of the worked-example deleted one step operation were better than the complete worked-example learning effects when feedback was provided.
    The present study further tested that feedback had significant positive effects on the algebraic operation rule learning by worked-examples deleted one operation step, and hadn’t significant positive effects on the algebraic operation rule learning by worked-examples deleted two operation steps; The non-complete worked-example learning effects of the more difficulty algebraic operation rules were poor, and the easier algebraic operation rules were well; The complete worked-example learning effects were all better than the non-complete worked-example learning effects when feedback wasn’t provided, and the learning effects of the worked-example deleted one step operation were better than the complete worked-example learning effects when feedback was provided. Based on the present study, teachers should give students feedback in time during teaching; When learn the difficult algebraic operation rules, it will be better to present complete work-examples or non-complete worked-examples kept key operation steps, when learn the easier algebraic operation rules, presented non-complete worked-examples will be better

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    The Relationship among Personality Match of Mother and Adolescent, Personality Favor and Mother-Adolescent Communication
    Wang Jingjing,Fang Xiaoyi,Deng Linyuan,Huang Lina
    2007, 39 (02):  267-276. 
    Abstract ( 2279 )  
    As an important mechanism of the parent-child interaction, the mother-adolescent communication plays a vital role in the socialization of the adolescence. Existing studies on the factors of the parent-child communication found the characteristics of the adolescence and the parents could improve the parent-child communication. Guided by the “goodness of fit” theory for the child development period, the match between the adolescent and the context about the personality, the needs, the expectation, and the value was seen as the important factors for the development of the individual and the relation. We assume that not only the adolescent and the mother’s own personality play a role in the mother-adolescent communication, but also the personality match between the adolescent and his/her mother affects each other’s communication style and behavior. Furthermore, previous studies indicated the relation between the personality match and the parent-adolescent conflict. Other researchers have pointed out the adolescent’s attitude toward the parents could improve the level of the parent-adolescent communication. Therefore, we suppose the mother-adolescent mutual personality favor may be an important mediating factor between the personality match and the mother-adolescent communication. The main objectives of this study are: (a) the association between the mother-adolescent personality match and the mutual personality favor; (b) whether the different types of the mother-adolescent personality match have dissimilar frequency and quality of the mother-adolescent communication; (c) explore the mediation effect of the mutual personality favor in the relationship between the mother-adolescent personality match and the mother-adolescent communication.
    A total of 632 adolescents of 7-12 grade and their mothers in Chengdu completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and were evaluated the mutual favor to the other’s personality. Te adolescents also reported their mother-adolescent communication. Through Chi square test, independent t-test, correlation, F-test, and multiple linear regression analysis, the relationship among personality match of mother and adolescent, personality favor and mother-adolescent communication was examined.
    (1) The mother-adolescent communications of both extroversive personality, both stable feeling and both low psychoticism were better than those of other personality match types .
    (2) Compared to the personality match, the personality favor was a stronger factor for the mother-adolescent communication.
    (3) As a mediator, on one hand, the adolescent‘s personality favor toward the mother totally weakened the negative relationship between the mother-adolescent personality match type of the both unstable feeling and the mother-adolescent communication; on the other hand it partly strengthened the positive relation between the mother-adolescent personality match type of the both extroversive personality and the both low psychoticism and the mother-adolescent communication.
    The results revealed that the personality match between the mother and her child actually affected the mother-adolescent communication, but the positive function depended on different personality match type. It functioned much lower than the personality favor of the adolescent towards to the mother and worked on the mother-adolescent communication totally or partly through the personality favor of the adolescent towards to the mother. Those results help us further understand the predictors of the parent-adolescent relation theoretically; they also help remind the education and psychology professionals the importance of the mediating effect of the personality favor between the personality match and the mother-adolescent communication, especially when the personalities of the mother and her child are unstable.
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    Emotional Arousal of Autonomic Nervous Activity of Students with Physical Aggressive Behavior

    Wang zhenhong,Guo Dejun,YOu Xuqun,Gao Peixia

    2007, 39 (02):  277-284. 
