ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    30 September 2007, Volume 39 Issue 05 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Storage Mechanism of Objects in Visual Working Memory

    Shen Mowei,Li Jie,Lang Xueming,Gao Tao,Gao Zaifeng,Shui Rende

    2007, 39 (05):  761-767. 
    Abstract ( 995 )  
    During the past years, the storage mechanism of visual working memory (VWM) has been extensively studied. Luck & Vogel (1997) indicated that the object stored in the visual working memory in an integrated manner, and that only 4 objects could be retained in VWM, regardless of the number of features containing in individual objects, which was called “strong object” hypothesis. However, more recent research revealed that object-based advantage was weakened when heterogeneous features were integrated in different parts of an object (Xu, 2002). The advantage was further diminished when the conjunction of homogenous features served as the memory materials (Olson & Jiang, 2002; Wheeler & Treisman, 2002). Based upon these results, Olson & Jiang (2002) put forward the “weak object” hypothesis, suggesting that VWM is limited by both the number of objects and the composition of those object features. However, this hypothesis does not explain clearly what kind of information can be integrated into an object and what kind of information can not. Using two different sets of materials, we explored the storage mechanism of VWM. Inspired by the fact that the pattern of perceptual processing can be divided into parallel processing with spread attention and serial processing with focal attention, we hypothesized that attention would serve as the key factor in determining mechanism of storage, and that only information processed in parallel would be stored in an integrated-object retained in VWM.
    Using change detection paradigm, we ameliorated Wheeler & Treisman’s research (2002) by changing block design to random design so that the influence of memory strategy could be avoided. Two experiments were conducted, in which the subjects were required to judge whether the test item displayed in the memory item. In experiment 1, the objects were defined by color and shape, which could be processed in parallel. In experiment 2, the objects were defined by landolt rings with color and orientation, and orientation should be processed in serial. The memory performance was checked by varying the test items in three conditions: color change, shape or orientation change, and binding change. Twenty-seven subjects participated in the two experiments (15 subjects in experiment 1, 12 subjects in experiment 2). Paired t test analyses were performed in both experiments.
    The data analyses showed that: 1) the accuracy difference between shape change condition and binding change condition in experiment 1 did not reach significance; and 2) the accuracy difference between orientation change condition and binding change condition in experiment 2 reached significance.
    The results revealed that: 1) color and shape were stored as an integrated-object in the visual working memory; 2) landolt ring’s color and orientation were difficult to store as an integrated-object. According to the results, it is suggested that objects stored in the visual working memory were the information obtained in the parallel perceptual processing stage; objects including information that need focal attention to process were difficult to store as an integrated-object
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    The Effects of Phonological Loop
    of the Working Memory in Chinese Reading Comprehension
    Lu Zhongyi,Zhang Yajing
    2007, 39 (05):  768-776. 
    Abstract ( 2522 )  
    Introduction: Phonological loop which stores and rehearses speech-based information,is an important component in Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch,1974). It consists of two parts: a short-term phonological store with auditory memory traces that are subject to rapid decay and an articulatory rehearsal component that can revive the memory traces. Any auditory verbal information is assumed to enter automatically into the phonological store. Visually presented language can be transformed into phonological code by silent articulation and thereby be encoded into the phonological store. The phonological store acts as an “inner ear”, remembering speech sounds in their temporal order, while the articulatory process acts as an “inner voice” and repeats the series of words on a loop to prevent them from decay. Four main findings provide evidence for the phonological loop: the effect of phonological similarity, the word length effect, the effect of articulatory suppression, and the irrelevant speech. On the basis of these, researchers have done a lot of studies about the role of phonological loop in reading comprehension. Baddeley & Coltheart (1990) used the articulatory suppression paradigm to investigate the relation between phonological loop and reading comprehension; Boyle & Coltheart (1996) used another paradigm—irrelevant speech to explore the role of phonetic code in reading comprehension. But there was not a conclusion of the role of phonological loop in reading comprehension. Therefore, the present study was to investigate the role of phonological in Chinese reading comprehension.
    Method: Participants: 45 college students in Experiment 1 and 55 college students in Experiment 2. Materials: 24 texts, each text had 55 words. Design: 2×2×3 mixed design. The first independent variable—reading condition was manipulated between the subjects; the second independent variable—word frequency and the third independent variable—reading edition were both manipulated within the subjects. In Experiment 1, the two levels of reading condition were normal reading condition and articulatory suppression; however, in Experiment 2 were normal reading condition and irrelevant speech. Word frequency had high and low levels both in Experiment 1 and in Experiment 2; reading condition consisted of correct word, similar graphic word, and phonetic word both in Experiment 1 and in Experiment 2. The number of the correct-or-wrong judgment sentences and reaction time were dependent variables. Procedure: In Experiment 1, one half of the participants read the texts in the normal condition; the other half read the texts in the articulatory suppression condition. Once they finished one text study, they should judge whether the meaning of the text was acceptable. In Experiment 2, one half of the participants read the texts in the normal condition; the other half read the texts in the irrelevant speech condition. And the task was the same as in Experiment 1.
    Results: Repeated measures of MANOVAs were conducted for Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, by the analysis of the correct reading number, there were a main effect of reading condition (F(1,42)=5.18,p<0.05), a main effect of reading edition (F(2,41)=27.98,p<0.001), an interaction between reading condition and reading edition(F(2,41)=3.49,p<0.05), an interaction between reading condition and word frequency(F(1,42)=3.73,p<0.01), an interaction between reading edition and word frequency(F(2,41)=3.68,p<0.05); by the analysis of reaction time, there was only a main effect of reading edition(F(2,25)=9.85,p<0.01). In Experiment 2, by the analysis of correct reading number, there were a main effect of word frequency (F(1,52)=24.24)and a main effect of reading edition(F(2,51)=16.47,p<0.001), but by the analysis of reaction time, there were a main effect of reading condition(F(1,39)=5.61,p<0.05)and a main effect of reading edition(F(2,38)=13.59,p<0.001).
    Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, we draw conclusions as follows: (1) Both the articulatory control process and the articulatory store play an important role in Chinese reading. (2) Phonetic code and Graphic code effect Chinese reading in different process, and the role of phonetic code is more significant. (3) There are relations between word frequency and articulatory loop. The articulatory control process plays an evident role in high frequency words. (4) Word frequency has connections with graphic code and phonetic code. In low frequency words, the role of graphic code is more evident than phonetic c
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    Working Memory Span: Resource Constraint, Memory Decay or Switching Mechanism?
    Zhang Qi,Wang Xia
    2007, 39 (05):  777-784. 
    Abstract ( 977 )  
    There are mainly three models concerning cognitive mechanisms underlying the limitations of working memory span, namely, resource-sharing model, task-switching model and time-based resource-sharing model. The resource-sharing model indicagtes that working memory span is constrained by limited cognitive resources. The task-switching model claims that memory decay is the main factor affecting working memory span. Finally, the time-based resource-sharing model suggests that working memory span is affected not only by limited attentional resource and memory decay, but also by switching mechanism. This experiment was conducted to test the resource constraint hypothesis, memory decay hypothesis and switching mechanism hypothesis proposed according to the three models.
    First, to test the resource constraint hypothesis, we manipulated the cognitive load of the processing component (hereinafter referred to as processing load) by designing two types of working memory span tasks with different levels of difficulty, one being continuous operation span task and the other de-de-de span task. In the continuous operation span task, some participants were asked to maintain consonant English letters while performing simple arithmetic operations, whereas the others were required to maintain the same letters while reading aloud the syllable de presented continuously in de-de-de span task. Second, to test the memory decay hypothesis, the retention duration was also manipulated and this was achieved by varying the number of sign-operand pairs in continuous span task and the number of de syllables in de-de-de span task. Under long retention duration conditions, the participants were asked to solve 4 sign-operand pairs of arithmetic operations and to read 13 de syllables respectively in the two span tasks. While under short retention duration conditions, the corresponding number was 2 and 7. Finally, to test the switching mechanism hypothesis, all the participants were required to complete a switching efficiency task before performing working memory span tasks. Switching efficiency was denoted by switching cost resulting from switching trials and repetition trials, and high switching cost meant low switching efficiency, whereas low switching cost meant high switching efficiency. 80 undergraduates and graduates were randomly assigned to the four working memory span tasks.
    Two-way (processing load × retention duration) analyses of variance on the span data revealed that, there was a main significant effect of processing load, with de-de-de span being predominantly greater than continuous operation span, and that neither the retention duration nor the interaction between processing load and retention duration had a significant effect. Correlational analyses of switching cost and working memory span indicated that there was no systematic relation between them.
    The results suggest that working memory span is constrained by limited cognitive resources, and that memory decay and switching mechanism have no effect upon working memory span. Although the results supported the resource constraint hypothesis, further research needs to be done, for the nature of resource constraint remains to be an open question
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    The Parallel Process of Mental Rotation in Dual-task Situation

