ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    30 November 2005, Volume 37 Issue 06 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Phonological Information of A Radical Influences Decision of Chinese Pseudo Characters and Non-Characters
    2005, 37 (06):  714-722. 
    Abstract ( 992 )  
    The study, through two experiments, was aimed to investigate the effects of phonological information in a radical on decision of Chinese pseudo-characters and non-characters. Experiment 1 was dedicated to studying the effects of phonological information and positional information in a radical on pseudo or non-characters. The results showed, a) reaction time for pseudo-characters was longer and accuracy rate for pseudo-characters was lower than those for non-characters; b) phonological information in a radical didn’t affect the decision of non-characters but did influence the decision of pseudo-characters; c) in contrast to the pseudo-characters in which radical had no phonological information, those with radical having phonological information were more difficult to judge. Experiment 2 was designated to examine the effect of two phonological factors, i.e., whether radical itself was pronounceable and whether it could function as phonological component of real Chinese characters. The results showed that both factors influenced decision of pseudo-characters. Chinese pseudo-characters with a pronounceable radical were more difficult to judge (i.e., longer reaction time and more errors to make a response) than those without a pronounceable radical. In contrast to the pseudo-characters in which radical couldn’t function as phonological component of a real Chinese character, those with such a radical were more difficult to decide. In addition, results suggested that the more phonological information a pseudo character possessed, the lower accuracy for judging would be. In the general discussion, a model was developed to describe the cognitive processes of judging a Chinese character with low frequency or a Chinese pseudo or non-character based on these findings.
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    Frontal Involvement to Executive Control: Load Effects Reflected by
    2005, 37 (06):  723-728. 
    Abstract ( 2785 )  
    In order to explore the cerebral areas activated by 1/2/3-back tasks of Chinese characters and the time-course of executive control, the 64 channels event-related potentials (ERPs) of 14 normal adults were measured. N360 was elicited by 1/2/3-back tasks at prefrontal scalp. The duration of the N360 was from 250ms to 600ms after stimuli occurred. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the N360 increased with the memory load enhancement and showed load effects. High ER density current distributions and three dipoles located in the frontal lobe and other areas were found by source analysis to the N360 of 3-back tasks. Results suggest that both hemispheres involved in the executive control at different extents, but the left frontal lobe has a relative hemispherical dominance.
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    Dissociation of Object and Spatial Working Memory: Evidence from Slow Cortical Potentials
    2005, 37 (06):  729-738. 
    Abstract ( 786 )  
    This study used delayed matching task. Slow cortical potentials were measured when 16 normal participants were performing object and spatial working memory task. The results were as follows: at global posterior brain regions, dissociation in time of slow cortical potentials between object and spatial working memory task was found, and excessive posterior brain regions were activated in spatial working memory task. Left inferoprefrontal cortex(LIPFC) was activated in object and spatial working memory task, and there was not significant difference in intensity of activation. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(LDPFC) was responsible for maintenance and rehearsal of object information,but there was not symmetrical in intensity of activation between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
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    Effect of Density Gradients on Haptic Discrimination
    2005, 37 (06):  739-747. 
    Abstract ( 2245 )  
    This study was designed to contribute to research on the relative roles and contributions of afference, proprioception, and efference to touch-based (or haptic) texture perception. We sought to determine whether theoretical accounts of roughness constancy, in active and passive perception and across broad velocity ranges, would be supported when spatial density gradients were explored. We created textures with sinusoidal spatial gradients that participants explored with sinusoidal velocity directions: positive gradients resulted in densities that increased in the region where exploration velocities were largest while negative gradients counteracted the velocity increases and decreases with decreases and increases in spatial density, respectively. While these gradients could all be detected reasonably well, we found a slight shift in discriminability in favour of positive gradients and found that surfaces with no gradient at all were more likely to be judged to have a positive gradient. This finding runs counter to the roughness constancy models. Counterintuitively, we found that providing the participants with feedback as to their accuracy had a negative impact on gradients. The spatial gradients were of different magnitudes and in different their accuracy and confidence and we found no evidence of perceptual learning in the task. We consider the data relative to existing models and accounts of haptic texture perception.