    Abstract ( 2598 )  
    The autonomic nerve activity pattern of antisocial spectrum behavior, including aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems, has been examined in a number of studies over the past decades, especially in heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC). The findings indicated that aggression reliably though modestly associated with HR and SC in many cases. Low resting and task skin conductance were associated with conduct problems. Low resting HR and high HR reactivity were associated with aggression and conduct problems. However, the patterns of autonomic nervous activity are influenced by emotional valence of stimuli. Also aggression may be physical or relational. This study was conducted to explore the relations between physical aggression and autonomic activity, the different characteristics of autonomic activity among the students with and withoug physical aggressive behavior under conditions of different emotional valence of stimuli.
    Method Sixty one students attended the experiment of this study, including 31 students with physical aggressive behavior and 30 normal students. Physiological responses, including the finger temperature, skin conductance, R-R interval, heart rate, and finger impulse, were recorded using Biopac100PW under resting condition and condition of different emotional stimuli. There were four emotional stimuli, three film clips eliciting disgust and fear, sadness, and happiness, and one language material eliciting anger. Acknowledge 100PW and SPSS 11.5 were used to analyze data.
    Results (1) There was a significant difference between students with physical aggressive behavior and normal students on the baseline of physiological activation such as finger temperature, finger pulse rate, heart rate, and R-R interval. Finger temperature, finger pulse rate and heart rate of students with physical aggressive behavior were lower than those of normal students and their R-R interval was longer than those of normal students. (2) In condition elicited anger, students with physical aggressive behavior reported higher level of anger experience than those of normal students. Significant difference of average changes in terms of R-R interval, heart rate existed between students with physical aggressive behavior and those of normal students when they read provocative and insulting language eliciting anger. The R-R interval, heart rate of students with physical aggressive behavior increased and those of normal students had no significant changes.(3)In condition eliciting disgust and fear, sadness, happiness, the skin conductance level of normal students changed more significantly than those of students with physical aggressive behavior.
    Conclusions The finding of this study showed that there were different patterns of autonomic activity between physical aggressive students and normal students. Autonomic activity of physical aggressive students is imbalance. They had higher HR under condition eliciting anger. So intervention of physical aggressive students needs to reshape their pattern of autonomic activity using biofeedback and other methods. It is also important to enhance their emotion-regulation competence
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    The Effect of Different Psychological Stressors
    on Responses of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
    Zhang Wencai,Yan Kele,Lu Yunqing,zhang Di,Hong Jie,Yuan Lizhuang,Zhang Yuejuan
    2007, 39 (02):  285-291. 
    Abstract ( 1061 )  
    Studies indicated that psychological stress may result in increase or decrease in target-specific sympathetic outputs, increase or decrease in certain vagal outputs. The altered responses may be less efficient and less adaptive and, thus, on a long-term basis, unfavorable to health. Evidence of disordered autonomic function has also been observed in patients with various somatic disorders, for instance, functional bowel disorders headaches, or cardiac arrhythmias. In order to clarify the relations between psychological stress and autonomic nervous system, in the present study, we examined the effect of different psychological stressors on the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and other cardiovascular activities.
    Twenty four healthy female undergraduates participated in the study. The participants were requested to complete baseline rest, cancellation test, mirror-tracing task, arithmetic task and speech-preparation, and simultaneously recorded spectrum domain of HRV(TP: total power, HF: high frequency , LF: low frequency and LF/HF: low- to high-frequency ratio), averaged R-R interval and blood pressure. The different components of HRV allow to observe sympathetic and parasympathetic function non-invasively and independently of each other. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS 10.0. The order of the stressors presentation were counterbalanced in order to avoid order effect.
    One-way analysis of variance for repeated measures showed the values of TP and LF during speech-preparation were significantly increased than baseline and other tasks, HF was increased significantly than cancellation test and arithmetic and there was no difference compared to baseline. During other three tasks LF decreased compared to baseline, the values of TP, LF and HF were no difference between them. The values of LF/HF didn’t show main effect between any tasks. Compared to the baseline,any of the four psychological stressors induced a decrease for Averaged R-R interval, and an increase for the systolic pressure. No differences were observed for the diastolic pressure. Subjective experience of stress was not consistent with its physiological responses.