    Wu Yanwen,You Xuqun
    2007, 39 (05):  785-794. 
    Abstract ( 774 )  
    Laboratory studies of performance limitations under dual-task conditions typically present two tasks—Task1 (T1) and Task2 (T2) —in rapid succession. The degree of task overlap is varied by manipulating the interval between the onsets of the T1 stimulus and T2 stimulus, known as the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The standard finding is that RT for T1 (RT1) is constant across SOA, but RT for T2 (RT2) increases dramatically as SOA decreases. This slowing of RT2 at short SOA is commonly known as the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect. The most widely accepted account of the PRP effect is the response-selection bottleneck (RSB) model, which assumes that central operations (such as response selection) are discrete and serial, central operations for T2 do not start until central operations for T1 have finished. According to this model, RT2 is delayed at short SOA because operations for T2 requiring the bottleneck mechanism have to wait until this mechanism is finished with T1. The longer SOA is, the less likely is processing T2 in the bottleneck to have to await the completion of processing T1 in it. Hence, this model makes rather simple predictions for RT1, because T1 gets access to bottleneck processing first, it has completed bottleneck processing by the time T2 requires it, or T2 has to wait for T1 until which has finished with the bottleneck. Regardless, T1 always gets access to the bottleneck as soon as it requires it, so RT1 should be the same at all SOA, also RT1 should not depend on any difficulties of T2. Thus, the present study aimed to test whether T1 response selection could be affected from T2 response selection information. If it is true, it would suggest that T2 response selection had begun before T1 response selection was completed—that is, response selection processes of both tasks were operating in parallel.
    Three reaction time experiments using a psychological refractory period paradigm examined whether the mental rotation process could occur in parallel with other cognitive operations. In each experiment, participants made speeded responses to both a tone (T1) and a different rotation letter or digit (T2), which presented with varying stimulus onset asynchronies. The first task was high-low tone discrimination, and the second task was a mirror-normal judgment. The tone stimulus was always presented first, and the rotation stimulus appeared after a variable SOA, which was 50ms or 500ms.
    The results revealed that: (1) T1 response selection heavily affected T2 response selection, the effect of PRP was significant on T2. The effect of mental rotation decreased substantially with SOA decreasing. (2) A significant effect of SOA was observed on T1. As SOA decreased, RT1 increased. T1 was significantly influenced by the difficulty of T2. (3) Response selection of T2 substantially affected the central bottleneck process of T1, such effect suggested that T2 response information was generated prior to the completion of T1 response selection, mental rotation process can occurs in parallel with other cognitive operations.
    The present results suggested that T1 and T2 response selection processes may operate in parallel. Such parallel operation of response selection processes would be a violation of the discrete-stage processing assumption and could pose a substantial challenge to RSB theory
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    Effect of Levels of Processing on Language-dependent Recall in Mandarin and Cantonese
    Zhang Qianqiu,Zhang JiJia
    2007, 39 (05):  795-806. 
    Abstract ( 714 )  
    Language-dependent effect is a new type of context-dependent memory, which combines the features of other types of dependent memory and has unique properties related to language. Through this effect, people may obtain a deeper understanding of the relationship between language and memory. Language-dependent effect is affected by many factors such as the familiarity of languages, characteristics of languages, and processing levels of learned materials. In this study, we determined the effects of the processing levels on language-dependent recall in Mandarin and Cantonese. The study included 2 experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of processing levels on language-dependent effects in intentional learning, and Experiment 2 determined the effects of processing levels on language-dependent effects in incidental learning.
    Eighteen students from 2 universities in Guangzhou City participated in Experiment 1. They spoke Mandarin and Cantonese fluently. They were asked to study 2 groups of Korean words (all words were unfamiliar), each in Mandarin and Cantonese test environments, and then perform recognition tasks in Mandarin and Cantonese test environments. The reaction time, false alarms, power to discriminate old and new words, and R (remember)/K (know)/G (guess) judgments to responses were analyzed. Twenty-four students from 2 universities in Guangzhou City participated in Experiment 2. They also spoke Mandarin and Cantonese fluently. They were asked to evaluate the favoritism to 2 groups of Korean words (all words were unfamiliar) in Mandarin and Cantonese environments and then perform recognition tasks in Mandarin and Cantonese environments. The response indices were identical to those of Experiment 1.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed that the language environment of the test affected the memory retrieval in intentional learning. Compared to the results in Mandarin test environments, the subjects recognized the learned words faster, made fewer false alarms to interferences, showed stronger discrimination power to old and new words, and made more “R” judgments in Cantonese test environments. Experiment 2 that involved incidental learning showed results similar to those of Experiment 1. The subjects made faster reaction to learned words, made more “R” judgments but produced more false alarms to interferences and showed weaker discrimination power to old and new words in Cantonese environments; furthermore, they made slower reactions to learned words, made more “K” and “G” judgments but produced fewer false alarms to interferences and showed stronger discrimination power to old and new words in Mandarin test environment. The study indicated that language-dependent recall occurred in both intentional and incidental learning, however, language-dependent effects in the 2 learning types showed different tendencies. These results clarified that the level of processing was an important factor that affected language-dependent recall.
    1. In the learning of unfamiliar materials, language-dependent effects were observed in Mandarin-Cantonese diglossia subjects. The language environments of tests had important effects on word recognition.
    2. The levels of processing affected the language-dependent effects of Mandarin-Cantonese diglossia subjects. In addition to the different levels of processing, the tendencies of language-dependent effects of Mandarin-Cantonese diglossia subjects differed
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    The Activation of Graphic, Phonological, and Semantic Information in the Recognition of Naxi Pictographs