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    2005, 37 (06):  748-752. 
    Abstract ( 1961 )  
    A eye movements study on sampling traits for irregular geometric figure recognition was conducted. Ss were 12 university students. The stimuli were 20 irregular geometric figures. The equipment was EyelinkII tracker in the experiment. It was found that, with the task difficulty increasing, the ratio of effective sampling time descended significantly. In poor display condition, the number of fixations reduced significantly and the sacnpaths become significant longer than in good display condition. The interaction between display condition and display style had a significant effect on RT,the number of fixations and the length of scanpaths.
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    2005, 37 (06):  753-759. 
    Abstract ( 2340 )  
    The current study aims to compare the word recognition performance and the confidence of the memory in the high and low obsessive compulsive Symptom Subjects (Ss). 12 high obsessive compulsive Symptom (HOC) Ss and 12 low obsessive compulsive Symptom (LOC) Ss responded to a words recognition task, which totally has 60 obsessive compulsive sensitive words (OCSW), 60 emotional sensitive words (ESW) and 60 neutral words (NW). The results indicate that, compared to LOC group, HOC group have relatively poorer memory on OCSW(t(22)=-2.161, p=0.042), because they judged more new words as learned(t(22)=1.832, p=0.081). Particularly on the basis of signal detection analysis for the neutral words, the HOC Ss tend to have the lower d’ than the LOC Ss (t(22)=-2.037,p=0.054). And the interaction of memory confidence between the groups and words types was significant (F(1,22)=4.60,p<0.05). The results of the present study implicate that the disability to determine confound information is one of the causes for lower confidence of HOC Ss,but this relationship merits further study.
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    Relationship between Children’s Second-order False Belief, Prosocial Behavior and Peer Acceptance
    2005, 37 (06):  760-766. 
    Abstract ( 1124 )  
    The relationship between children’s second-order false belief, prosocial behavior and peer acceptance was investigated in a sample of children aged 3 to 6. The result indicated that in general, prosocial behavior was the best predictor of children’s social preference, however, the association of peer acceptance with prosocial behavior and second order false belief changed as a function of children’s age. For children under 5 years of age, second-order false belief was the best predictor of social preference, while prosocial behavior was the best predictor of peer acceptance for older children.
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    2005, 37 (06):  767-775. 
    Abstract ( 1793 )  
    Using attitude, meaning and language phenomenon detections as survey indexes, the study inspected the effects of others’ expectancy on the cognition of different types of irony among children aged 6-to10 in China. The results showed: ⑴the types of others’ expectancy (explicit or implicit)affected the attitude and meaning detections of children, but had no effects on the language phenomenon detection of children;⑵the children displayed developmental unbalance in different aspects of irony cognition.6-year-old children have possessed tentative irony cognitive ability, they began to understand the attitude and the discourse meaning of the speaker, but they could not explain irony phenomenon correctly. Untill 10-year-old, the ability of children’s interpretation of irony phenomenon were still developing;⑶the children’ cognitive levels of different types of irony were different. There were not noticeable differences between 6-year-old children’ interpretations of two types of irony, but there were striking differences between 8-year-old and 10-year-old children’ interpretations of two types of irony. Compared with irony flatteries, 8-year-old and 10-year-old children could interpret irony criticisms better.
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    The Test of the Mediator Variable between Peer Relationship and Loneliness in Middle Childhood
    2005, 37 (06):  776-783. 
    Abstract ( 3242 )  
    571 elementary school children from the third grade to the fifth are investigated in June 2003. The relationships among social preference, friendship quality, self-perceived social competence and loneliness are examined, the mediator effect of self-perceived social competence between peer relationship and loneliness is also tested. The results indicated that, the relationships among social preference, friendship quality, self-perceived social competence and loneliness are significant, and the gender differences is significant; self-perceived social competence has mediator effect between peer relationship and loneliness; in separate analyses, there are not only indirect relation between loneliness and social preference or friendship quality through the mediator effect of self-perceived social competence, but also direct relation; in integrate analysis, there are direct and indirect relations between loneliness and friendship, there are only indirect relation between loneliness and social preference.