    The findings indicated that the activities in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) decreased during cancellation test, mirror-tracing task and arithmetic task. However, the activities of SNS and PNS during speech-preparation was stronger than other tasks. The autonomic nervous activities during speech-preparation were different from those on the other three tasks. Averaged R-R interval and Blood pressure were both sensitive to the differences between the baseline and the tasks. The differences of ANS activities during different tasks supported strongly for Berntson’s theory that proposed there were nine changeable modes of ANS. It was still not clear that the mental mechanism resulted in such differences
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    The Dynamic Changes of Behavioral, Immune and Sympathetic
    Responses to Chronic Stress in Rats
    Wang Weiwen,Shao Feng,Lin Wenjuan
    2007, 39 (02):  292-298. 
    Abstract ( 2113 )  
    Previous studies have shown that emotional stress induced by randomly giving an empty water bottle to rats during watering periods for 14 consecutive days activated both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the increased blood levels of corticosterone and norepinephrine. It also elicited attacking and exploring behaviors, suppressed the level of specific anti-ovalbumin IgG antibody production which was negatively related to norepinephrine level. However, three day empty bottle presentation had no significant effect on anti-OVA antibody production. These results suggest that the duration of stressors determines the consequences of body reactions induced by stress, at least, humoral immune responses. In order to examine whether the duration of stress exerts an accumulative effect or an adaptive effect on body reactions, the present study was designed to investigate the dynamic changes in behavioral, immune and neuroendocrine responses of rats that were subjected to chronic emotional stress with different durations.
    Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) emotional stress (induced by randomly giving an empty water bottle to rats at set watering time) (n=19); (2) physiological stress (given neither empty water bottles nor water during the same watering periods as for emotional stress group) (n=19); (3) control 1 (allowed free access to water during watering periods)(n=15); and (4) control 2 (given water ad libitum during the whole experimental periods)(n=15). Behavioral changes, humoral immune responses and the reaction of sympathetic nervous system were measured and compared during different days(14,21 and 28 days) of stress. The behaviors observed included attacking, exploring and grooming. Norepinephrin levels in plasma were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of IgG antibodies to Ovalbumin were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
    It was found that emotional stress stably induced aggressive behavior of rats over the whole experimental period. Compared with controls, rats subjected to 14,21 or 28 days of stress showed decrease in the level of specific anti-OVA antibody to a similar degree. Both 14-day and 28-day stress activated the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the increased blood levels of norepinephrine. However, a decline of norepinephrine level was also obvious from 14-day to 28-day stress. The body weight showed an early decrease during the first 14-day stress period but it was gradually recovered after prolonged stress exposure.
    Taken together, these results demonstrated different adaptive processes of behavior, immune, neuroendocrine and physical responses to chronic stress, and may be helpful for further understanding the complex relationships among various stress responses
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    Effects of Scopolamine on Behavioral Sensitization Induced by Morphine in Rats

    Li Xinwang,Xu Aihong,Yu Bin,Wang Jia,Guo Chunyan

    2007, 39 (02):  299-305. 
    Abstract ( 1668 )  
    Behavioral sensitization, which has some common properties with learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP), is thought to play a key role in certain aspects of drug addiction such as compulsive drug-seeking behavior. It has been demonstrated that behavioral sensitization to amphetamine is blocked by glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK801,which has been proved to block learning, memory and LTP. Scopolamine, an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptor, has also been known to inhibit learning, memory and LTP. However, whereas several studies have showed that scopolamine blocks behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, others have suggested that scopolamine plays the role of potentiation to it. This conflict led us to examine further the effects of scopolamine on the development as well as the transfer of behavioral sensitization induced by morphine.
    Experiment 1: Rats were given four saline +saline (control group) or 10-mg/kg morphine +saline (morphine group) or 10-mg/kg morphine + 3-mg/kg scopolamine (morphine-scopolamine group) injections (i.p.) over a 36-h period (days1-2), followed by a 7-days withdrawal period (days 3-9). On day 10, all animals were challenged with 4-mg/kg morphine (i.p.) and their locomotor activity was measured for two hours. On day 24, morphine group and morphine-scopolamine group were challenged with 4-mg/kg morphine again. Experiment 2: Rats were given four saline (control group) or 10-mg/kg morphine (morphine group) or 10-mg/kg morphine (morphine-scopolamine group) injections (i.p.) over a 36-h period (days 1-3). After a 12-hour’s interval, control group and morphine group were administered with four saline and morphine-scopolamine group with four 3-mg/kg scopolamine over a 36-h period (day 3-5), followed by a 4-days withdrawal period (days 6-9). On day 10 and 17, all animals were challenged with 4-mg/kg morphine and their locomotor activity was measured for two hours.