    hang JiJia,He Xiumei,Chen Xi

    2007, 39 (05):  807-818. 
    Abstract ( 897 )  
    Two questions arise during the cognition of words: how the meanings of words are accessed and whether the phonology of words can be activated automatically? These questions are hot topics in the areas of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. Previous studies showed inconsistent results due to different materials and experimental paradigms. Three theories have been proposed based on the studies of alphabetic writing skills. 1. Phonological mediation model that suggests that people captured the meaning of words through the activation of phonology. Phonology plays a mediator role in lexical access. 2. Direct access model that assumes that people derive the meanings of words from graphs, and phonological activation was the additional process. 3. Dual route model that suggested that the route of graph-enabled meaning ran parallel to the route of graph-phonology-enabled meaning in lexical access. However, these theories have long been disputed by many researchers. In the present study, we used Naxi pictographs in order to investigate the graphic, phonological, and semantic activation of words.
    The study included 2 experiments. Experiment 1 adopted the color-word interference paradigm. Fourteen Naxi individuals who were aware of Naxi pictographs participated in the experiment. The experimental materials included 20 Naxi pictographs consisting of 4 color words, namely, red, white, yellow, and green; homographs, homophones, and synonyms of color words; and 4 neutral words. These words shared same familiarity and complication. The subjects were asked to name the color of the words fast and accurately. Experiment 2 used the priming paradigm to determine the effects of graphic, phonological, and semantic information on the naming of color squares in different SOA (100, 200, and 400 ms). The color words were presented first and the color squares later. The subjects were asked to name the color of the squares fast and accurately. Forty-five Naxi individuals who were aware of Naxi pictographs participated in 3 sub-experiments.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed that the graphic information was easily activated than phonological and semantic information. The subjects named the color of the characters that were similar in form with the color words faster than the color of the characters that were similar in phonology or meaning with the color words. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the priming effects of the words that were similar in form with the color words appeared when SOA = 100 ms. The priming effects of the words that were similar in meaning with color words appeared when SOA = 200 and 400 ms. The study showed that graphic information of Naxi pictographs is activated first, followed by the semantic information. Further, no evident phonological activation was found. The cognition of Naxi pictographs was consistent with the hypothesis of direct access. This was due to the characteristics of Naxi pictographs.
    1. The graphic information of Naxi pictographs was easily activated than phonological and semantic information.
    2. In the cognition of Naxi pictographs, the graphic information of Naxi pictographs was activated first, followed by the semantic information. Further, no evident phonological activation was found.
    3. The cognition of Naxi pictographs was consistent with the direct access model. The reason for this was related to the characteristics of Naxi pictographs
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    Effect of Feature Diagnosticity on Category Use
    Yen Guoan,Li Yong
    2007, 39 (05):  819-825. 
    Abstract ( 1721 )  
    Category use mainly includes category judgment and feature prediction. The important issue is how people retrieve diagnosticity information from features that are distinct among different categories. Previous studies mostly investigated how the number of overlapped diagnosticity features influenced category learning. In order to reduce the variables, researchers commonly differentiate feature diagnosticity into 2 states, namely “none” and “all.” However, in natural situations, feature diagnosticity is often multilevel, the effect of which depends on 2 aspects: single feature’s diagnosticity and the number of diagnosticity features. In the present study, these 2 aspects of category use were investigated along with category judgment and feature prediction in order to determine the real effect of feature diagnosticity.
    We conducted 2 experiments, each focused on category judgment and feature prediction. The experimental design adopted was 3 (single feature’s diagnosticity level: high, medium, and low) × 2 (number of diagnosticity features: 1 and 2) within-subjects design.
    Forty-eight 21-year-old juniors participated in the study. Drawings of fish contours were assessed in the preliminary experiment. There were 2 fish categories, one of which comprised 5 category members. The fish contour was designed to comprise 4 feature dimensions according to the 4 different levels of feature diagnosticity, included high, medium, low and non-diagnosticity level. The experimental drawings were presented using the DMDX software. In the category learning phase, participants attempted to classify the fish drawings into 2 target categories until their correct score reached 90%. Subsequently, the category use phase started. In experiment 1, the participants were asked to judge the category labels of novel testing items, while in experiment 2, the novel testing items were presented along with its category label, and the participants were asked to predict the missing features. Finally, a repeated-measures MANOVA was used to analyze the data.
    In experiment 1, statistically significant results were obtained for the main effects associated with the 2 independent variables but not for the interaction effect. The effect of high-level diagnosticity feature was significantly better than that of medium level; however, there was no significant difference between medium- and low-level diagnosticity feature. The effect of 2 diagnosticity features was also significantly better than that of 1 diagnosticity feature.
    In experiment 2, the main effect was obtained for single feature’s diagnosticity but not for number of diagnosticity features. The effect of high-level diagnosticity feature was significantly better than that of medium- and low-level diagnosticity feature; however, no significant difference was observed between medium- and low-level diagnosticity feature. No interaction effect was found.
    The experimental results suggest that both the single feature’s diagnosticity and the number of diagnosticity features could facilitate category judgment, but only the former could facilitate feature prediction
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    Property Centrality Effect in Inductive Reasoning
    Zhang Tingting,Li Hong,Long Changquan,Feng Tingyong,Chen Antao,Li Fuhong,Wang Xiufang
    2007, 39 (05):  826-836. 
    Abstract ( 2222 )  
    Previous research on property effect mainly examined how property stability affected inductive reasoning. The property stability effect cannot explain all property-related questions. Gelman (1988) discovered that Grade 2 children were more capable of generalizing animals’ anatomical features (e.g., this rabbit has a spleen inside) but not their functional features (e.g., you can loll with it) to another instance of the same category. In this study, subjects did not consider the stability of the property when performing inductive reasoning. Yet their answers implied the property effect. So what is this effect based on? Hadjichristidis (2004) proved that the degree of property centrality plays a role in inductive reasoning. However, we suspect 2 potential problems may occur in their experimental process; hence, we conducted 3 modified experiments to investigate the property centrality effect in inductive reasoning and examined whether our results were consistent with those of Hadjichristidis’ study.