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    Worked Example Learning about the Rules of the Four Fundamental Admixture Operations of Arithmetic
    2005, 37 (06):  784-790. 
    Abstract ( 2423 )  
    Adopting worked examples having operation step annotations or not and representing worked examples alternating, the present study had researched 48 second Grade pupils’ learning about the rules of the four fundamental admixture operations of arithmetic by operating worked examples. As a result, most of pupils could learn the rules of the four fundamental admixture operations of arithmetic with brackets by worked examples, but the number of pupils could learn the rules of the four fundamental admixture operations of arithmetic without brackets wasn’t significant; Operation step annotations had obvious effect on pupils’ learning about the more difficult rules of the four fundamental admixture operations of arithmetic, but had no obvious effect on pupils’ learning about the easy rules of the four fundamental admixture operations of arithmetic; Pupils needed different quantities of worked examples when learning different difficult operation rules.
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    The Influence of the Students’ Anxiety on Their Creativity
    2005, 37 (06):  791-796. 
    Abstract ( 2654 )  
    Studied the effects of trait anxiety and state anxiety on creativity of the students,using 138 secondary school students. As the results of the studies abroad were contradictory to each other, the methods of their studies also had poor ecological validity, this paper tried to explore the influence of the students anxiety on their creativity in teaching activities through field experiment of teaching and using the stimuli in real teaching situation to induce state anxiety of the students. The results showed that trait anxiety had no effect on creativity, but the creativity score of low-state anxiety was significantly higher than that of their high-state anxiety counterparts, demonstrated mainly in fluency and flexibility.
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    The Relationship of Adolescents’ Personality with Their Using Social Service of Internet
    2005, 37 (06):  797-802. 
    Abstract ( 3599 )  
    With the rapid development of Social Networking, it has become a mode of social interaction. A lot of internet users including adolescents use social services provided by internet. It’s helpful for educators to clarify the happenings in the adolescents’ using social service of internet, effectively guide adolescents to take advantage of Social Networking. This study explores the relationships of extraversion, neuroticism, social support, social anxiety, and the use of internet social services by surveying a sample of 339 adolescents through questionnaires. The results shows that (1)there are influences of gender and grade on the use of Social Networking; (2) extraversion and neuroticism have direct and positive effects on the use of Social Networking; (3) extraversion has an indirect influence on the use of Social Networking through social support; (4) extraversion has negative effects on social anxiety and it also influences the use of Social Networking through social anxiety; (5) neuroticism has an direct effect on the use of Social Networking through social anxiety.
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    The Structure and Measurement of Transformational Leadership in China
    2005, 37 (06):  803-811. 
    Abstract ( 7098 )  
    Data was collected from a diverse sample of 249 mangers and employees from different companies using open questionnaire, and then were subjected to content analysis to identify major forms of transofmrational leadership in China. Results revealed 8 dimensions of transformational leadership. The Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ) was developed through expert discusses. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of data from a sample of 431 employees showed that transformational leadership was a four-dimension construct in China, which included Morale Modeling, Charisma, Articulate Vision and Individual Consideration. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of data from another sample of 440 employees further confirmed TLQ’s factorial validity. Internal consistency analyses and hierarchical regression analyses showed that TLQ had suitable reliability and high validity.
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    A Situational Simulated Experiment on the Impact of Goal Motivation on Entrepreneurial Action Effectiveness
    2005, 37 (06):  812-818. 