    In Experiment 1, rats in morphine group showed significantly greater locomotor activity than other two groups (control group and morphine-scopolamine group) on day 10 and than morphine-scopolamine group on day 24. In Experiment 2, there was significant difference between the locomotor activity of morphine group and that of control group on day 10, but morphine-scopolamine group had no significant difference compared with control group or with morphine group. On day 17, the locomotor activity of morphine-scopolamine group significantly increased compared with control group and had no significant difference compared with morphine group.
    The results of this study showed that scopolamine could inhibit the development of sensitization and delay to a certain extent but could not inhibit transfer of sensitization induced by morphine
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    Behavioral Characterization of HSF1 Knockout Male Mice
    Zhu-Xiongzhao,Cheng Ming,Peng Min,Yao-Shuqiao-
    2007, 39 (02):  306-310. 
    Abstract ( 801 )  
    Past research has indicated that the heat shock factor (HSF) family mediates the induction of heat shock proteins in response to various types of stress. HSF1 is the primary factor controlling the stress-inducible expression of HSP genes. The aim of the present study was to examine behavioral phenotype of HSF1 knockout male mice (HSF1 −/− mice).
    Methods The behavior of HSF1 −/− mice was compared to those of a wild-type control in a series of experimental tests and conditions, including: (1) emotionality rating scale, (2) elevated plus maze, (3) open field test, (4) simple maze test, (5) T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT), (6) bridge walking, and (7) wire suspension test.
    Results We find that HSF1 −/− mice: (1) had significantly lower emotionality rating scores, (2) spent a greater amount of time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, (3) were less active in both open field test and simple maze test, and (4) showed impaired working memory as assessed by the T-CAT. There were no significant effects of genotype on the scores from the bridge walking and wire suspension test.
    Conclusions These findings suggest that HSF1 −/− mices possess impaired motor exploratory motivation, and HSF1 −/− mice possess lower anxiety levels. At the same time, HSF -/- mices that have impaired working memory do not appear to affect locomotive ability
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    Effects of Organizational Trust on Individual Attitudes, Turnover Intentions and Organizational Financial Performance of Chinese Companies
    Yu Haibo,Fang Liluo,Ling Wenquan,Zheng Xiaoming
    2007, 39 (02):  311-320. 
    Abstract ( 2334 )  
    Organizational trust has been viewed as one major factor for high organizational performance. But the effects of organizational trust on individual employees and organization are unclear, especially in Chinese companies. This study would fill the gap.
    Eight hundred and one employees from 43 companies of 9 different cities across China answered our questionnaire. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the questionnaire from Cummings and Bromiley (1996) had sufficient reliability and validity.
    At the individual level, the results of Hierarchical Linear Analysis showed that organizational trust was significantly positively related to job satisfaction and emotional commitment, and negatively related to turnover intention. The results also showed that organizational trust moderated the relationship between job satisfaction/emotional commitment and turnover intention. Specifically, when organizational trust is high, the relationship between job satisfaction/emotional commitment and turnover intention is stronger compare to when organizational trust is low.
    At the organizational level, the results of Structure Equation Model showed that organizational trust was positively associated with perceptual organizational financial performance and the relationship was fully mediated by organizational innovation and organizational learning.
    The main implication of the results was that we should pay more attentions to the level of organizational trust in human resources management. In the future, the complex influence mechanisms of organizational trust on individuals, teams/groups and organizations should be explored deeply and synthetically
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    The Image Decision Mechanism of Trust Building in Teams
    Wang Chongming,Deng Jingsong
    2007, 39 (02):  321-327. 