    Three experiments were performed to analyze the effect of different property centrality degrees on inductive reasoning. The first experiment was in accordance with that conducted in Hadjichristidis’ study, except for the different procedure. The second experiment was the same as that carried out by Hadjichristidis (2004). The last experiment was to examine property centrality effect using expanded similarity and centrality conditions in order to complete and refine our analyses of this effect and its psychological process.
    All 3 experiments showed the following results. Inductive scores of the central property were higher than those of the less central property under higher similarity conditions. However, with a decrease in the relatedness of premise and conclusion, the effect of central property on participants’ induction process showed a decreasing trend; an increasing trend was found for the less central property (least central property in experiment 3). The central property was no longer advantageous under low similarity conditions; its average value was significantly lower than that of the less central property.
    A property centrality effect exists in the process of inductive reasoning. Central property has more effect on inductive reasoning than other properties (less central property and least central property). However, the appearance of the effect was constrained by the similarity between premise and conclusion concepts. When the similarity is high, the central property showed more inductive ability than the less central property. The effect of central property on inductive reasoning ability decreased with a decrease in the similarity between premise and conclusion concepts; in contrast, the effect of the less central property and least central property on inductive reasoning ability increased. When premise and conclusion were no longer related, the inductive strength of the least central property reached the highest level, while that of the central property reached the lowest level. Since the inductive strength of the least central property was not significantly higher than the random level all times and the lowest inductive strength of the central property was significantly lower than the random level, we propose that when premise and conclusion concepts were unrelated, the subjects were sure that they could not choose the central property and made random guesses based on reasoning from other properties. This embodied the typical characteristic of uncertain inductive reasoning process.
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    Maternal Assessment and its Relationship with Children’s Mathematical Development
    Xu Xiaohui,Pang Lijuan,Zhang Hua,Zhou Xinlin,Tao Sha
    2007, 39 (05):  837-844. 
    Abstract ( 2855 )  
    Parental assessment of children’s mathematical ability plays an important role, either directly or indirectly, in a child’s mathematical development. In China, mothers look after children much more than fathers do. The present study explored (1) the characteristics of Chinese mother’s assessment of their children’s mathematical development, (2) the factors that influence the accuracy of Chinese mother’s assessment, and (3) the relationship between maternal assessment and children’s mathematical development.
    Fifty-one children (28 boys and 23 girls) aged 4–5 years from 9 different Kindergartens completed a child mathematics assessment (CMA, Klein, 1999; Cronbach’α = 0.92) in the first and second attempts; however, only 48 children completed the assessment in the third attempt. Children who passed in 1 item earned 1 point. Fifty-one mothers (25 with above high school education and 26 with high school and below high school education) were asked to predict their children’s total points in the CMA presented in the questionnaire only at the second attempt.
    An ANOVA revealed significant difference between mothers’ assessments of boys and girls (F(1, 47) = 8.98, p < 0.05), no significant difference in assessments of mothers with different educational levels (F(1, 47) = 1.22, p > 0.05), and no significant interaction between gender and mother’s educational level (F(1, 47) = 0.14, p > 0.05). Maternal assessments and children’s scores (the second test) did not correlate significantly (r = 0.23, p > 0.05). Further, 94% mothers gave inconsistent scores ranging from 1~18 points. An ANOVA with 2 (gender) × 2 (education) × 3 (children’s performance level in the first test) revealed that only the main effect of children’s performance level was significant (F(2, 40) = 4.67, p < 0.05). The maternal assessment accuracy and children’s scores (the second test) correlated significantly (r=0.79, p < 0.001). When the children’s scores in the first and second tests were controlled, an ANCOVA revealed that the maternal assessment accuracy significantly predicted the development of children’s mathematical abilities (the third test) (F(2, 42) = 6.71, p < 0.01).
    In summary, mothers tend to overestimate their children’s mathematical ability. Different from maternal educational level and children’s gender, the maternal assessment accuracy varied with the children’s previous mathematical performance, and mothers more accurately assessed children with high mathematical ability. The maternal assessment accuracy was positively related to the children’s performance; moreover, overestimation by mothers to some extent could be propitious to promote their children’s mathematical development later. All these results suggest that the educators should be aware of the importance of scientific assessments of children’s mathematical abilities and adjust their thoughts and behaviors; thus, the development of children’s mathematical abilities was facilitated
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    The Relationship of Adolescent’s Self-esteem and Aggression:
    The Role of Mediator and Moderator
    Xin Ziqiang,Guo Suran,Chi Liping
    2007, 39 (05):  845-851. 
    Abstract ( 2309 )  
    Currently, the relationship between global self-esteem and aggression is being debated by many researchers. Traditionally, researchers believed that individuals with low self-esteem were prone to externalizing problems such as antisocial behavior. However, some researchers questioned this claim arguing that it was high self-esteem and not low self-esteem that was related to high violence. Other researchers suggested that the true psychological trait related to aggression was narcissism. Many empirical evidences have supported all or any of these 3 viewpoints.
    The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-esteem and aggression by adding 2 “third variables,” namely, mediator and moderator. After summarizing the relevant reports, self-control was considered as the mediator and peer relationship as the moderator. A total of 705 junior and senior middle school students were assessed on 3 scales and peer nominations. The 3 scales used or developed in this study were self-esteem scale, aggression scale, and self-control scale, and all of them represented relatively good internal consistency reliabilities.