    Abstract ( 2931 )  
    With the situational simulated experiment, this study compared the different effects on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial action between vision-representational goal and non-vision-representational goal, and tested the interaction of achievement goal orientation and entrepreneurial goal incentive. Results indicated that: (1) There were significant difference between the effects on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial action of vision-representational goal and that of non-vision-representational goal, moreover, the incentive effects of vision-representational goal were better than that of non-vision-representational goal. (2) Achievement goal orientation moderated the effect of goal incentive on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial action. (3) Mediating role of management ability perceptions was found on the driving effect of goal incentive and achievement goal orientation on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial action.
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    The Information Processing Mode of ADs’ Gender Stereotype
    2005, 37 (06):  819-825. 
    Abstract ( 2351 )  
    Based on the confirmation that AD reflects the gender stereotype, acted attention levels, priming mode of stereotype, and subjects’ stereotypic degree as the main variables, the study probed the information-processing mode and character of ADS’ gender stereotype. The results suggested that: (1) The processing of gender stereotypic information in advertisements is a comprehensive result of the automatic processing and controlled processing. The stereotypic priming reduces to more automatic processing but counter-stereotypic priming reduces to more controlled processing. (2) The levels of distracted attention influences the controlled processing rather than automatic processing,and the controlled processing is most distributive on the fixed-attention condition. (3) Subjects with strong stereotype have more strict judgment criterion to the gender stereotypic information in advertisements.
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    Application of AHP and Fuzzy Complex Evaluation on Consumer Psychology of Health Product
    2005, 37 (06):  826-831. 
    Abstract ( 2733 )  
    A model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on consumer psychology of health product was built. By combining hierarchy analysis process with fuzzy sets theory, a calculation method of the weight of fuzzy judgment was got, and used to evaluate consumers in ChangChun, China. The local level of evaluation: nutrition component, condition of packing, price factor, advertising campaign and after service. Secondary evaluation: health product special shop, large supermarkets, small supermarkets, general store and capital mailing order. The result showed that this model can provide real, complete and reliability consumer psychology of consumers for choosing from a variety of health products as well as can be used to provide a decision-making in new health product exploitation.
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    Item Characteristic Curve Equating under Graded Response Models in IRT
    2005, 37 (06):  832-838. 
    Abstract ( 1087 )  
    In one of the largest qualificatory tests—economist test, to guarantee the comparability among different years, construct item bank and prepare for computerized adaptive testing, item characteristic curve equating and anchor test equating design under graded models in IRT are used, which have realized the item and ability parameter equating of test data in five years and succeeded in establishing an item bank. Based on it, cut scores of different years are compared by equating and provide demonstrational gist to constitute the eligibility standard of economist test.
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    The Effects of Different Stressors on Behavior and Protein Levels of Neurogranin in Rats
    2005, 37 (06):  839-844. 
    Abstract ( 2123 )  
    The aim of study was to investigate the effects of chronic emotional stress and physical stress on behavior and protein levels of neurogranin in brain, and the correlation between protein levels of neurogranin and stress-induced behavioral changes. Forty rats were randomly divided into emotional stressed group (ES), physical stressed group (PS), regular drinking group (C1) and handled-controls (C2), with ten in each. Randomly giving empty water bottles was used as emotional stressor, and physical stress is induced by water-deprivation. Behavioral changes in rats after stress were observed by open-field test, and neurogranin level of hippocampus and forebrain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that there is no significantly difference in neurogranin levels of hippocampus among four groups. Neurogranin level of forebrain in ES was significantly lower than that in C1 and C2 groups (p<0.05, p<0.01;separately). Neurogranin level of forebrain in PS was significantly lower than that in C1 (p<0.05). Grooming in open-field test in both ES and PS groups was more increased than that in C2 group (p<0.01, p<0.05;separately). Correlation is significant at 0.01 level betweengrooming and neurogranin level in forebrain. These results suggested that chronic emotional stress can induce more significant decrease in neurogranin levels of forebrain and increase in grooming than physical stress. Grooming may be a sensitive behavioral index, and neurogranin levels of forebrain may be an effective biological predictor for anxiety and/or depression induced by emotional stress.
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    Thanks to the Reviewers
    2005, 37 (06):  852-852. 
    Abstract ( 1453 )  
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