    Abstract ( 1136 )  

    Studies on team management have increasingly focused on team behavioral processes and its dynamic mechanisms. Among them, trust-building has become a frontier research area in industrial and organizational psychology. Previous research showed that the trust among team members is a key condition for high performance work teams. Trust building and its processes are affected by various factors such as individual value-orientation, interpersonal ability, team leadership styles, and mental model of team sharing. More in-depth research, however, is needed on team trust-building and -development. Using the image theory, this study systematically examined trust-building process and its key characteristics among team members in order to explore its image decision mechanisms. This study employed an experimental simulation method using a between-subject factorial design with two conditions (high goal conflict under individual goals vs low goal conflict under team goals). Network experimental simulation methodology was used. Twenty teams were randomly assigned to perform team tasks of investment under one goal condition. The results of these experiments showed that trust decision among team members was an image decision and it showed a rejection threshold. In the process of trust building, dimensions of ability and integrity were more important than kindness under both ideal and current images. The team members made their compatibility testing between ideal images and current images in order to make their trust decision judgment. In this dynamic process, the compatibility perception played a partial intervening effect and the image decision mechanism was established

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    Effects of Psychological Capital on Employees’ job performance, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
    2007, 39 (02):  328-334. 
    Abstract ( 2948 )  
    In the light of the emerging literature on positive psychology and positive organizational behavior (POB), psychological capital can be defined as an individual’s positive psychological state of development, which consists of four dimensions: self-efficacy/confidence, hope, optimism, and resiliency. Psychological capital may have positive effects on both performance and work attitudes. To date, a few empirical studies have found positive relationships between psychological capital and performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, but these studies were conducted mainly in the USA, except the study of Luthans et al (2005), and no research so far has ever dealt with the relationship between psychological capital and OCB. To fill in the gap in the literature, this study explored the impact of psychological capital on Chinese workers’ performance, organizational commitment, and OCB. The main research hypothesis of this study was hope, optimism, and resiliency, respectively, and when combined them into a core construct of psychological capital, would positively related to Chinese workers’ job performance, organizational commitment, and OCB.
    The sampling procedures of the study involved three steps. First, we chose 67 supervisors from the supervisor name lists provided by the human resource managers of the four coal companies we visited. For each supervisor, we randomly sampled two to three subordinates. After that, the HR manager, along with one of the researchers of the current study, gathered the supervisors in several groups, to explain the purpose and requirements of the study. Each supervisor was given two questionnaires, one for himself/herself to complete (for each subordinate) and the other one for each of the selected subordinates to complete (for themselves). All the questionnaires used in the current study have been tested to be reliable and valid in the Chinese context. We put a matched code numbers on both the subordinate and the supervisor questionnaires. Lastly, the supervisors distributed the subordinate questionnaires to the corresponding subordinates. The researcher returned to the company after two days to collect the survey. In total, 198 sets of supervisor-subordinate dyads constituted the sample for the current study.
    The results of the study showed that after controlling for the demographic variables (gender and age), employees’ hope, optimism, and resiliency separately had positive impacts on their job performance, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Employees’ psychological capital (a combined construct of hope, optimism, and resiliency) had positive impacts on their job performance, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior.
    To sum up, this study empirically tested the positive relationship between psychological capital and employees’ outcomes. The research results indicated that psychological capital had positive impacts on employee’s performance, organizational commitment, and OCB. In order to enhance the competitive advantages of both employees and organization, one of the available and sustainable ways can be to invest, manage, and develop the employees’ psychological capital
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    Withdrawal Behaviors Under Distributive Injustice:the Influence of Procedural Justice and Interactional Justice
    Wang Yan,Long-Lirong,Zhou Jie,Zu Wei
    2007, 39 (02):  335-342. 
    Abstract ( 1065 )  
    Generally, organizational justice and organizational injustice are deemed to be corresponding, which means organizational injustice also has three dimensions and has negative effects on organization. On the basis of previous research, Jawahar proposed that different forms and combinations of justice perceptions are likely to elicit different forms of aggression that also vary in terms of the target of aggression and the manner in which harm is delivered to the target. Synchronously, because of the system innovation, there is no complete organizational justice at all in China. And distributive injustice is a familiar phenomenon in organization. Therefore, it is better to study the effect of procedural and interactional justice on withdrawal behaviors when in a situation of distributive injustice. Chinese culture emphasizes ‘forbear’ and ‘harmony’, so overt aggression seldom occurs. Moreover, covert aggression has been discussed. Therefore, this research wants to know whether procedural justice and interactional justice are most likely to elicit different withdrawal behaviors, and elicit different extent of withdrawal behaviors.