    The results were as follows: (1) the correlation coefficient of self-esteem and aggression was –0.21, which implied that aggression was related to low self-esteem; (2) the regression coefficient between self-esteem and aggression was not statistically significant after the introduction of self-control into the regression equation, which indicated that self-esteem influenced aggression through self-control and that self-control mediated the relationship between self-esteem and aggression; (3) social status moderated the effect of self-esteem on aggression and detailedly it moderated the strength of the effect; (4) social influence moderated the mediating effect caused by self-control
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    The Development and Application of An Academic Emotions Questionnaire
    Dong Yan,Yu Guoliang
    2007, 39 (05):  852-860. 
    Abstract ( 3117 )  
    Academic emotions refer to students’ achievement emotions experienced in school or university settings. The domain of academic emotions covers not only students’ achievement emotions relating to success and failure but also emotions relating to instruction or to the process of studying. According to valence and arousal dimensions, academic emotions include positive-high arousal emotions, positive-low arousal emotions, negative-high arousal emotions and negative-low arousal emotions. An effective academic emotions questionnaire was developed basing on theoretical considerations and interview results, three samples consisting of 1071 adolescents. Reliability and validity research showed that the coefficient of homogeneity and split reliability were high. The construct validity and criterion validity were satisfactory. The resulting set of emotions contains the positive-high arousal emotions of pride, enjoyment and hope, as well as the positive-low arousal emotions of contentment, calmness and relief, and the negative-high arousal emotions of anxiety, shame and anger, as well as the negative-low arousal emotions of boredom, hopelessness, depression and fatigue. Through surveying 3588 adolescents, this study explored the characteristics of academic emotions of adolescents. Significant effects of grade and gender in adolescents were found. Adolescents in junior high schools had more positive academic emotions and less negative academic emotions than the ones in senior high schools. Male students had more positive academic emotions and less negative academic emotions than females. The questionnaire was a useful tool to measure the academic emotions of adolescents
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    A Predictive Research on Psychosomatic Symptoms with Personality Dimensions, Self-Experience Inconsistency, and Behavior Inhibition
    Wang Dengfeng,Cui Hong
    2007, 39 (05):  861-873. 
    Abstract ( 803 )  
    On the basis of the theoretical analysis on the concept of personality and mental health, this research was aimed at establishing a structural equation between personality dimensions, self-experience inconsistency, behavior inhibition, and psychosomatic symptoms.
    The Chinese personality model was proposed as a seven-factor model in contrast to the Western five-factor model; further, the Chinese personality could be classified at four different levels according to observability: overt behavior, inner experiences, motivation, and physical reactions. Further, psychological health was proposed at four levels, namely, overt psychosomatic symptoms, self-experience inconsistency, behavior inhibition, and positive psychological characters. Previous researches revealed that personality dimensions correlated significantly with overt psychosomatic symptoms, self-experience inconsistency, and behavior inhibition.
    Meanwhile, hardiness was proposed as a positive index of health, and the following three were regarded the valid components of hardiness: control, commitment, and challenge. Further, 18 secondary factors of the Chinese personality could be categorized into three groups: control, commitment, and challenge.
    The current research proposed the following four hypotheses. (1) Dimensions of the Chinese personality could predict mental health directly or indirectly, that is, the variances of self-experience inconsistency were explained mostly, and behavior inhibition were the middle, and psychosomatic were the least by personality dimensions. (2) The human relations dimension of the Chinese personality indicated characters of interpersonal behavior, while the other six dimensions of the Chinese personality were related with self-related characteristics. Further, it was hypothesized that in comparison to the other six dimensions, human relations has a lesser effect on self-experience inconsistency. (3) Of the seven dimensions of the Chinese personality, behavior styles, talents, and ways of life indicated mainly characteristics of object-related behavior; they were hypothesized as significant indicators of behavior inhibition. (4) Self-experience inconsistency and behavior inhibition could influence psychosomatic health directly; further, self-experience inconsistency could influence psychosomatic health indirectly through behavior inhibition.
    More than 600 subjects, including farmers, workers, businessmen, intellectuals, college students, and government executives, aged between 15 to 69, were required to complete the following four questionnaires: Chinese Personality Scale (QZPS), Self-Consistence and Congruence Scale (SCCS), Behavior Inhibition Scale (BIS), and SCL-90. Correlation, regression, and structural equation analysis supported and validated all of the abovementioned hypotheses. In other words, personality dimensions could directly and indirectly (through self-inconsistency and behavior inhibition) predict symptoms positively or negatively. Moreover, self-inconsistency, behavior inhibition, and psychosomatic symptoms could act as a mental health index; in addition, they correlated closely. On the other hand, psychosomatic symptoms act as a final and explicit exhibition of mental illness, and self-inconsistency acts as a deep and implicit exhibition of mental illness; behavior inhibition act as behavioral indicators of psychosomatic symptom and self-inconsistency features between the two.
    According to the results of the structural equation analysis, the dimensions of (1) extroversion, kindness, and ways of life were proposed as health-promoters, (2) behavior styles and emotionality as health-inhibitors, and (3) talents as health promoter-and-inhibitor. These three groups of the Chinese personality dimensions comprised all three components of hardiness, respectively. Therefore, we can state that the validation of the Western concept of hardiness failed and that further research on hardiness is needed. Meanwhile, different relationship models of personality dimensions and perspectives on mental health, limitations of the current research, and further research directions were also discussed in this paper
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    Effects of Values on the PTSD Symptoms of Deliberate Truama Victims
    Wang-Jianping,Wang Yulong,Xie Wei,Yang Zhihui
    2007, 39 (05):  873-879. 
    Abstract ( 1678 )  
    What are the causes of PTSD(Posttraumatic Stress Disorder)? One explanation is that a traumatic event may have shattered our deeply held and probably unexamined assumptions and beliefs about the world and ourselves. But many researches suggest that not all people who suffer from the same traumatic event suffer from PTSD, and that a negative social environment is a better indicator of PTSD symptomatology than a lack of positive support. The aim of the present study is to investigate how values impact PTSD symptoms of the deliberate trauma victims and, particularly, to identity whether a negative social environment mediates the influence of value to PTSD symptoms.

    One hundred and three adults who came from hospitals and police stations in different regions in China responded to the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Acknowledgement as a Victim Scale, and Schwartz Value Survey-Portrait Version. We conducted correlation analyses, ANOVA analyses, multiple regression and path analyses.

    The results showed that 3 PTSD symptoms of the deliberate trauma victims manifested significant differences, with the intrusion symptom level being the highest, avoidance the second, and the hyper arousal symptom the lowest. Among different negative exterior conditions, disproval of partner and acquaintance had more apparent effects than family disapproval and social cognition. To a degree, the values could forecast 3 PTSD symptoms, and achievement was the best indicator of PTSD symptomatology of the deliberate trauma victims. Finally, the introversive values could impact on the intrusion symptom by some factors which reflected exterior criterions such as social cognition.

    According to the results, we can conclude that the effects of values on PTSD symptoms of the deliberate trauma victims depend on value types and other factors which reflect exterior criterions such as social cognition. The negative influence of social disapproval on avoidance symptom of the introversive-value deliberate trauma victims suggests that we should not only think of social supporting, but also attach importance to value types during the intervention for deliberate trauma victims
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    Monitoring Psychotherapeutic Change: Psychometric Evaluation of Short-Form Outcome Questionnaires in China and Germany
    Gerhard-Zarbock,Xilin Wang,Marko-Drews,Bernhard-Dahme,Wolfgang-Lutz
    2007, 39 (05):  880-891. 
    Abstract ( 2253 )  
    n a cross-cultural study using samples from China and Germany (n = 419), short forms of established mental health psychometric instruments were evaluated for their psychometric properties. These instruments were selected because they operationalize the different phases of Howard’s phase model of psychotherapy: remoralization, remediation and rehabilitation. The main goal of the study was to determine if the short forms of these instruments could serve as means for quality management in a cross-cultural training project for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Sufficient reliability and validity (convergent validity and sensitivity to pathology) were found in both cultures. At first glance, high intercorrelations of the tests suggested a one-dimensional model of mental health. However, an exploratory factor analysis and theoretical considerations favoured the alternative of differentiating mental health into eight sub-dimensions, whereby each of the sub-dimensions could be linked to basic or social emotions. These findings and their implications for quality management are discussed in some detail
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    Relationship among Attribution, Self-efficacy, Perceived Social Acceptance, and Help-seeking Behavior
    Xia Mian,Jiang Guangrong
    2007, 39 (05):  892-900. 
    Abstract ( 2700 )  

    Chinese people hesitate to seek professional help and hold negative attitudes toward help seeking. Earlier studies have examined various demographic, socio-cultural, and personal factors in an attempt to identify the barriers to seek help. However, recent studies have demonstrated that socio-cultural variables can explain only a relatively small amount of variance in actual help-seeking behavior. Therefore, considerable attention should be given to personal factors in order to understand help-seeking behaviors. To understand the individual’s decision-making process before help-seeking behavior, Jiang (2005) developed a Phases-Decision-Making Model (PDM). This model includes 3 phases that are involved in help-seeking decision: (1) Awareness of having psychological problems, (2) self-help evaluation, and (3) Other-help evaluation. Here, to study the actual help-seeking behavior, we used this model and examined the barriers to seek help at the third phase. We studied those individuals who were aware that they had psychological problems, recognized that they could not solve these problems effectively by themselves, and were prepared to seek help from others. In order to understand the factors that may lead to help-seeking behavior, we examined the attribution of psychological problems, self-efficacy of being a counseling client (the belief in one’s ability of being a “good” client), and perceived social acceptance of help seeking.
    Three hundred and five college students (154 female, 151 male) who were aware of having psychological problems and realized that they could not solve these problems effectively by themselves (as identified by a survey) participated in the study; the first group included those who actually sought professional help (HS) and the second group included those who never did (NHS). All the participants were enrolled from 7 universities in Wuhan, China, and comprised 39.7% sophomores, 26.9% freshers, 21.6% juniors, 9.8% seniors, and 2% graduates. We used the following questionnaires to measure the 3 variables: The Questionnaire of Self-efficacy of being Counseling Client (Yu, Jiang, 2004), The Questionnaire of the Perceived Social Acceptance, and the Questionnaire of Attribution of the Mental Problem.
    The results showed that the self-efficacy of being a counseling client was a significant predictor of help-seeking behavior. Higher self-efficacy led to more help seeking. Controllability predicted help seeking, in that if students perceived their psychological problems as controllable, they were less likely to seek help. The locus of attribution failed to differentiate between HS and NHS students. Perceived social acceptance of help seeking positively predicted help-seeking behavior. Those who perceived higher social acceptance of help seeking would perceive higher self-efficacy of being a counseling client, which in turn would be positively associated with help seeking.
    The self-efficacy of being counseling client and perceived social acceptance were the important motivational factors that predicted help-seeking behavior in the third phase of PDM. This study supported the PDM to some extent