    The different consequences of procedural justice and interactional justice under distributive injustice were examined for the promotion situation of teachers. 160 high school teachers participated in the study. A 2×2 completely randomized design was employed, and 4 scenarios which consisted of the information on distributive injustice, organizational justice/injustice, interactional justice/injustice were used as study materials to analyze teachers’ withdrawal behaviors (e.g. slack in work, intention to quit, refusing to help, negative attitude to the principal) . Multi-variable variance analysis was employed to test the hypothesis.
    The results indicated that, in the condition of promotion was unfair, (1) organizational justice and interaction justice had significant negative main effects on ’slack in work’ respectively; (2) organizational justice and interaction justice had both significant negative main effect and interaction effects on ’refusing to help’; (3) interaction justice had significant negative main effect on ’negative attitude to the principal’, but organizational justice hadn’t significant main effect; (4) organizational justice and interaction justice had no significant effects on ’intention to quit’.

    This research showed that organizational injustice could induce individual withdrawal behaviors theoretically and enriched the research on effects of organizational injustice. Previous research mainly focused on theft, retaliation behaviors, attack on the own body and job burnout, while research on the withdrawal behaviors in Chinese culture is not enough. There is relation not only between organizational justice and the result referred to the organization, but also between international justice and the result referred to the international object. This is consistent with the relation model of organizational injustice and aggression behavior proposed by Jawahar, and is also corresponding with the research on the effect of distributive, procedural and international justice that Zhou Hao and Long Lirong did. And when distribution, procedure and interaction are all unfair, employees’ withdrawal behaviors are most significant. In organization, for some reasons, complete distribute is impossible. Therefore, when employees feel justice of the power of system execution and communication of superior-subordinate, withdrawal behaviors can be reduced and avoided
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    Why Does A Consumer Participate in the Co-creation? A Study on Consumers’ Creative Motivation
    Xu Lan
    2007, 39 (02):  343-354. 
    Abstract ( 2014 )  
    Nowadays consumers are increasingly participating in the process of new product development. In our study, we researched consumer creativity from the perspective of creative participation. Creative participation is defined as consumers’ co-creation novel and valuable products, services, ideas, consumption experiences with firms during their purchase or consumption process. According to plenty of evidence of empirical researches, Need for cognition (NC), and Encouragement for creativity had a positive effect on creativity. Individuals who engage in and enjoy thinking are thought having high propensity to create. However, it is unlikely to come through when a person positioned himself as a consumer. As for consumers, if they believe that the creative activity is unnecessary for them, they will not expend energy on creative participation even though they are a diligent thinker (having a high need for cognition). Thus we posited that consumers’ NC, which is different from the result of generic researches on creativity, had not a significant effect on intention to creative participation. According to Need for Uniqueness Theory, one of consumers’ motivations for creative participation may come from their need for unique products. When consumers need to acquire the symbol of distinct self by unique products, they are driven to create. Thus we posited that consumers’ need for unique product had a positive effect on their intention to creative participation. OSL Theory may account for consumers’ another motivation (i.e., need for unique experience) to creative participation. As to those whose perceived level of stimulation are lower than their optimum level of stimulation, or who have higher level of stimulation, they probably need to seek unique experiences from the process of creation in order to attain their optimum level of stimulation. So we posited that consumers’ need for unique experience had a positive effect on their intention to creative participation. Although the two motivations have similarity in terms of consumer’s self-perception, i.e., both of motivations make consumer seek the perception of uniqueness, there are clear differences between them. Specifically, consumer’s need for unique product is outcome-oriented, and the participants driven by expected outcome are therefore concerned if the creative outcome forms the distinct self-image and social image. Whereas consumer’s need for unique experience is process-oriented, and the participants are concerned whether the process of creation is interesting and novel, and therefore increases the level of stimulation.
    To examine the hypothesis, experimental method was adopted. We conducted a 2(encouragement for creative participation: high or low)*2 (relationship between service provider and consumer: strong or weak) between-subjective analysis to manipulate the experimental environment. 127 undergraduate students (74% female) participated in the experiment for extra credit in their course. Independent variables, such as Need for cognition, need for unique product, and need for unique experience were measured by established instruments. Dependent variable, i.e. creative intention was measured under the given experiment environment.
    With hierarchical regression analysis, we found that NC, which was verified to have effect on intention of creative participation in some psychological researches on creativity, had no significant effect on consumers’ creative participation intention. We also found that consumers’ need for unique product (NFUP) as well as need for unique experience (NFUE) had effect on consumers’ creative participation intention. In addition, consumer’s trust in a firm moderated the relationship between NFUP and creative participation intention, and the encouragement of the firm for co-creation enhanced the relationship between NFUE and creative participation intention.