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    The Effects of Performance, Competence and Position on Organizational Distributive Justice
    Chen Xi,Ma Jianhong,Shi Kan
    2007, 39 (05):  901-908. 
    Abstract ( 1459 )  
    Distributive justice is important in predicting organizational outcomes such as satisfaction and commitment. So norms of distributive justice are crucial for organizational research and practices. Distributive justice norms may vary across cultures and eras. Research on this topic in Chinese context is scarce. The economic and social reconstruction in China since the 1980s could be reflected in the change of ideology of distributive justice., This research explored the effects of three factors, performance, competence and position, on distributive justice and their variation from the 1980s to the present. Neuroscientists discovered that the pursuit of self-interest and achievement of justice could constitute conflicting motives. We proposed the concept of threshold of injustice,defined as the maximum degree of self-interest one was willing to abnegate for the sake of justice. With this concept, we could study distributive justice in a multi-motive decision-making framework.
    The first experiment explored the effects of work performance and competence on distributive justice, through a 2 (high vs. low competence, between-subject) × 3 (performance: finishing 30%, 50%, 70% of the work, within-subject) design. In the second experiment we examined the effect of position after controlling the effect of competence, using a 2 (high vs. low competence, between-subject) ×2 (pure competence difference vs. competence plus position difference, within-subject) design. We designed a two-phase game composed of an Ultimatum Game and a Dictator Game. In the first phase, participants acted as Responders in the Ultimatum Game, deciding on accepting or rejecting the offer proposed by a virtual Proposer and evaluating fairness of him or her. In the second phase, participants’ role changed to Dictator, proposing offer to the same virtual partner. Sixty Chinese undergraduate students participated in this research. Repeated ANOVA, stepwise regression and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data.
    ANOVA Results indicated that both work performance and competence had significant effects on threshold of injustice, justice evaluation and feedback offer. After the effect of competence being controlled, position did not have any significant effects. Regression results showed that performance was the first predictor of distributive justice, and competence came the second. Compared with the findings in the 1980s, performance remained the primary factor in distributive justice; competence showed significant rise in distribution norms while position’s significance declined. The distribution outcomes would affect feedback behaviors. Cluster analysis implied that there were individual differences in distributive justice norms. To be specific, a large proportion of people, 70% in this research, made fairness-referenced decision-making based on clues of performance and competence. However, a small proportion of people, 30% here, relied mainly on how others treated them to decide their reactions.
    This research indicated that 1) performance was the primary predictor of threshold of injustice, followed by competence; 2) except performance and competence, the offer proposed by the partner also demonstrated positive influence on distributive justice perception and reactive decision-making; 3) without high competence as evidence, high position itself was not considered to be worthy of high reward; 4) individual difference existed in distributive justice referenced decision-making norms: a large proportion of people showed event-based style while a small proportion showed relationship-based style; 5) after the economic and social reform in China, the importance of performance and competence has increased, compared with position, in organizational distribution norms. Based on these results, we summarized the principles of distributive justice as performance law, competence law, and reciprocity law
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    Relationship between Paternalistic Leadership and Organizational Justice
    Zhou Hao,Long Lirong
    2007, 39 (05):  909-917. 
    Abstract ( 1065 )  
    Many researchers in the field of organizational justice have started to focus on the factors that influence organizational justice. The relationship between leadership and organizational justice is one of the hot topics because researchers have found that employees percept organizational justice to depend on the sense of fairness in the day-to-day work experience, and these experiences often originate from the concrete administrative action taken by the supervisor. All previous studies have been conducted in the context of Western culture and consider Western leadership theory as the starting point. Hence, the purpose of this study was to discuss Chinese leadership theory, i.e., paternalistic leadership and organizational justice, in the context of Chinese culture. Paternalistic leadership (PL) is based on traditional Chinese culture and is different from Western leadership theories. It is the basic characteristic of organizations in Chinese culture and has been found to be prevalent in many Chinese organizations. Authoritarianism, benevolence, and moral leadership are regarded as 3 elements of PL.
    A questionnaire that included paternalistic leadership scale (PLS) and Chinese organizational justice scale was employed as the tool in this study. A total of 428 samples were collected from 14 organizations. Statistical analysis revealed no significant common method bias in the data, and hierarchical regression was used to confirm the research hypothesis.
    The results indicated that (1) both benevolence and moral leadership had a positive effect on every element of organizational justice; however, authoritarianism had a negative effect only on leader justice; (2) with regard to the interaction effects of the 3 elements of PL authoritarianism and moral leadership had a negative interaction effect on distributive justice and procedural justice, while benevolence and authoritarianism had a negative interaction effect on leader justice and leader interpretation.
    The primary theoretical contribution of this study is that PL was proved to have a significant impact on organizational justice in the context of Chinese culture. This suggests that improvement in leadership is a practical way to enhance employee’s organizational justice. The second theoretical contribution is that the study clarified the specific relationship between PL and organizational justice and provides a theoretical reference for the selection and training of leaders
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    Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Identification:
    A Social Exchange Perspective
    2007, 39 (05):  918-925. 
    Abstract ( 2086 )  
    The last two decades have witnessed a surge in interest in organizational identification (OI), which is viewed by some researchers as the sense of psychological connection or bond between an individual and an organization. Although OI is important, it remains theoretically underdeveloped and has received limited attention in China. This paper presents an empirical test of organizational identification from a social exchange perspective in an attempt to understand the nature, development, and consequences of organizational identification.

    The sample consisted of 398 employees from 32 firms. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis

    Results indicated that perceived organizational support (POS) had a significant impact on organizational identification and intention to remain. Further, organizational identification fully mediated the relationship between perceived organizational support and four organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism toward colleagues, conscientiousness, interpersonal harmony and protecting company resources). Leader-member exchange (LMX) had no significant direct impact on organizational identification and intention to remain, but had an important impact on altruism toward colleagues, conscientiousness, interpersonal harmony and protecting company resources.