    These findings have implications for segmentation, NPD process, and customer relationship building. Specifically, customers who are interested in creative participation can be divided into two groups: unique product seeker and unique experience seeker. Different marketing strategies should be laid down toward each group
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    The Relationship between Attitude Strength and Attitude Accessibility in Brand Evaluation
    Fan Chenlei,Zhang Ailing
    2007, 39 (02):  355-361. 
    Abstract ( 2588 )  
    Brand attitude accessibility is related to brand attitude strength, which is usually viewed as a well-established feature of attitude strength. However, there might be accessibility difference between positive and negative attitudes, and the difference might influence the relationship between attitude accessibility and attitude strength.
    This study focused on whether the relationship between attitude accessibility and attitude strength is symmetric when brand evaluations changed from positive to negative. Paper-and-pencil questionnaire and response-time technique were used to investigate this question. Our hypothesis was that, a strong correlation between attitude accessibility and attitude strength would exist only when judgment on brand attributes was positive.
    One hundred seventy female subjects were consumers of the same brand of functional food (average age = 46 years old, SD=6.21), recruited through the telephone by research assistants. The subjects were asked to rate the importance of each brand attributes (29 items) about functional foods.
    At the first stage, subjects were asked to complete a 5 point likert-type questionnaire, to indicate the importance of each brand attributes (where 1 = least important, 5 = most important). Their responses were defined as the degree of brand attitude strength. At the second stage, brand attitude accessibility was measured. Subjects were asked to give a “Yes/No” judgment on the above mentioned responses (memory-based). If one attribute was rated as most important or more important at the first stage, the subjects should give a “Yes” response; if one attribute was rated as least important or less important at the first stage, the subjects should give a “No” response. Their response time for every judgment was recorded by the computer, as indicator of brand accessibility.
    (a) Average response speed for positive judgment on brand attributes was significantly faster than that for negative judgment on brand attributes(2993ms vs. 3617ms, F=28.72,p<0.0001).
    (b) When subjects had positive judgments on brand attributes, a significant power function relationship between attitude accessibility and attitude strength existed (R2=0.97, p<0.001). In contrast, when subjects had negative judgments on brand attributes, we did not find such significant function relationship (R2=0.48, p=0.06).
    (c) When subjects had neutral attitudes toward some brand attributes, they were asked to make a definite judgment, either positive or negative. Under this circumstance, 67% of subjects gave a negative response, and the negative response time was longer than their positive response time.
    Our results indicated that, accessibility difference between positive and negative attitude did exist in brand evaluation, which supported the argument of asymmetric association between positive and negative attitude. A strong correlation between attitude strength and attitude accessibility existed only when the subjects had positive attitude towards brand attributes. This study’s practical implication is that, from positive to negative (say, satisfaction to dissatisfaction), the consumer’s brand evaluation does not necessarily change with the equal interval on the degree of attitude strength. We should keep in mind of this when analyzing data about brand attitudes
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    Personality Measurement for Recruit Selection
    Xiao Lijun,Miao Danmin,Xiao Wei,Wu Shengjun,Li Hongzheng
    2007, 39 (02):  362-370. 
    Abstract ( 1138 )  
    Soldiers are the major part of the army, and they are crucial for battle effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that psychiatric disorders are the major factors to influence soldiers’ mental health in China. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of Chinese soldiers, it is important and necessary to adopt psychological measurement system for recruiting new soldiers. So far, schizophrenia is the largest type of mental disorders in Chinese soldiers. These patients often have a specific personality basis before the onset. The objective of our research is to develop a personality inventory to evaluate personality deviation of candidates and to predict their adaptability in the military service.
    A structured questionnaire including 207 items was established on the basis of the results of previous investigation and interviewing 10 clinical psychiatrists and psychologists who have more than five years’ work experience. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were tested for 175 schizophrenic patients and 2868 recruits. To test the prediction of the questionnaire, the longitudinal evaluation was made by Soldiers Job Performance Questionnaire (SJPQ) for new soldiers after they joined the army for 3 months and 12 months.
    The normal subjects and schizophrenic patients were well differentiated by the high-score interval in three personality scales. The Cronbach’s α coefficients in the various branch scales were ranged between 0.64~0.86 (P<0.01). The averaged test—retest reliability coefficient was 0.74. As the high-order factor analysis divided the personality scales into three dimensions and eight factors, all scores in these factors were significantly higher for the schizophrenics and maladjustment recruits than for normal subjects and good adjustment soldiers, respectively. The total predictive accordance ratio and predictive qualification accordance ratio was above 98%,and the lowest predictive eliminate accordance ratio was 70.13%.
    The personality measurement is to evaluate the schizoid personality deviation for recruit candidates. The personality inventory developed in this research had good validity and reliability, and the predictive coincidence rate was relatively high in terms of the adjustability for recruits and soldiers. Therefore, it was suitable to be used for selecting recruits
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    What can Confucian thought do for psychological counseling
    2007, 39 (02):  371-380. 
    Abstract ( 1575 )  
    This paper proposes a calling that it is necessary to develop new approach of psychological counseling based on Confucian thought. This calling was based two facts: The mechanism of mental problem deeply involves cultural factors. Confucianism has been the mainstream of Chinese culture and the spirituality for most Chinese people,which has determined the nature of Chinese society.
    The article highlighted that Confucian thought could be applied into nine areas of psychological counseling: (a) Meaning of life. Confucian thought regarded that human beings had some natures with birth, which were different from animals. Human beings were potential kindness. Every one could develop to be virtuous, even can reach the stage of sage. Human beings naturally had to be socialization. In this process, the meaning and obligation of life could be experienced for human beings. This theoretical orientation was deeply different from the West, which was based on the conception of God. (b) Stress coping. Confucian coping emphasized that adversity or stress events could help individuals growing by which it was chance to develop trait and ability of human beings to become an achievement or virtuous person. The features of Confucian coping were pro-frustration, spiritual, whole and developmental. (c) Life and death education. Life and death is the basic issue related with many mental problems in psychological counseling. Confucian thought regarded that life and death were nature phenomena. Human beings should regard the death as nature. The important for human beings was doing their best when living. The foreverness of human being was by the virtue of person, not his body. (d) Grief counseling. Confucian thought advocated that facing the death of loved person one should hui-bu-mie-xing. It meant that grief should not harm yourself when you lost the intimate person although you love them and were deep grief. These ideas were from the theory of nature of human beings and Li(Ritual) and Zhongyong (Golden Mean) of Confucian thoughts. (e) Self regulation. The goal of Confucian thought was to make human beings become full person. The important way to get it was by oneself. For that Confucian developed the thoughtful theory of self-regulation, such as insight, introspection,self-examination, even regulated breathing, quiet-sitting and so on. (f) Interpersonal skill. To Confucian thought the principle of interpersonal skill was Zhongshu, which meant that one should understand other person based on one understanding to himself. That was the process of “from me to you”. Which was different from the empathy, which focuses “from you to you” in the West culture, especially in psychology. (g) Social skill. Confucian thought emphasized that facing different interests from different group, one should take the principle of zhongyong(Golden Mean or split the difference), which meat that one should positively copy the problems with fully consideration other interests and the action can be accepted be other sides. (h) Personality development. To Confucian thought, the key factors of personality were Benevolence (ren), Ritual (li), and Intelligence (zhi). The three factors were reciprocal and shown the feature of virtue. If they developed fully, it can made individual to seek ultimate spirituality of Way (Ren tao) and had the social function of understanding fate (zhiming): facing the fate (Ming), realized that it was “shiming”(unexpected and uncontrolled, no relation with virtue), what individual should do was to pursuit inner sage when without fate, to administrate society with benevolence police when having fate. The personality development was the process of transcendence of Jingjie, which means the same thing had been sensed as different meaning in different life stage. This idea was different from the West approaches of personality. (i) Technique of counseling. Confucian thought had thoughtful theory of self-study. For example, Zhu Xi, who was great Confucian philosopher, gave the four steps of self-study. Firstly getting the instructions from book or teacher, secondly empathy understanding what your getting, thirdly thinking yourself with empathy understanding, fourthly acting with your new experience or tasting. There are a lot of methods for psychologist to help Client, but few for client how to understand the helping. Confucian idea of self-study could give some implications to it.
    With the fact that Confucian&n
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