    Perceived organizational support plays an important role in determining employees’ organizational identification, work-related attitudes and behaviors. However, leader member exchange has no significant direct impact on organizational identification and intention to remain, but it has an important influence on altruism toward colleagues, conscientiousness, interpersonal harmony, and protecting company resources. These effects and directions for future research are discussed
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    The Impact of Knowledge Difference and Knowledge Conflict on the Creativity of Team

    Zhang Gang,Ni Xudong

    2007, 39 (05):  926-933. 
    Abstract ( 1021 )  
    There are 2 approaches in the area of team diversity research. The first approach is to categorize types of diversity and then subdivide it. Scholars subdivided the diversity into race, age, gender, character, functional background, tenure, educational level, and so on, and then studied the effects of diversity on performance. The second approach is to study the intervening process, i.e., conflict, which enables to determine the mechanism of the effect of diversity on performance. However, previous studies have some limitations. First, there is no comparison study on the 2 approaches. Secondly, previous studies hardly separated knowledge difference from diversity. Thirdly, these studies distinguished only the types of diversity but not the level of diversity. Hence, our study separated knowledge difference from team diversity and explored 3 questions. First, what is the impact of knowledge difference on team performance? Second, what is the difference between influence of knowledge difference alone and knowledge difference along with knowledge conflict on team performance? Third, what is the impact of different levels of knowledge difference on team performance?
    This study applied the experimental method and adopted a 2*2 between-subjects design. The independent variables were knowledge difference (2 levels: high and low) and knowledge conflict (2 levels: existent and inexistent). The dependent variable was creativity marks of the team. The experimental task required each team to present an innovative project based on experimental materials. Three experts used a 9-point rule to assign marks to these projects based on the level of creativity. The marks assigned by the 3 experts were summed to obtain the total creativity marks of each team. A total of 162 students (40 teams) participated in this experiment. ANOVA was used to analyze the data.
    1. When the level of knowledge difference was low, knowledge conflict played a positive role in team creativity; in contrast, when the level of knowledge difference was high, knowledge conflict may facilitate or restrain creativity. Thus, knowledge conflict played a fluctuating role.
    2. When knowledge conflict was inexistent, high level of knowledge difference played a positive role in team creativity; when knowledge conflict was existent, the impact of teams with high level of knowledge difference on team creativity was not significantly different from that of teams with low level of knowledge difference.
    In this study, knowledge difference was separated from team diversity and was associated with the variable of knowledge conflict in order to determine their effects on team creativity. There is an interaction between knowledge difference and knowledge conflict. Pure knowledge difference always positively affects creativity; however, when it is accompanied with knowledge conflict, mixed effects are observed. Knowledge difference along with knowledge conflict will not only strengthen creativity but also restrain it; this increases the risk of hampering team creativity. If the team needs to be considerably more creative, knowledge conflict should be encouraged in order to generate novel ideas. Although the cost of encouraging knowledge conflict involves the risk of considerably lower performance, it is worthy of implementing this strategy. If the team needs to be considerably more efficient, knowledge conflict should be restrained in order to achieve stable performance
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    Address-response In Ancient Chinese Psychological Thoughts
    Zhou Yiqi,Ye Guoan
    2007, 39 (05):  934-941. 
    Abstract ( 2219 )  
    In essence, the mechanical cause-effect concept espoused by mainstream psychology is established on the principle of “physical closeness.” Under the domination of this kind of theoretical logic, mainstream psychology emphasizes part rather than whole; similarly, it stresses on entity rather than manifestation, resulting in selective ignoring, such as shutting the eyes to forms, long-distance effect, complicated phenomena, the significance of lives, etc. In this manner, there may appear disastrous consequences in that while depriving all things of a sense of beauty in the human mind, people are able to treat everything in nature at will, and thus, science creates an ugly world. In contrast to the mechanical cause-effect concept or the law of physical closeness espoused by mainstream psychology, field theory proposed by physics and biology as well as by Gestalt and Jungian psychologies is based on the long-distance effect. Inspired by this theoretical logic and hoping to compensate for the deficiencies in the mechanical cause-effect concept, some psychologists have begun to break through the limits of the mechanical cause-effect concept and focus on the influence of the whole on the part, the form, the symbol, etc. In comparison with the traditional scientific mode that aims at obtaining certainty, the Chinese traditional culture underlines probability and creativity. In ancient Chinese thoughts, field theory is present in the address-response perspective, which covers interpersonal communication, sympathy among the same species, and the turns of events. With relationship being at the center, address-response characterizes inter-subjectivity, creativity, and imagery. In line with this idea, the original mental state, the thing in itself, could be retrieved through cultivation. Thus, the principle that the thing in itself is regained through cultivation with practice being prioritized over theory is a great characteristic of ancient Chinese psychological thoughts. However, the Taoist approach places emphasis on how to make an appropriate response, while the Confucian one is more concerned with how to evoke a response in light of a sincere address. At the applied level, address-response finds its way to reciprocity in (1) interaction, (2) interpretative approach involved in ideal personality, (3) moral politics embodied by state governance, (4) reciprocal teaching in education, and (4) the awareness-responsibility enhancement in moral development, all of which are included in ancient Chinese psychological thoughts. Despite the lack of accuracy, ancient Chinese psychology paves a new path in its development. Its essential messages are that (1) active participation in the address-response process leads to a relationship and consequently creativity, (2) imagery discourse works better in the emotional facet of interaction, (3) appreciating and understanding this world requires the address-response approach, and (4) experiences with life and everyday knowledge are important. In this manner, there is no doubt that ancient Chinese psychological thoughts provide valuable inspiration for modern psychology. Being an open system, similar to modern physics, psychology needs to assimilate all that ancient oriental thoughts can offer, thereby helping people out of their psychological predicament in this alienated world and guiding them back to their spiritual homes that are in harmony with society as well as nature
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    registration standard
    Chinese Psychological Society
    2007, 39 (05):  942-946. 
    Abstract ( 989 )  
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    Ethic Standard
    Chinese Psychological Society
    2007, 39 (05):  947-950. 
    Abstract ( 1181 )  
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